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When a radio transmitter is mobile, obstacles in the
radio path can cause temporal variation in Received Signal Strength Indicator (RSSI) measured by receivers due to multipath and shadow fading. While fading, in general, is detrimental to accurately localizing a target, fading correlation between adjacent receivers may be exploited to improve localization accuracy. However, multipath fading correlation is a short range phenomenon that rapidly falls to zero within a wavelength whereas,
shadow fading correlation is independent of signal wavelength and has longer range thereby making it suitable for localization with wireless transceivers that operate at shorter wavelength. Therefore,
this paper presents a novel wireless localization scheme that employs a combination of cross-correlation between shadow fading noise and copula technique to recursively estimate the location of a transmitter. A stochastic filter that models multipath fading as an Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process followed by a Generalized Auto Regressive Conditional Heteroskedasticity (GARCH) filtering is
proposed to extract shadow fading residuals from measured RSSI values. Subsequently, Student-T Copula function is used to create the log likelihood function, which acts as the cost function for localization, by combining spatial shadow fading correlation arising among adjacent receivers due to pedestrian traffic in the area. Maximum Likelihood Estimate (MLE) is used for position estimation as it inherits the statistical consistency and asymptotic
normality. The performance of our proposed localization method is validated over simulations and hardware experiments.
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