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  1. 1. Colombia “ Liberty and Order”
  2. 2. Location <ul><li>It’s located in Northern South America </li></ul><ul><li>It Borders the Caribbean Sea </li></ul><ul><li>It lies Between Panama and Venezuela </li></ul><ul><li>It Borders the North Pacific Ocean </li></ul>
  3. 3. Geography <ul><li>It is part of the Pacific Ring of Fire </li></ul><ul><li>It has 15 major volcanoes </li></ul><ul><li>It is slightly less than twice the size of Texas </li></ul><ul><li>In the South East lies parts of the Amazon rainforest and in other areas lies the savanna of the Llanos </li></ul><ul><li>Beyond the Colombian Massif, the Andes mountains are split into three different ranges: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cordillera Occidental– runs adjacent to the pacific coast </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cordillera Central – runs between the Cauca and Magdalena river valleys </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cordillera orienta - extends north east to the Guajira Peninsula </li></ul></ul><ul><li>It is dominated by the Andes Mountains, and in other parts it is flat coastal lowlands </li></ul><ul><li>Area: 440,700 Square Miles </li></ul>
  4. 4. Government <ul><li>Type of government: Republic </li></ul><ul><li>Government is divided into three branches: Executive, Legislative, and Judicial </li></ul><ul><li>Head of the executive branch is the President </li></ul><ul><li>The president is elected to serve four-year terms and is currently limited to a maximum of two such 4 terms </li></ul><ul><li>The President is Alvaro Uribe Velez </li></ul><ul><li>The legislative branch of government is composed of the Senate and the House of Representatives. </li></ul><ul><li>The Senate has 102 members and they are elected nationally to serve four year terms </li></ul><ul><li>The Judicial branch is headed by the Supreme Court. The Supreme Court has 23 Judges divided into 3 chambers </li></ul><ul><li>Colombia is divided into 32 districts which are then subdivided into Municipalities </li></ul><ul><li>Colombia’s constitution was signed on July 5, 1991 </li></ul><ul><li>The Capital of Colombia is Bogotá </li></ul>
  5. 5. The Pe$o <ul><li>The Peso is the official currency of Colombia </li></ul><ul><li>The exchange rate of the Colombian Peso is 1,960 Colombian Pesos to 1 U.S. dollar. </li></ul><ul><li>The peso has been the currency of Colombia since 1837. </li></ul><ul><li>After periods of high inflation the peso was created in higher denominations </li></ul><ul><li>5 peso coins were introduced in 1980 </li></ul><ul><li>10 pesos in 1981 </li></ul><ul><li>20 pesos in 1982 </li></ul><ul><li>50 pesos in 1986 </li></ul><ul><li>100 pesos in 1992 </li></ul><ul><li>200 pesos in 1994 </li></ul><ul><li>500 pesos in 1993 </li></ul><ul><li>1000 pesos in 1996. Unfortunately, due to the amount of counterfeit 1000 pesos, it was removed from circulation. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Banknotes <ul><li>Between 1857 and 1880, five of Colombia's provinces, Bolivar, Cauca, Cundinamarca, Panama, and Santander issued paper money. </li></ul><ul><li>The paper money was included 10 and 50 centavos, 1, 2, 3, 5, 10, 50 and 100 pesos. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Natural Resources <ul><li>Colombia produces large amounts of minerals and fuel oil </li></ul><ul><li>It has the largest reserve of Coal in Latin America </li></ul><ul><li>Colombia is the second producer of hydro-electricity </li></ul><ul><li>Brazil is the first </li></ul><ul><li>It has around 1.4 billion barrels of oil </li></ul><ul><li>This should last Colombia till 2011 </li></ul><ul><li>Colombia has a rich reserve of natural gas along the Caribbean Coast. </li></ul><ul><li>There is enough gas in this reserve to last at least 150 years </li></ul><ul><li>The Llanos Basin contains the largest store of natural gas </li></ul><ul><li>Colombia is the Cocaine capital of the world </li></ul><ul><li>It manufactures 75 percent of the world’s cocaine </li></ul>
  8. 8. Education <ul><li>School is mandatory for all children ages 6 – 12 </li></ul><ul><li>Elementary school consists of five years </li></ul><ul><li>Most children enter the first grade at age 6 </li></ul><ul><li>The school year is usually a year long, lasting from the end of January to November </li></ul><ul><li>After the age of 12, the dropout rate in primary school is high because most children live in rural areas and have to walk far distances to get school </li></ul><ul><li>Most secondary schools are located in cities, leaving little opportunities for rural children to receive an education </li></ul><ul><li>The government has established two programs for improving secondary education </li></ul><ul><ul><li>adding practical training into high-school curriculum </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>agricultural training for students at the secondary level </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Secondary education is split into two sections: basic secondary (6 th -9th) and mid secondary (10 th -11) </li></ul><ul><li>In order to enter a university or vocational school, students must pass the state test known as, “pruebas de estado” </li></ul>
  9. 9. Family <ul><li>The family is the center of the social structure in Colombia </li></ul><ul><li>Older people are viewed as extremely wise and are given a lot of respect </li></ul><ul><li>It is still common for children to live at home until they marry </li></ul><ul><li>The Colombians have large circle of relatives, who are extended through 'compadrazgo'. </li></ul><ul><li>In the lower classes, the mother is viewed as head of the family and makes all of the decisions </li></ul><ul><li>In the upper classes, the father is the head of the family </li></ul><ul><li>Traditionally, women belonging to the upper classes are not allowed to work, except for some voluntary services. </li></ul><ul><li>In the lower classes it is necessary that the women work to help the family survive </li></ul><ul><li>The economic independence of the lower class women has made lower class women on the same level of the men in the same class. </li></ul><ul><li>The Roman Catholic Church has had a great influence over the lives of Colombian families </li></ul>
  10. 10. “ The only risk is wanting to stay longer” <ul><li>Popular places to visit: </li></ul><ul><li>Plaza de Santander </li></ul><ul><li>Mercado de las Pulgas, a large flea market </li></ul><ul><li>Colombian National Coffee Park </li></ul><ul><li>Tayrona park </li></ul><ul><li>Caribbean Coast </li></ul><ul><li>Cartegena, a colonial port city </li></ul><ul><li>Bogota, capital of Colombia </li></ul><ul><li>Iglesia de Santa Clara </li></ul><ul><li>Iglesia de San Ignacio </li></ul><ul><li>La Candelaria, the oldest quarter in the city </li></ul><ul><li>Cerro de Monserrate, famous site of many miracles </li></ul><ul><li>Jardin Botánico José Celestino Mutis, a garden </li></ul>
  11. 11. HISTORY <ul><li>Colombia was originally inhabited by a group of native hunters </li></ul><ul><li>Santa Marta was the first permanent Spanish settlement founded in 1525 </li></ul><ul><li>On July 20, 1810, the citizens of Bogota created the first representative council to defy Spanish authority. </li></ul><ul><li>Before successfully achieving independence from Spain, there were many other rebellions which were easily squashed </li></ul><ul><li>The Congress of Cucuta in 1821 adopted a constitution, the main goal of the constitution was to create the Republic of Colombia </li></ul><ul><li>In 1819, Simón Bolívar became the first President of Colombia, and Francisco de Paula Santander was the Vice President; when Simón Bolívar stepped down, Santander became the second President of Colombia </li></ul><ul><li>After a two-year civil war in 1863, the “United States of Colombia&quot; was created, lasting until 1886, when the country finally became known as the Republic of Colombia </li></ul><ul><li>A period known as “La Violencia” was a violent conflict that took place between the 1940s and 1950s.It was a conflict between supporters of the Colombian Liberal Party and the Colombian Conservative Party </li></ul><ul><li>The new Colombian Constitution of 1991 was ratified after being drafted by the Constituent Assembly of Colombia. </li></ul><ul><li>The new constitution initially prohibited the extradition of Colombian nationals, causing accusations that drug cartels had lobbied for the provision; extradition was allowed again in 1996 when the provision was repealed. </li></ul>
  12. 12. FOOD <ul><li>Popular Colombian Foods </li></ul><ul><li>Ajiaco </li></ul><ul><li>Sancocho de mondongo </li></ul><ul><li>Bandeja Paisa </li></ul><ul><li>Arepa </li></ul><ul><li>Coffee </li></ul><ul><li>Arroz con Coco </li></ul><ul><li>Changua </li></ul><ul><li>Empanadas </li></ul><ul><li>Fritanga </li></ul><ul><li>Patacones </li></ul><ul><li>Sancocho </li></ul><ul><li>Postre de Natas </li></ul><ul><li>Natilla </li></ul><ul><li>Colombian Cuisine is very diverse </li></ul><ul><li>The Colombian diet contains a lot of meat </li></ul><ul><li>The typical Colombian breakfast consists of fruit juice or coffee, fruit, eggs, and bread </li></ul><ul><li>Lunch is usually served between 12 and 4 pm and it is the main meal of the day </li></ul><ul><li>A typical lunch consists of a soup, a main dish, a drink, and sometimes a dessert </li></ul><ul><li>The dinner is more of a snack </li></ul>
  13. 13. Glogster
  14. 14. Works Cited <ul><li>&quot;Colombia Travel Guide | Colombia Travel Guide.&quot; Colombia Travel Guide - Travel Guide to Colombia . Web. 13 Apr. 2010. </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;HJS Blog - The Henry Jackson Society.&quot; Welcome to The Henry Jackson Society's Website - The Henry Jackson Society . Web. 13 Apr. 2010. < oop.asp?pageid=105&m=3&y=2010 </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;File:Álvaro Uribe (cropped).jpg - Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia.&quot; Main Page - Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia . Web. 13 Apr. 2010. < e_(cropped).jpg>. </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;Colombian Peso - Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia.&quot; Main Page - Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia . Web. 13 Apr. 2010. <>. </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;Colombian Currency - Colombian Peso Money.&quot; Colombia Suramérica, Colombia South America, Colombie Amérique Du Sud . Web. 13 Apr. 2010. < in.html>. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Colombia Natural Resources.&quot; World Map, Map of the World . Web. 13 Apr. 2010. < natural-resources.html>. </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;Education - Colombia - Annual.&quot; Encyclopedia of the Nations - Information about Countries of the World, United Nations, and World Leaders . Web. 13 Apr. 2010. < ombia-EDUCATION.html>. </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;Colombia - Culture, Etiquette, Customs and Protocol.&quot; Translation Services | Interpreters | Intercultural Communication | Cross Cultural Training . Web. 13 Apr. 2010. < etiquette/colombia.html>. </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;Colombia Family.&quot; World Map, Map of the World . Web. 13 Apr. 2010. < and-culture/family.html>. </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;Colombia Tourist Attractions, Bogota, Cartegena, Travel Guides.&quot; - Your Guide to the Best Sites on the Web . Web. 13 Apr. 2010. </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;Sale of Colombian Mine to Goldman Sachs Unit Faces Injunction.&quot; Colombia News | Colombia Reports . Web. 13 Apr. 2010. < news/economy/7719-sale-of-colombian-mine-to- goldman-sachs-unit-faces-injunction.html>. </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;Colombia Country Profile.&quot; Learn Spanish in Spain & Mexico | . Web. 13 Apr. 2010. < ombia/>. </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;Cartagena Colombia Travel | Colombia Travel Guide.&quot; Colombia Travel Guide - Travel Guide to Colombia . Web. 13 Apr. 2010. < cities/cartaena-colombia-travel/index.html>. </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;Colombia Food, Typical Colombian Meals and Desserts.&quot; South America Travel Guide Based on Our Own Personal Experiences - Tips about What to See and Do, Where to Stay and Eat and Much More . Web. 13 Apr. 2010. <>. </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;Panoramio - Photo of Sunset, Coveñas, Colombia.&quot; Panoramio - Photos of the World . Web. 13 Apr. 2010. <>. </li></ul><ul><li>Lopata, Peg. Colombia . Detroit, Mich.: Lucent, 2005. Print. </li></ul>