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Neuroblastoma an overview
Neuroblastoma an overview
Neuroblastoma an overview
Neuroblastoma an overview
Neuroblastoma an overview
Neuroblastoma an overview
Neuroblastoma an overview
Neuroblastoma an overview
Neuroblastoma an overview
Neuroblastoma an overview
Neuroblastoma an overview
Neuroblastoma an overview
Neuroblastoma an overview
Neuroblastoma an overview
Neuroblastoma an overview
Neuroblastoma an overview
Neuroblastoma an overview
Neuroblastoma an overview
Neuroblastoma an overview
Neuroblastoma an overview
Neuroblastoma an overview
Neuroblastoma an overview
Neuroblastoma an overview
Neuroblastoma an overview
Neuroblastoma an overview
Neuroblastoma an overview
Neuroblastoma an overview
Neuroblastoma an overview
Neuroblastoma an overview
Neuroblastoma an overview
Neuroblastoma an overview
Neuroblastoma an overview
Neuroblastoma an overview
Neuroblastoma an overview
Neuroblastoma an overview
Neuroblastoma an overview
Neuroblastoma an overview
Neuroblastoma an overview
Neuroblastoma an overview
Neuroblastoma an overview
Neuroblastoma an overview
Neuroblastoma an overview
Neuroblastoma an overview
Neuroblastoma an overview
Neuroblastoma an overview
Neuroblastoma an overview
Neuroblastoma an overview
Neuroblastoma an overview
Neuroblastoma an overview
Neuroblastoma an overview
Neuroblastoma an overview
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Neuroblastoma an overview

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  • 1. NEUROBLASTOMATREATMENT GUIDELINES
  • 2. NEUROBLASTOMA Enigmatic malignant neoplasm. Third most common malignancy in children. Most common cancer diagnosed in infants. Median age of diagnosis is 2 years. Has highest spontaneous remission rate. Usually by progression to mature ganglioneuroma.
  • 3. TUMOURS ARISING FROM SYMPATHETIC GANGLIA GANGLIONEUROMAGANGLIONEUROBLASTOMA NEUROBLASTOMA
  • 4. NEUROBLASTOMA
  • 5. ARISES FROMSYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM ADRENAL MEDULLA - 40% PARASPINAL GANGLIA – 25% THORASIC – 15 % HEAD & NECK – 5 %
  • 6. 70 % HAVE METASTASISAT TIME OF PRESENTATION LYMPH NODE BONE BONE MARROW SKIN LIVER
  • 7. THORASIC NEUROBLASTOMA AXIAL VIEW
  • 8. THORASIC NEUROBLASTOMACORONAL SAGITTAL
  • 9. BONE MARROW INVOLVEMENT
  • 10. BONE MARROW INVOLVEMENT
  • 11. MRI of 2 month old infant showing skull vault and orbital metastasis
  • 12. DIAGNOSTIC WORK UPTISSUE DIAGNOSISCT SCANMRI SCANBONE MARROW ASPIRATIONRADIONUCLIDE BONE SCAN
  • 13. CT OR MRI ??
  • 14. CT OR MRI ??
  • 15. CT OR MRI ??
  • 16. MIBG SCAN
  • 17. MIBG SCAN Meta Iodo Benzyl Guanidine Concentrated by neurosecretory granules. Used to image primary and metastatic sites of neuroblastoma. MIBG is labelled with I 131 or I 123 Sensitivity 85 – 90 % Specificity 90 %
  • 18. OTHER INVESTIGATIONS Urinary HVA / VMA Complete Blood Count Serum Ferritin Lactate Dehydrogenase Liver Function Tests
  • 19. STAGINGEvans and D ‘ AngioPeadiatric Oncology GroupInternational Staging System
  • 20. ISSSTAGE – 1Localized tumour withcomplete gross excision without microscopic residualdisease, LN negative
  • 21. STAGE 2ALocalized tumour with incomplete grossexcision. Representative ipsilateral nonadherent LN negativeSTAGE 2BLocalized tumour with or with outcomplete gross excision, ipsilateral nonadherent LN positive
  • 22. STAGE 3Unresectable unilateral tumourcrossing the midline , localiszdunilateral tumour with contralateralLN involvement or midline tumourwith bilateral extention by infiltration(unresectable ) or by LN involvement.
  • 23. STAGE 4Any primary tumour with dissemination todistant lymph nodes, bone ,bonemarrow, liver , skin or other organs.STAGE 4SLocalized primary tumour as defined for stage1, 2A, 2B with dissemination limited toskin, liver and or bone marrow. ( limited toinfants < 1 year of age.
  • 24. PROGNOSTIC VARIABLES PROGNOSTIC FACTOR FAVORABLE UNFAVOURABLEAGE < 2 YRS > 2 YRSSTAGE 1 , 11, 1V S 111, 1VPATHOLOGY FAVOURABLE UNFAVOURABLEFERITTIN <143 ng/mL >143 ng/mLNEURON SPECEFIC ENOLASE < 100 100URINE VMA/HVA <1 1N – myc SINGLE COPY AMPLIFIEDDNA INDEX > 1.1 11P DELETION NIL 1 P DELETION
  • 25. INSS STAGE AGE MYCN SHIMADA DNA RISK GROUP STATUS HISTOLOGY PLOIDY1 0 – 21 YRS ANY ANY ANY LOW2A/2B < 365 D ANY ANY ANY LOW >365 D – 21 Y AMP FAV _ LOW >365 D – 21 Y AMP UNFAV _ HIGH3 < 365 D NON AMP ANY ANY INTERMEDIATE < 365 D AMP ANY ANY HIGH >365 D – 21 Y NON AMP FAV - INTERMEDIATE >365 D – 21 Y NON AMP UNFAV - HIGH >365 D – 21 Y AMP FAV - HIGH
  • 26. STAGE AGE MYCN SHIMADA DNA RISK GROUP STATUS HISTOLOGY PLOIDY4 <365 D NON AMP ANY ANY INTERMEDIATE <365 D AMP ANY ANY HIGH >365 D – 21 Y ANY ANY - HIGH4S < 365 D NON AMP FAV >1 LOW < 365 D NON AMP ANY =1 INTERMEDIATE < 365 D NON AMP UN FAV ANY INTERMEDIATE < 365 D AMP ANY ANY HIGH
  • 27. LOW RISK GROUP Complete gross surgical excision Adjuvant chemo and RT has not improved the out come. If surgical margins positive or microscopic disease is left behind Favourable biology - no adjuvant therapy Unfavourable biology - 6- 12 weeks of chemo
  • 28. RATIONALE POG TRIAL 8104 patients with stage 1 Treatment surgery only Regardless of microscopic residual disease , 2 yr DFS is 84 %
  • 29. RATIONALE CCG TRIAL 3881 patients with stage 1 & 2 Stage 1 4 yr EFS 93 % OS 99 % Stage 2 4 yr EFS 81 % OS 98 %
  • 30. INDICATION OF CHEMO OR RTRESPIRATORY DISTRESSSPINAL CORD COMPRESSIONPROGRESSIVE DISEASERECURRENT DISEASE
  • 31. INTERMEDIATE RISK Followed byComplete surgical adjuvant resection chemotherapy 12 – 24 weeks Unresectablecases, 5 cycles of Second look surgery chemo
  • 32.  Followed by second look surgery Radiation therapy was given to gross viable residual tumour on second look surgery. Children age 12 – 24 months received 24 Gy in 1.5 Gy per fraction. Older children received 30 Gy in 1.5 Gy per fraction. Target volume includes viable microscopic or gross residual tumour determined by CT , MRI or MIBG scan with 2 cm margins
  • 33. POG TRIALS EFS of completely resected tumours at diagnosis - 85 % EFS of incompletely resected tumours at diagnosis - 70 % Maximum safe surgical excision followed by 5 cycles of chemo
  • 34. CHEMO SCHEDULE POG 8742 they received cisplatin and etoposide alternating with cyclophosphamide and doxorubicin POG 9244 received alternating cycles of OPEC (vincristine , cisplatin, etoposide and cyclophosphamide ) and OJEC (vincristine, carboplatin , etoposide and cyclophosphamide )
  • 35. OPEC REGIMENSVINCRISTINE 1.5 mg/m2 D1CYCLOPHOSPHAMIDE 600 mg/ m2 DICISPLATIN 100 mg/m2 D2TENIPOSIDE (VM 28 ) 150 mg/ m2 D4
  • 36. CADO REGIMENCYCLOPHOSPHAMIDE 300 mg/m2 DI-D 5ADRIAMYCIN 60 mg/m2VINCRISTINE 1.5mg/m2
  • 37. ROLE OF RADIATION THERAPY CONTROVERSIAL In older children with LN metastasis adjuvant radiation to primary and regional LN has improved DFS & OS. RCT showed that DFS is 31 % in chemo arm and 58 % in chemo RT arm. De Bernadi et al trials failed to show benefit from adjuvant RT.
  • 38. DEFENITIVE INDICATIONS OF RTRespiratory distress secondary to massivehepatoslenomegaly.4.5 Gy to liver in 3 daily fractions.Spinal cord compression< 3 yrs 9 Gy in 5 daily fractions.Older children 21.6 Gy in 12 daily fractions.
  • 39. HIGH RISK DISEASECURRENT TREATMENT APPROACHESIntensive induction chemotherapyMyelo ablative consolidation chemo with stem cellrescue.Targeted therapy for residual disease.
  • 40. INTENSIVE INDUCTION CHEMOCISPLATIN 30 mg / m2 D1DOXORUBICIN 30 mg/m2 D2ETOPOSIDE 100 mg/ m2 D2 & D5CYCLOPHOSPHAMIDE 1000 mg/m2 D3 &D45 CYCLES AT 28 DAY INTERVELS.
  • 41.  This was followed by second look surgery Radiation therapy is given to patients with persistent disease at primary or metastatic sites. 21.6 Gy in 12 daily fractions to post induction chemo, pre op tumour volume followed by boost of 14.4 GY to gross residual volume to a total dose of 36 Gy.
  • 42. IORT Single fraction 10 Gy to primary tumour bed was associated with local control rate of 100 % where as IORT was unable to control any patients with gross residual disease
  • 43. MYELO ABLATIVE THERAPYHIGH DOSE OF CARBOPLATIN , MELPHELAN AND ETOPOSIDETOTAL BODY IRRADIATION3 DAILY FRACTIONS3.33 GY PER FRACTIONPURGED AUTOLOGOUS MARROW IS INFUSED WITH GM - CSF
  • 44. TARGETED THERAPY INVESTIGATIONAL PHASE I 131 – MIBG REFRACTORY DISEASE AS A PART OF MYELO ABLATIVE REGIMEN MAX. MARROW NON ABLATIVE DOSE – 444 MBq Kg MAX. PRACTICAL HIGH DOSE – 666 MBq/ Kg US AND EUROPEAN STUDIES SHOWED 30-40 % RESPONSE RATE
  • 45. TARGETED IMMUNO THERAPY HUMAN MOUSE CHIMERIC MONO CLONAL ANTIBODY ch.14.8 TARGETS TUMOUR ASSOCIATED ANTIGEN. ANTI GD 2 MURINE MONOCLONAL ANTIBODY 3F8 AND GD 2a
  • 46. RECURRENT TUMOURS TARGETED PHARMACEUTICALS CYCLOPHOSPHAMIDE + TOPOTECAN IRINOTECAN + TEMOZOLAMIDE TARGETED IMMUNO THERAPY 13 – CIS RETINOIC ACID

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