OPERATING SY STEMS AND UTILITY PROGRAMSSlides By Rana Usman SattarStudent Of BBA(Hons)PMAS Arid Agriculture University RawalpindiGmail: firstname.lastname@example.orgFacebook: email@example.com
SY STEM SOFTWARE System software consists of the programsthat control or maintain the operations of thecomputer and its devices. System software servesas the interface between the user, the applicationsoftware, and the computer’s hardware.Two types of system software are operatingsystems and utility programs.
OPERATING SY STEMS An operating system (OS) is a set of programs containinginstructions that work together to coordinate all the activitiesamong computer hardware resources.Most operating Systems perform similar functions thatinclude starting and shutting down a computer, providing auser interface, managing programs, managing memory,coordinating tasks, configuring devices, establishing anInternet connection, Monitoring performance, providing filemanagement and other utilities, and automatically updatingitself and certain utility programs.
OPERATING SY STEMS The operating system is installed and resides on the computer’s harddisk. On handheld computers and many mobile devices such as smart phones,the operating system may reside on a ROM chip.Different sizes of computers typically use different operating systems becauseOperating systems generally are written to run on a specific type of computer.The operating system that a computer uses sometimes is called the platform.With purchased application software, the package or specifications identifythe required platform (operating system). A cross-platform program is onethat runs the same on multiple operating systems.
OPERATING SY STEM FUNCTIONSRegardless of the size of the computer,however, most operating systems providesimilar functions.The operating system handles many of thesefunctions automatically, without requiringany instructions from a user.
OPERATING SY STEM FUNCTIONSStarting and Shutting Down a Computer The process of starting or restarting acomputer is called booting. When turning on a computer that has been powered offcompletely, you are performing a cold boot.A warm boot, by contrast, is the process of using the operating system to restart acomputer.Each time you boot a computer, the kernel and other frequently used operatingsystem instructions are loaded, or copied, from storage into the computer’s memory(RAM). The kernel is the core of an operating system that manages memory anddevices, maintains the computer’s clock, starts programs, and assigns the computer’sresources, such as devices, programs, data, and information.The kernel is memory resident, which means it remains in memory while the computeris running. Other parts of the operating system are nonresident, that is, theseinstructions remain on a storage medium until They are needed.
BOOTING PROCESS Step 1: When you turn on the computer, thepower supply sends an electrical signal to the components in thesystem unit. Step 2: The charge of electricity causes theprocessor chip to reset itself and find the ROM chip(s) that containsthe BIOS. Step 3: The BIOS executes a series of teststo make sure the computer hardware is connected properly andoperating correctly. The tests, collectively called the power-on self test(POST ), check the various system components including the buses,system clock, adapter cards, RAM chips, mouse, keyboard, and drives.
BOOTING PROCESS Step 4: The POST results are compared with datain a CMOS chip.The CMOS chip stores configuration informationabout the computer, such as the amount ofmemory type of disk drives, keyboard, and monitor.the current date and time, and other startupinformation.It also detects any new devices connected to thecomputer.
BOOTING PROCESSStep 5: If the POST completes successfully, the BIOS searchesfor specific operating system files called system files.The BIOS may look first to see if a USB flash drive plugged in aUSB port or a disc in an optical disc drive contains the systemfiles, or it may look directly on drive CStep 6: Once located, the system files load intomemory (RAM) from storage (usually the harddisk) and execute. Next, the kernel of the operatingsystem loads into memory. Then, the operatingsystem in memory takes control of the computer.
BOOTING PROCESS Step 7: The operating system loads systemconfiguration information. In the latest Windowsversions, the registry consists of several files thatcontain the system configuration informationWindows constantly accesses the registry duringthe computer’s operation for informationsuch as installed hardware and software devicesand individual user preferences for mouse speed,passwords, and other information.
SHUT DOWN OPTIONSShut down options including poweringoff the computer, placing the computer insleep mode, and hibernating the computer.Sleep mode saves any open documents andprograms to RAM, turns off all unneeded functions,and then places the computer in a low-power stateHibernate, by contrast, saves any open documentsand programs to a hard disk before removing powerfrom the computer.
PROVIDING A USER INTERFACEThat is, a user interface controls how you enter data and instructionsand how information is displayed on the screen. Two types of userinterfaces are graphical and command-line.In a command-line interface, a user types commands or pressesspecial keys on the keyboard (such as function keys or keycombinations) to enter data and instructions.With a graphical user interface (GUI), you interact with menus andvisual images such as buttons and other graphical objects toissue commands.
MANAGING PROGRAMS Some operating systems support a single user and only one runningprogram at a time. Others support thousands of users running multipleprograms.A single user/single tasking operating system allows only one user to run oneprogram at a time.A multiuser operating system enables two or more users to run programssimultaneously. Networks, servers, mainframes, and super computers allowhundreds to thousands of users to connect at the same time, and thus aremultiuser.A multiprocessing operating system supports two or more processors runningprograms at the same time.
MANAGING MEMORY The purpose of memory management is tooptimize the use of random access memory (RAM).The operating system allocates, or assigns, data andinstructions to an area of memory while they arebeing processed. Then, it carefully monitors thecontents of memory.Finally, the operating system releases theseitems from being monitored in memory when theprocessor no longer requires them.
COORDINATING TASKSThe operating system determines the orderin which tasks are processed. A task, or job, is anoperation the processor manages. Tasks includereceiving data from an input device, processinginstructions, sending information to an outputdevice, and transferring items from storage tomemory and from memory to storage.
CONFIGURING DEVICESA driver, short for device driver, is a small program that tells theoperating system how to communicate with a specific device.Each device on a computer, such as the mouse, keyboard,monitor, printer, card reader/writer, and scanner, has its ownspecialized set of commands and thus requires its own specific driver.When you boot a computer, the operating system loads each device’sdriver. These devices will not function without their correct drivers.Plug and Play means the operating system automatically configuresnew devices as you install them.
MONITORING PERFORMANCEA performance monitor is a program thatassesses and reports information about variousComputer Resources and devices.The information in performance reports helpsusers and administrators identify a problemwith resources so that they can try toresolve any problems.
ESTABLISHING ANINTERNET CONNECTIONInternet connections as soon as you connect tothe broadband line. Otherwise, WindowsIncludes a Set Up a Connection or Networkwizard that guides users through the process ofsetting up a connection between a computerand an Internet access provider.
PROVIDING FILE MANAGEMENT AND OTHER UTILITIESOperating systems often provide users with thecapability of managing files, searching for files,viewing images, securing a computer fromunauthorized access, uninstalling programs,cleaning up disks, defragmenting disks,diagnosing problems, backing up files and disks,and setting up screen savers.
UPDATING SOFTWARE AUTOMATICALLYMany popular programs, including most operating systems, include anautomatic update feature that automatically provides updates to theprogram.With an operating system, With Windows Update, you candownload and install important operating system and utility updates.updates can include fixes to program bugs, or errors, enhancements tosecurity, modifications to device drivers, access to new or expandedcomponents such as desktop themes or games, and even updates toapplication software on the computer such as a Web Browser or anE-mail program.
CONTROLLING A NETWORKSome operating systems have network featuresbuilt into them. In other cases, the serveroperating system is a set of programs separatefrom the operating system on the clientcomputers that access the network. When notConnected to the network, the client computersUse their own operating system.
ADMINISTERING SECURITYComputer and network administrators typicallyhave an administrator account that enables themto access all files and programs on the computeror network, install programs, and specify settingsthat affect all users on a computer or network.Settings include creating user accounts andEstablishing permissions.These permissions define who can access certainresources and when they can access thoseresources.
CONTROLLING A NETWORK A server operating system is an operating system that organizesand coordinates how multiple users access and share resources on a network. Resources include hardware, software, data, and information.Some operating systems have network featuresbuilt into them. In other cases, the serveroperating system is a set of programs separatefrom the operating system on the client computersthat access the network.
TYPES OF OPERATING SY STEMS The three basic categories of operating systems that exist todayare stand-alone, server, and embedded. Categories of Operating Systems Stand-alone• DOS Early Windows versions (Windows 3.x, Windows 95, Windows NT Workstation, Windows 98, Windows 2000 Professional, Windows Millennium Edition, Windows XP, Windows Vista Windows 7 Mac OS X UNIX Linux
TYPES OF OPERATING SY STEMS Server• Early Windows Server versions (Windows NT Server, Windows 2000 Server, Windows Server 2003) Windows Server 2008 UNIX Linux Solaris NetWare Embedded• Windows Embedded CE Windows Mobile Palm OS iPhone OS BlackBerry Google Android Embedded Linux Symbian OS
STAND-ALONE OPERATING SY STEMSA stand-alone operating system is acomplete operating system that works on adesktop computer, notebook computer, ormobile computing device. Some stand-aloneoperating systems are called client operatingsystems because they also work in conjunctionwith a server operating system.
SERVER OPERATING SY STEMSA server operating system is an operating system That is designed specificallyto support a network.A server operating system typically resides on a server. The client computerson the network rely on the server(s) for resources.Server versions, offers the following capabilities:• Improved Web server management, enabling users to share data• Enhanced server security• Network Access Protection restricts computers that do not meet specifiedrequirements• Protection against malicious software attacks• Shares many technologies with Windows• Client support using Windows, Mac OS, UNIX, and Linux
EMBEDDED OPERATING SY STEMSThe operating system on mobile devices andmany consumer electronics, called anEmbedded operating system, resides on a ROMchip.
EMBEDDEDOPERATING SY STEMS Windows Embedded CE
UTILITY PROGRAMSA utility program, also called a utility, is a type of system software that allowsa user to perform maintenance-type tasks, usually related to managing acomputer, its devices, or its programs.Most operating systems include several built-in utility Programs Functionsprovided by utility programs include the following: Managing files Searching for files Viewing images Uninstalling programs Cleaning up disks Defragmenting disks Backing up files and disks
UTILITY PROGRAMS Setting up screen savers Securing a computer from unauthorized access Protecting against viruses Removing spyware and adware Filtering Internet content Compressing files Playing media files burning optical discs Maintaining a personal computer