Immune System

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Immune System

  1. 1. Immune System Raffaele Nardella
  2. 2. <ul><li>Pathogens </li></ul><ul><li>Bacteria </li></ul><ul><ul><li>microscopic organism -> cholera </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Viruses </li></ul><ul><ul><li>genetic material -> flu </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Fungi </li></ul><ul><ul><li>moulds and mushrooms -> athlete’s foot </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Protozoa </li></ul><ul><ul><li>single-celled organism -> infections </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>parasites -> malaria </li></ul></ul>Raffaele Nardella
  3. 3. <ul><li>Other causes of disease </li></ul><ul><li>Vitamin deficiency </li></ul><ul><ul><li>scurvy </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mineral deficiency </li></ul><ul><ul><li>anaemia </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Disorders of the body </li></ul><ul><ul><li>cancer - diabetes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Inherited deficiency </li></ul><ul><ul><li>red-green colour vision deficiency </li></ul></ul>Raffaele Nardella
  4. 4. <ul><li>Body defences </li></ul><ul><li>Skin </li></ul><ul><ul><li>physical damage - microbe infection - dehydration </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Blod clotting </li></ul><ul><ul><li>scab -> platelets - fibrin </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mucous membranes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>respiratory system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>nasal hairs -> keep out dust and microorganism </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>sticky mucus -> traps them </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>cilia -> carries them away </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Stomach acid </li></ul><ul><ul><li>hydrocloric acid </li></ul></ul>Raffaele Nardella
  5. 5. Immunity Pathogens reproduce cell damage (viruses) - toxins (bacteria) Symptoms of infectious diseases Raffaele Nardella
  6. 6. <ul><li>Immune system </li></ul><ul><li>White blood cells (lymphocytes): </li></ul><ul><li>Engulfing pathogens </li></ul><ul><li>Producing antitoxins </li></ul><ul><li>Producing antibodies: </li></ul><ul><li>proteins with chemical fit to antigens </li></ul><ul><li>meeting antigens </li></ul><ul><li>copies of antibodies </li></ul><ul><li>destroying pathogens </li></ul><ul><li>Active immunity -> natural reproduction of antibodies </li></ul><ul><li>Passive immunity -> injection </li></ul>Raffaele Nardella
  7. 7. <ul><li>Immunisation </li></ul><ul><li>Vaccination -> inactive pathogen into the body </li></ul><ul><li>Vaccines: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>live pathogens </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>fragments of pathogens </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>toxins </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>dead pathogens </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Acting as antigens -> white blood cell -> antibodies </li></ul>Raffaele Nardella
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