Mgt 350 guide 5 4) When faced with a decision opportunity, a critical thinker must sort through a variety of readily apparent symptoms in order to focus on important considerations that may be hidden. Based on the decision steps model, when framing a pro

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4) When faced with a decision opportunity, a critical thinker must sort through a variety of readily apparent symptoms in order to focus on important considerations that may be hidden. Based on the …

4) When faced with a decision opportunity, a critical thinker must sort through a variety of readily apparent symptoms in order to focus on important considerations that may be hidden. Based on the decision steps model, when framing a problem a helpful step is to

A. determine root causes
B. identify the problem
C. frame alternatives
D. develop a contingency plan
E. measure the decision

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  • 1. MGT 350 Guide 5 Click Here To Buy The Tutorial1) Decision opportunities arise when problems or opportunities are recognizedthrough critical thinking. Which of the following components may be a reasonthat managers ignore problems? A. A lack of intellectual empathy makes it difficult to recognize stakeholderconsiderations. B. The manager’s sense of urgency toward problems precludes action. C. The manager prefers risk over certainty. D. Some businesses exist in a problem free environment. E. The manager is exercising intellectual courage in the face of resistanceto problem solving.2) Bill Simmons is the manager of a small restaurant and must decide how muchmoney he owes his suppliers. The best way for Bill to approach this as a criticalthinker is to
  • 2. A. collect and analyze the evidence B. identify opportunities and obstacles C. understand different perspectives on the issue D. weigh the consequences of this decision3) Decision tools and techniques influence the use of critical thinking in decisionmaking. According to the decision steps model, what is a proper response whenan unstructured problem is presented? A. Implement a decision B. Measure the impact of a decision C. Frame the problem D. Frame alternatives E. Make the decision4) When faced with a decision opportunity, a critical thinker must sort through avariety of readily apparent symptoms in order to focus on importantconsiderations that may be hidden. Based on the decision steps model, whenframing a problem a helpful step is to A. determine root causes
  • 3. B. identify the problem C. frame alternatives D. develop a contingency plan E. measure the decision5) Jane has a term paper due, a sick child who needs her attention, and a majorproject due at work. To save time, she decides to submit a paper for school that isless than her best, but will earn a passing grade. The best description of Jane’sapproach is A. optimizing B. satisficing C. creativity D. analyzing6) Despite all the measures followed, successful decisions are not alwaysguaranteed so it is important to A. develop appropriate measurements for the impacts of decisions B. accept that some decisions will not work and move on to other issues C. develop contingency plans
  • 4. D. only allow the most senior leaders to influence decisions E. use logical thinking to guarantee a correct outcome7) Tactics for increasing the diversity of opinion brought to bear on a decisioninclude A. brainstorming B. following the chain of command C. reliance on precedent D. an autocratic decision process E. reference to the policy manual8) Critical thought involves the consideration of diverse perspectives. Advantagesof this include A. quicker decisions for urgent problems B. decisions that are more narrowly focused C. the leader maintains tighter control over decisions D. a decision that accounts for the interests of multiple stakeholders E. greater security over confidential information
  • 5. 9) Critical thought involves the consideration of diverse perspectives.Disadvantages of group decision making include A. increased security of confidential information B. all of the above are disadvantages of group decision making C. a process that is more time consuming D. a decision that accounts for the interests of diverse stakeholders E. a more autocratic environment10) Considerations when framing a problem include A. developing contingency plans B. measuring the impacts of a decision C. identifying causes of the problem D. framing alternative courses of action E. identification of stakeholders affected by the problem11) Conflict is a force of influence upon decision making, and may hamperdecision implementation if not accounted for in the problem formulation andidentification process. Conflict may stem from such factors as
  • 6. A. personal attributes B. a lack of a devil’s advocate C. groupthink D. inspirational leadership E. routine programmed decisions12) During problem formulation, the decision maker must account for theinterests of diverse stakeholders. An important step toward this outcome is theestablishment of A. timelines and resource allocations B. contingency plans C. criteria, goals, and objectives D. measurements for the decision E. decision Implementation Processes13) A valid deductive argument may lead to false conclusions if A. it contains a false premise
  • 7. B. a valid deductive argument cannot lead to false conclusions C. it is in improper form D. it uses the modens ponens argument form E. it is composed of multiple syllogisms14) A form of critical thinking is fair-minded persuasive thinking. When engagingin problem formulation and identification with a group, the fair minded persuaderwould A. communicate only that information which supports the desired decision B. acknowledges the difficulty that his or her position creates for theaudience C. avoid all affective appeals D. emphasize data and reason over affective appeals E. emphasizes affective appeals over data and reason15) What is the most comprehensive definition of a problem? A. Gap between current situation and some future desired state B. A declining economy resulting in reduced revenues C. A negative situation that requires action to mitigate damage
  • 8. D. An increase in the cost of doing business. E. A positive situation that requires action in order to fully leverage anopportunity.16) Problems may become apparent to stakeholders through the use of toolswhich compare actual results to expected results. An example of such a tool is a A. Financial report B. Fishbone diagram C. Pareto chart D. Force Field Analysis E. SWOT analysis17) An important step toward framing a problem in a manner that is sensitive torelevant stakeholder perspectives is to A. filter non-financial input from the process B. use projection when ascribing motivation to others C. determine who is affected by a problem D. be sure to remain situated in one’s personal context E. do not allow public relations concerns to influence decision making
  • 9. 18) While this decision style offers an opportunity for stakeholder input, it mostlessens accountability for decision making. A. Collaborative/participative B. Consensus C. Autocratic D. Leader decides E. Democratic19) Jan is the owner of a retail store, and is evaluating the need for changes to thestore’s commission structure for sales personnel. She has decided to exclude thesales personnel affected from the decision making process. Jan is probablyseeking to minimize this force of influence on the decision making process. A. Resource availability B. Lack of political support C. Self serving bias D. Ethical considerations E. Resistance from external stakeholders
  • 10. 20) Identifying programmed decision opportunities—problems with objectivelycorrect answers, solvable through the use of simple rules, policies, or numericalcomputations—promises this benefit in terms of decision making. A. Greater efficiency B. Provides senior managers with greater visibility to each routine decisionmade C. Provides decision makers with opportunities for creative problemsolving D. Ensures that multiple solutions are applied to common problems inorder to find the best one E. Ensures that problems are dealt with in a unique fashion according totheir differences21) A manager may properly choose to ignore a problem A. when a Pareto chart has properly clarified the causes of a problem B. when the costs of doing nothing are less than the cost of addressing theproblem C. when a SWOT analysis indicates an environmental opportunity D. because of a bias against change E. when the problem is surfaced through a positive trigger point
  • 11. 22) Managers of Shadow Blinds are contemplating whether to open thecompanys first international branch in Europe or Asia. A decision tool that wouldfacilitate the decision between these two locations by analyzing the relativestrength of cross cultural factors is a A. SPC chart B. Force Field Analysis C. Scatter diagram D. Gantt chart E. Pareto chart23) A decision tool that can be helpful in identifying risks to contemplateddecisions is A. a Fishbone diagram B. a Pareto chart C. a periodic table D. a histogram E. a Force Field Analysis
  • 12. 24) For urgent decisions, this approach may be the most efficient and effectiveuse of the manager’s time when there are other critical competing priorities. A. Creation of a task force B. Satisficing C. Brainstorming and multi-voting with a team D. Optimizing E. Experimenting25) In the course of developing a SWOT analysis, Bob determines that a largecompetitor is moving into one of his company’s key service areas. Bob hasuncovered A. a strength B. a positive trigger point C. an opportunity D. a threat E. a weakness26) The manager of the Gallery Restaurant noted that the restaurant hadexperienced a decrease in the number of evening customers. The manager
  • 13. promptly ordered the chef to rewrite the evening menu. Customer feedback laterindicated that the problem had not been the menu but poor service from the waitstaff. The managers decision to have the menu revised suggests that she failed to A. evaluate the decision and its consequences B. identify the problem C. properly diagnose the cause of the problem D. evaluate the alternatives and consequences27) The initial step in framing the problem is to ______, and the first step inmaking the decision is to ______. A. identify the problem, frame alternatives B. identify the problem, identify causes of the problem C. identify the cause of the problem, implement the decision D. evaluate the decision, determine who is affected E. select an alternative, identify the problem28) In response to declining profits, a company decides that it needs to becomeworld class, but is having difficulty developing an implementation plan around the
  • 14. goal of “becoming world class.” Rather than implement this decision, thecompany would be well advised to return to the ______ step of decision making. A. evaluate the decision B. make the decision C. determine measurements D. frame alternatives E. develop criteria, goals, and objectives29) Jan has been selected to implement her company’s decision to expand hercompany’s manufacturing operation into a new location. Six months into thisproject, the building has been completed, and machinery installed. However, Janhas been unable to secure enough applicants with the technical skills needed tooperate this computerized facility. Jan’s implementation plan was most deficientin its consideration of A. organizational standards B. resource availability C. organizational mission D. technological constraints E. timeline
  • 15. 30) Freda is in the process of implementing a significant decision. Which of thefollowing considerations should she ignore? A. Stakeholder resistance to certain options B. Measurements of potential tasks C. Decision alternatives to be framed D. Timelines to implement the decision31) Freda is analyzing the prospects for a new gambling casino that her companyis considering. In the course of her analysis, Freda has identified potentialstakeholder resistance to this venture, in that she has discovered that the areas isvery densely populated with houses of worship. She has also discovered apotential source of support for this venture, in that the local government hasestablished tax credits for new businesses in an effort to stimulate employment.Freda is, in all likelihood, developing a A. Scatter diagram B. ROI analysis C. financial proforma income statement D. Force Field Analysis E. resource allocation survey
  • 16. 32) Resistance to change during implementation could be a result of A. The manager’s decision to allow discussion of both internal andexternal stakeholder concerns, which introduced conflicting objectives into theproblem formulation and identification process B. sensitivity to the needs of external stakeholders C. a decision that has been delayed by a lengthycollaborative/participative decision making style D. a problem statement that is not representative of relevant stakeholderinterests33) The assignment of different tasks to different people or groups is animportant part of a(n) A. statistical process control chart B. benchmarking project C. Force Field Analysis D. implementation plan E. strategic plan34) Bill is an automotive mechanic, paid on the basis of the repair dollars that hegenerates for his employer. A customer has informed Bill that he believes he
  • 17. needs major repair work to his automobile. Upon examination of the car, Billdiscovers that an inexpensive adjustment is all that is needed. He knows that if heinforms the customer of this, he will miss out on the substantial commission hewould earn by performing the work that the customer already expects. Thecompensation structure employed by Bill’s garage has created the ethicaldilemma of A. impartial third party mediator B. proper allocation of resources C. a conflict of interest D. the good of the individual vs the good of society E. joint and several liability dilemma35) Susan has the opportunity to choose among several options, including goingalong with her coworkers and filling out inaccurate time records, telling hermanager what is happening, attempting to persuade her coworkers to stop doingthis, or, doing nothing. This is an example of A. a situation that is not a problem B. an ethical issue C. a time when Susan should ignore the problem D. a moral rights issue
  • 18. 36) A situation, problem, or opportunity in which an individual must chooseamong several actions that must be evaluated as morally right or wrong is called A. a personal issue B. an ethical issue C. business ethics D. morale issue37) A measurement that identifies the degree to which goals and objectives areobtained is a measure of A. organizational fluctuation B. organizational efficiency C. organizational precision D. organizational effectiveness E. organizational stability38) In order to develop meaningful measurements to guide decisionimplementation and evaluation, it is important to develop ______ when framing aproblem.
  • 19. A. a thorough SWOT analysis B. specific task responsibilities for each member of the team C. specific criteria, goals and objectives D. multiple alternative courses of action E. relevant job descriptions39) The best way to ensure that a “balanced scorecard” is used to evaluate thesuccess of a decision is to A. ensure that the finance department develops the list of measurementsto be applied B. compare actual financial results to budgeted amounts C. gather and compile regular feedback from internal and externalstakeholders D. monitor resource usage E. monitor the company’s stock price40) When evaluating the decision processes in an organization, leaders shouldconsider doing which of the following?
  • 20. A. Make sure the process is sufficiently autocratic.Make sure the process issufficiently autocratic.Make sure the process is sufficiently autocratic. B. Ensure that the process is consistent for all significant decisions. C. Make sure to focus on results of the decision rather than the process. D. Make a list of those affected by the decision, and determine if thoseinterests are represented in the process under consideration. E. Ensure that all of a company’s stakeholders provide input all of acompany’s decisions.41) In order to apply continuous improvement in decision making, a companyshould take the time to record not only the results of its decisions, but also the A. impact to employees B. impact to external stakeholders C. customer satisfaction data D. financial results E. process through which the decision was made42) As noted in our texts, a key measurement of our decisions is: “are theyethical.” In order to achieve a superior level of ethical behavior in its decisionmaking processes, leaders should instill a(n) ______ in those charged with makingdecisions.
  • 21. A. utilitarian approach to ethical considerationsB. compliance based approach to ethical considerationsC. legal approach to ethical considerationsD. integrity based approach to ethical considerations