Solar and Electric Grid

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Solar and Electric Grid: A brief presentation.

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Solar and Electric Grid

  1. 1. Majid Mushtaq St. Cloud State University
  2. 2. Agenda: Electric Grid  Components of Electric Grid  Solar Generated Electricity  Grid Connected PV System  Conclusion 
  3. 3. Electric Grid: Interconnected network for delivering electricity from suppliers to consumers  Consists of generating station, transmission lines, distribution lines and substation  Maintains instantaneous balance between supply and demand 
  4. 4. 3 components of Electric Grid: Generation: creating electricity  Transmission: Moving it from bulk generators to distribution centers  Distribution: bringing it from substations to homes and industries 
  5. 5. Solar Energy Potential:  The amount of solar energy that reaches the Earth’s surface every hour is greater than humankind’s total demand for energy in one year  As of February 2006, Photovoltaic technology accounted for less than 1% of worldwide electricity generation.
  6. 6. Photovoltaic Cells (PV) ii) Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) i)
  7. 7. Photovoltaic Cells: Photovoltaic cells convert light energy to electric current by Photoelectric effect  Produce direct current which fluctuates with light intensity  For practical use it should be converted to a certain fix voltage or AC current through the use of Inverters. 
  8. 8. Photovoltaic Cells:
  9. 9. Concentrating Solar Power: Requires direct sunlight  use lenses or mirrors to focus large area of sunlight into smaller beam  Not very effective in cloudy conditions  Two approaches i) Power Tower ii) Parabolic Through 
  10. 10. i) Power Tower:
  11. 11. ii) Parabolic Through:
  12. 12. When a solar energy system is connected to the grid it is capable of sending electricity to the grid that can be used at a later time when the system is not producing electricity.  In the most simplest terms pulling energy from the grid when needed and supplying energy to the grid when energy is not being used at the solar site. 
  13. 13. Advantages: Eliminates the need of batteries  Reduces cost and maintenance  Highly efficient use of the system  Long life span   Ensures a constant supply of electricity
  14. 14. Grid connected PV Components: Photovoltaic Cells  Inverters  Wiring  Charge controller  Disconnect switch  Electrical Meter  Total system cost = ~ 8$/watt 
  15. 15. Net metering: Electricity delivered to the grid can be compensated in several ways  "Net metering", is where the entity that owns the renewable energy power source receives compensation from the utility for its net outflow of power.  For example, if during a given month a power system feeds 500 kilowatt-hours into the grid and uses 100 kilowatt-hours from the grid, it would receive compensation for 400 kilowatt-hours 
  16. 16. Grid Tie Inverter: Special type of power inverter converts DC to AC  And feeds it into existing electrical grid  During period of overproduction, power is routed into the grid  During insufficient power production it purchases power from utility company 
  17. 17. Inverter:
  18. 18. Conclusion: Cut-down electricity bill  Renewable energy source  Environment friendly  Low or no maintenance cost 
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