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List of countries and capitals with currency and language   wikipedia, the free encyclopedia List of countries and capitals with currency and language wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Document Transcript

  • Africa List of countries and capitals with currency and language From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia This is a list of sovereign states and dependent territories of the world by continent, displayed with their respective national flags and capitals,including their respective currency and native language. This list divides the world using the seven-continent model, with islands grouped into adjacent continents. The continents are: Africa Asia Europe North America South America Oceania (a geopolitical region which includes the continent of Australia and the Pacific Islands) Antarctica In other models, Asia and Europe can be combined as Eurasia, while North and South America can be combined as the Americas (for a detailed description of how the world is divided into continents, including different models, see here). There are sovereign states and dependent territories that can be considered to belong to more than one continent, according to geographical, political, or historical criteria. Contents 1 Africa 2 Asia 3 Europe 4 North America 5 South America 6 Oceania 7 Antarctica 8 See also 9 Notes 10 References 11 External links Africa Main articles: Africa and List of sovereign states and
  • Area 30,221,532 km2 (11,668,599 sq mi) Population 1,032,532,974[1] (2011, 2nd) Pop. density 30.51/km2 (about 80/sq mi) Countries 57 (list of countries) Languages Languages of Africa Time Zones UTC-1 to UTC+4 dependent territories in Africa Further information: Geography of Africa For a table of sovereign states and dependent territories in Africa with geographical data such as area, population, and population density, see here. Africa is the world's second-largest and second-most- populous continent. At about 30.2 million km² (11.7 million sq mi) including adjacent islands, it covers six percent of the Earth's total surface area and 20.4 percent of the total land area.[2] With 1.0 billion people (as of 2009, see table), it accounts for about 15% of the world's human population. The continent is surrounded by the Mediterranean Sea to the north, both the Suez Canal and the Red Sea along the Sinai Peninsula to the northeast, the Indian Ocean to the southeast, and the Atlantic Ocean to the west. The continent includes Madagascar and various archipelagoes. It has 54 fully recognized sovereign states ("countries"), 9 territories and three de facto states with limited recognition.[3] Africa, particularly central Eastern Africa, is widely accepted as the origin of humans and the Hominidae clade (great apes), as evidenced by the discovery of the earliest hominids and their ancestors, as well as later ones that have been dated to around seven million years ago – including Sahelanthropus tchadensis, Australopithecus africanus, A. afarensis, Homo erectus, H. habilis and H. ergaster – with the earliest Homo sapiens (modern human) found in Ethiopia being dated to circa 200,000 years ago.[4] Africa straddles the equator and encompasses numerous climate areas; it is the only continent to stretch from the northern temperate to southern temperate zones.[5] The African expected economic growth rate is at about 5.0% for 2010 and 5.5% in 2011.[6] Flag Name Capital Currency Official language Algeria Algiers Budju Arabic Angola Luanda Angolar Portuguese Benin Porto-Novo (official) Cotonou (seat of government) West African CFA franc French Botswana Gaborone Pula English Setswana Burkina Faso Ouagadougou West African CFA franc French Burundi Bujumbura Rupie Kirundi French Central
  • Cameroon Yaoundé Central African CFA franc French English Cape Verde Praia Cape Verdean escudo Portuguese Central African Republic Bangui Central African CFA franc French Sango Chad N'Djamena Central African CFA franc French Arabic Comoros Moroni Comorian franc Comorian Arabic French Congo (Congo- Brazzaville) Brazzaville Central African CFA franc French Côte d'Ivoire (Ivory Coast) Yamoussoukro (official) Abidjan (seat of government) West African CFA franc French Democratic Republic of the Congo (Congo- Kinshasa) Kinshasa Congolese franc French Djibouti Djibouti Djiboutian franc French Arabic Egypt Cairo Egyptian gineih Arabic Equatorial Guinea Malabo Equatorial Guinean peseta Spanish French Portuguese Eritrea Asmara Tallero Tigrinya Arabic English Ethiopia Addis Ababa Birr Amharic Gabon Libreville Central African CFA franc French Gambia Banjul British West African pound Mandinka English Ghana Accra British West African pound English Akan
  • Guinea Conakry Guinean franc French Guinea-Bissau Bissau West African CFA franc Portuguese Kenya Nairobi Kenyan shilling Swahili English Lesotho Maseru Lesotho loti English Sesotho Liberia Monrovia Liberian dollar English Libya Tripoli Dinar Arabic Madagascar Antananarivo Malagasy ariary Malagasy French Malawi Lilongwe Kwacha English Chichewa Mali Bamako West African CFA franc French Mauritania Nouakchott Ouguiya Arabic Mauritius Port Louis Mauritian rupee Mauritian Creole French English Mayotte Mamoudzou Euro French Morocco Rabat Moroccan dirham Arabic Berber Mozambique Maputo Mozambican metical Portuguese Namibia Windhoek Namibian dollar English Niger Niamey West African CFA franc French Nigeria Abuja Naira English Réunion Saint-Denis Overseas department of France Rwanda Kigali Rwandan franc Kinyarwanda English
  • French Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha Jamestown (Saint Helena) Georgetown (Ascension Island) Edinburgh of the Seven Seas (Tristan da Cunha) Saint Helena pound Pound sterling English Sao Tome and Principe São Tomé Dobra Portuguese Senegal Dakar CFA franc French Seychelles Victoria Seychellois rupee Seychellois Creole French English Sierra Leone Freetown Leone English Somalia Mogadishu Somali shilling Somali Arabic Somaliland Hargeisa Somaliland shilling Somali Arabic South Africa Pretoria (administrative/executive) Cape Town (legislative) Bloemfontein (judicial) South African rand Afrikaans English Southern Ndebele Northern Sotho Southern Sotho Swazi Tsonga Tswana Venda Xhosa Zulu South Sudan Juba South Sudanese pound English Sudan Khartoum Sudanese pound Arabic English Swaziland Mbabane (administrative) Lobamba (royal and legislative) Lilangeni English Swati Tanzania Dodoma (official) Dar es Salaam (seat of government) Tanzanian shilling Swahili English
  • Asia Area 44,579,000 km2 (17,212,000 sq mi)[7] Population 3,879,000,000 (1st)[8] Pop. 87/km2 (225/sq mi) Togo Lomé CFA franc French Tunisia Tunis Tunisian dinar Arabic Uganda Kampala Ugandan shilling Swahili English Luganda None Western Sahara None Disputed territory between Morocco and the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic Moroccan dirham Algerian dinar Mauritanian ouguiya See respective claimants Zambia Lusaka Zambian kwacha English Zimbabwe Harare various English Shona Sindebele Asia Main articles: Asia and List of sovereign states and dependent territories in Asia See also: Eurasia and List of sovereign states and dependent territories in Eurasia Further information: Geography of Asia For a table of sovereign states and dependent territories in Asia with geographical data such as area, population, and population density, see here. Asia ( i /ˈeɪʒə/ or /ˈeɪʃə/) is the world's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the eastern and northern hemispheres. It covers 8.7% of the Earth's total surface area (or 30% of its land area) and with approximately 4.3 billion people, it hosts 60% of the world's current human population. During the 20th century Asia's population nearly quadrupled.[9]
  • density Countries 48 (list of countries) Languages List of languages Time Zones UTC+2 to UTC+12 Asia is defined as comprising the eastwards four-fifths of Eurasia. It is located to the east of the Suez Canal, the Ural river, and the Ural Mountains, and south of the Caucasus Mountains (or the Kuma-Manych Depression) and the Caspian and Black Seas.[10][11] It is bounded on the east by the Pacific Ocean, on the south by the Indian Ocean and on the north by the Arctic Ocean. Given its size and diversity, Asia – a toponym dating back to classical antiquity – "is more a cultural concept" incorporating diverse regions and peoples than a homogeneous physical entity.[12] Asia differs very widely among and within its regions with regard to ethnic groups, cultures, environments, economics, historical ties and government systems. Flag Name Capital Currency Official language Afghanistan Kabul Afghani Pashto Dari (Persian) Akrotiri and Dhekelia Episkopi Cantonment Euro English Greek Armenia Yerevan Dram Armenian Azerbaijan [Europe] Baku Manat Azerbaijani Bahrain Manama Bahraini dinar Arabic Bangladesh Dhaka Taka Bengali Bhutan Thimphu Bhutanese ngultrum Dzongkha British Indian Ocean Territory Diego Garcia Overseas territory of the United Kingdom US dollar UK pound English Brunei Bandar Seri Begawan Brunei dollar Bahasa Melayu Cambodia Phnom Penh Riel Khmer China Beijing Renminbi (yuan) Standard Chinese Christmas Island Flying Fish Cove External territory of Australia Australian dollar English Cocos (Keeling) Islands West Island External territory of AustraliaExternal territory of Australia Australian dollar English Cyprus [Europe] Nicosia Euro Greek Turkish
  • East Timor (Timor- Leste) Dili US Dollar Portuguese Tetum Georgia [Europe] Tbilisi Lari Georgian Hong Kong Special administrative region of China Hong Kong dollar English Chinese India New Delhi Indian Rupee Hindi English Tamil Telugu Malayalam Oriya Bengali Assamese Manipuri Sikkimese Mizo Garo Khasi Jaintia Kannada Marathi Bodo Kokborok Nagamese Nefamese Indonesia Jakarta Rupiah Indonesian Iran Tehran Rial Persian Iraq Baghdad Iraqi dinar Kurdish Arabic Israel Tel Aviv New shekel Hebrew Arabic Japan Tokyo Yen Japanese Jordan Amman Jordanian dinar Arabic Kazakhstan Astana Tenge Kazakh Russian Kuwait Kuwait City Kuwaiti dinar Arabic Kyrgyzstan Bishkek Som Kyrgyz
  • Russian Laos Vientiane Kip Lao Lebanon Beirut Lebanese pound Arabic Macau Special administrative region of China Macanese pataca Portuguese Chinese Malaysia Kuala Lumpur (official) Putrajaya (seat of government) Ringgit Malaysian Maldives Malé Maldivian rufiyaa Maldivian Mongolia Ulaanbaatar Tögrög Mongolian Myanmar (Burma) Naypyidaw Kyat Burmese Nagorno- Karabakh Stepanakert De facto sovereign state lacking general international recognition Recognized by United Nations as de jure part of Azerbaijan Armenian dram Armenian Nepal Kathmandu Nepalese rupee Nepali Northern Cyprus Nicosia De facto sovereign state lacking general international recognition Recognized by United Nation as de jure part of Cyprus Turkish lira Turkish North Korea Pyongyang North Korean won Korean Oman Muscat Rial Arabic Pakistan Islamabad Pakistani Rupee English Urdu Palestine East Jerusalem (claimed capital) Ramallah (West Bank seat of government) Gaza (Gaza Strip seat of government) Territory occupied by Israel State of Palestine (flag displayed) proclaimed on territory Israeli shekel Arabic Philippines Manila Peso Filipino English
  • Qatar Doha Riyal Arabic Saudi Arabia Riyadh Saudi riyal Arabic Singapore Singapore Singapore dollar English Chinese Malay Tamil South Korea Seoul South Korean won Korean South Ossetia Tskhinvali De facto sovereign state lacking general international recognition Recognized by United Nations as de jure part of Georgia Russian ruble Ossetic Georgian Russian Sri Lanka Sri Jayawardenapura Kotte Sri Lankan rupee Sinhala Tamil Syria Damascus Syrian pound Arabic Taiwan Taipei De facto sovereign state lacking general international recognition Recognized by United Nations as part of China. New Taiwan dollar Standard Chinese Tajikistan Dushanbe Somoni Tajik Thailand Bangkok Baht Thai Turkey [Europe] Ankara Turkish lira Turkish Turkmenistan Ashgabat Turkmen new manat Turkmen United Arab Emirates Abu Dhabi UAE dirham Arabic Uzbekistan Tashkent Uzbekistan som (O'zbekiston so'mi) Uzbek Vietnam Hanoi đồng Vietnamese Yemen Sana'a Yemeni rial Arabic Notes
  • Europe Area 10,180,000 km2 (3,930,000 sq mi)[n] Population 739,165,030[n] (2011), 3rd) Pop. density 72.5/km2 Countries 50 (list of countries) Languages List of languages Time Zones UTC to UTC+6 The Russian Federation is classified as a European country by the United Nations Statistics Division. Russia is historically the successor of the Grand Duchy of Moscow, a medieval state of northeastern Europe. The Russian conquest of Northern Asia begins in the late 16th century. Today, most of the territory of Russia is in Asia, but most of its population lives in the European part. Europe Main articles: Europe and List of sovereign states and dependent territories in Europe See also: Eurasia and List of sovereign states and dependent territories in Eurasia Further information: Geography of Europe For a table of sovereign states and dependent territories in Europe with geographical data such as area, population, and population density, see here. Europe ( i /ˈjʊərəp/ EWR-əp or /ˈjɜrəp/ YUR-əp[13]) is, by convention, one of the world's seven continents. Comprising the westernmost peninsula of Eurasia, Europe is generally divided from Asia by the watershed divides of the Ural and Caucasus Mountains, the Ural River, the Caspian and Black Seas, and the waterways connecting the Black and Aegean Seas.[14] Europe is bordered by the Arctic Ocean to the north, the Atlantic Ocean to the west, the Mediterranean Sea to the south, and the Black Sea and connected waterways to the southeast. Yet the borders of Europe—a concept dating back to classical antiquity—are somewhat arbitrary, as the primarily physiographic term "continent" can incorporate cultural and political elements. Europe is the world's second-smallest continent by surface area, covering about 10,180,000 square kilometres (3,930,000 sq mi) or 2% of the Earth's surface and about 6.8% of its land area. Of Europe's approximately 50 states, Russia is by far the largest by both area and population, taking up 40% of the continent (although the country has territory in both Europe and Asia), while the Vatican City is the smallest. Europe is the third-most populous continent after Asia and Africa, with a population of 733 million or about 11% of the world's population.[15] Europe, in particular Ancient Greece, is the birthplace of Western culture.[16] It played a predominant role in global affairs from the 15th century onwards, especially after the beginning of colonialism. Between the 16th and 20th centuries, European nations controlled at various times the Americas, most of Africa, Oceania, and large portions of Asia. In 1900, Europe's share of the world's population was 25%.[17] Both World Wars were largely focused upon Europe, greatly contributing to a decline in Western European dominance in world affairs by the mid-20th century as the United States and Soviet Union took prominence.[18] During the Cold War, Europe was divided along the Iron Curtain between NATO in the west and the Warsaw Pact in the east. European integration led to the formation of the Council of Europe and the European Union in Western Europe, both of which have been expanding eastward since the revolutions of 1989 and the fall of the Soviet Union in 1991.
  • Flag Name Capital Currency Official language Åland Islands Mariehamn Autonomous region of Finland (recognized by international treaty) Euro Swedish Albania Tirana Lek Albanian Andorra Andorra la Vella Euro Catalan Austria Vienna Euro German Belarus Minsk Belarusian ruble Belarusian Russian Belgium Brussels Euro Dutch French German Bosnia and Herzegovina Sarajevo Convertible mark Bosnian Croatian Serbian Bulgaria Sofia Lev Bulgarian Croatia Zagreb Kuna Croatian Czech Republic Prague Czech koruna Slovak German Polish Bulgarian Croatian Greek Hungarian Romani Russian Rusyn Serbian Ukrainian Denmark Copenhagen Danish krone[a] Danish Estonia Tallinn Euro Estonian Faroe Islands Tórshavn Self-governing territory of the Danish Realm Faroese króna Faroese Danish
  • Finland Helsinki Euro Finnish Swedish France Paris Euro CFP franc French Germany Berlin Euro German Gibraltar Gibraltar Overseas territory of the United Kingdom Gibraltar pound English Greece Athens Euro Greek Guernsey Saint Peter Port British Crown dependency Pound sterling English French Hungary Budapest Forint Hungarian Iceland Reykjavík Icelandic króna Icelandic Ireland Dublin Euro Irish Isle of Man Douglas British Crown dependency Pound sterling English Manx Italy Rome Euro Italian Jersey Saint Helier British Crown dependency Pound sterling English French Kosovo Pristina De facto sovereign state recognized by over 80 UN member states A United Nations mandate in Serbian territory was put in place starting in 1999. Euro Albanian Serbian Latvia Riga Lats Latvian Liechtenstein Vaduz Swiss franc German Lithuania Vilnius Lithuanian litas Lithuanian Luxembourg Luxembourg Euro Luxembourgish French German Macedonia Skopje Macedonian denar Macedonian Malta Valletta Euro Maltese English
  • Moldova Chişinău Moldovan leu Moldovan Monaco Monaco Euro Monégasque Italian Occitan English Montenegro Podgorica Euro Montenegrin Netherlands Amsterdam Euro US dollar NA guilder Aruban florin Dutch Norway Oslo Norwegian krone Norwegian Bokmål Nynorsk Poland Warsaw Złoty Polish Portugal Lisbon Euro Portuguese Romania Bucharest Romanian leu Romanian Russia Moscow Russian ruble Russian 27 others co- official San Marino San Marino Euro Italian Serbia Belgrade Serbian dinar Serbian Slovakia Bratislava Euro Slovak Slovenia Ljubljana Euro Slovene Spain Madrid Euro Spanish Catalan Galician Basque Svalbard Longyearbyen Special territory of Norway (recognized by international treaty) Norwegian krone Norwegian Sweden Stockholm Swedish krona Swedish German
  • North America Area 24,709,000 km2 (9,540,000 sq mi) Population 528,720,588 (2008, 4th) Pop. density 22.9/km2 (59.3/sq mi)[b] Countries 23 (list of countries) Switzerland Bern Swiss franc German French Italian Romansh Transnistria Tiraspol De facto sovereign state lacking general international recognition Recognized by United Nations as de jure part of Moldova Transnistrian ruble Russian Moldovan Ukrainian Ukraine Kiev Ukrainian hryvnia Ukrainian United Kingdom London Pound sterling English Vatican City Vatican City Euro Italian Notes Transcontinental countries in Europe and Asia, classified as West Asian countries by the United Nations Statistics Division: Azerbaijan, Georgia, Turkey. In West Asia, but a member of the European Union: Cyprus. North America Main articles: North America and List of sovereign states and dependent territories in North America See also: Americas and List of sovereign states and dependent territories in the Americas Further information: Geography of North America For a table of sovereign states and dependent territories in North America with geographical data such as area, population, and population density, see here. North America is a continent wholly within the Northern Hemisphere and almost wholly within the Western Hemisphere. It is also considered a northern subcontinent of the Americas.[19] It is bordered to the north by the Arctic Ocean, to the east by the Atlantic Ocean, to the west and south by the Pacific Ocean, and to the southeast by South America and the Caribbean Sea.
  • Languages List of languages Time Zones UTC-10 to UTC North America covers an area of about 24,709,000 square kilometers (9,540,000 square miles), about 4.8% of the planet's surface or about 16.5% of its land area. As of July 2008, its population was estimated at nearly 529 million people across 23 independent states. North America is the third-largest continent in area, following Asia and Africa, and the fourth in population after Asia, Africa, and Europe. Flag Name Capital Currency Official language Anguilla The Valley Overseas territory of the United Kingdom Antigua and Barbuda St. John's Aruba Oranjestad Constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands Bahamas Nassau Barbados Bridgetown Belize Belmopan Bermuda Hamilton Overseas territory of the United Kingdom Bonaire Kralendijk Special municipality of the Netherlands British Virgin Islands Road Town Overseas territory of the United Kingdom Canada Ottawa Cayman Islands George Town Overseas territory of the United Kingdom Clipperton Island — Overseas territory of France Costa Rica San José Cuba Havana Curaçao Willemstad Constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands Dominica Roseau Dominican Republic Santo Domingo
  • El Salvador San Salvador Greenland Nuuk Self-governing territory of the Danish Realm Grenada St. George's Guadeloupe Basse-Terre Overseas department of France Guatemala Guatemala City Haiti Port-au-Prince Honduras Tegucigalpa Jamaica Kingston Martinique Fort-de-France Overseas department of France Mexico Mexico City Montserrat Plymouth (official) Brades (seat of government) Overseas territory of the United Kingdom Navassa Island — Insular area of the United States of America Nicaragua Managua Panama Panama City Puerto Rico San Juan Insular area of the United States of America Saba The Bottom Special municipality of the Netherlands Saint Barthélemy Gustavia Overseas collectivity of France Saint Kitts and Nevis Basseterre Saint Lucia Castries Saint Martin Marigot Overseas collectivity of France Saint Pierre and Miquelon Saint-Pierre Overseas collectivity of France Saint Vincent and the
  • South America Area 17,840,000 km2 (6,890,000 sq mi) Population 387,489,196 (2011, 5th) Pop. density 21.4 per km2 (56.0 per sq mi) Countries 12 (list of countries) Languages List of languages Time Zones UTC-2 to UTC-5 Grenadines Kingstown Sint Eustatius Oranjestad Special municipality of the Netherlands Sint Maarten Philipsburg Constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands Trinidad and Tobago Port of Spain Turks and Caicos Islands Cockburn Town Overseas territory of the United Kingdom United States Washington, D.C. United States Virgin Islands Charlotte Amalie Insular area of the United States of America South America Main articles: South America and List of sovereign states and dependent territories in South America See also: Americas and List of sovereign states and dependent territories in the Americas Further information: Geography of South America For a table of sovereign states and dependent territories in South America with geographical data such as area, population, and population density, see here. South America is a continent located in the Western Hemisphere, mostly in the Southern Hemisphere, with a relatively small portion in the Northern Hemisphere.[20][21] It is bordered on the west by the Pacific Ocean and on the north and east by the Atlantic Ocean; North America and the Caribbean Sea lie to the northwest. It is formed by twelve sovereign states - Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Guyana, Paraguay, Peru, Suriname, Uruguay, and Venezuela - the French Guiana, which is an overseas region of France, and the Falkland Islands, a British Overseas Territory. In addition to this, the ABC islands of the Netherlands may also be considered part of South America, as well as Trinidad and Tobago. The South American states that border the Caribbean Sea – Colombia, Venezuela, Guyana, Suriname, and French Guiana – are also known as Caribbean South America.
  • Oceania South America has an area of 17,840,000 square kilometers (6,890,000 sq mi). Its population as of 2005 has been estimated at more than 371,090,000. South America ranks fourth in area (after Asia, Africa, and North America) and fifth in population (after Asia, Africa, Europe, and North America). The word America was coined in 1507 by cartographers Martin Waldseemüller and Matthias Ringmann, after Amerigo Vespucci, who was the first European to suggest that the lands newly discovered by Europeans were not India, but a New World unknown to Europeans. Flag Name Capital Currency Official language Argentina Buenos Aires Peso Spanish Bolivia Sucre (official) La Paz (seat of government) Boliviano Spanish Quechua Aymara Brazil Brasília Real Portuguese Chile Santiago Peso Spanish Colombia Bogotá Peso Spanish Ecuador Quito United States dollar Spanish Falkland Islands Stanley Overseas territory of the United Kingdom Falkland Islands pound English French Guiana Cayenne Overseas department of France — — Guyana Georgetown Guyanese dollar English Paraguay Asunción Guaraní Spanish Guaraní Peru Lima Nuevo sol Spanish Suriname Paramaribo Surinamese dollar Dutch Uruguay Montevideo Uruguayan peso Spanish Venezuela Caracas Bolívar fuerte Spanish Oceania Main articles: Oceania and List of sovereign states
  • Geopolitical Oceania Area 17,840,000 km2 (6,890,000 sq mi) Population 387,489,196 (2011, 5th) Pop. density 21.4 per km2 (56.0 per sq mi) Countries 14 (list of countries) Languages List of languages Time Zones UTC-2 to UTC-5 and dependent territories in Oceania See also: Australia (continent) and Pacific Islands Further information: Geography of Oceania For a table of sovereign states and dependent territories in Oceania with geographical data such as area, population, and population density, see here. Australia (UK /ˌoʊʃɪˈɑːnɪə/ or /ˌoʊsɪˈɑːnɪə/;[22] US /ˌoʊʃiːˈæniːə/)[23] is a region centered on the islands of the tropical Pacific Ocean.[24] Opinions of what constitutes Oceania range from the coral atolls and volcanic islands of the South Pacific (ethnologically divided into the subregions of Melanesia, Micronesia, and Polynesia)[25] to the entire insular region between Asia and the Americas, including Australasia and the Maritime Southeast Asia.The term is sometimes used more specifically to denote a continent comprising Australia and proximate islands,[26][27][28][29] or biogeographically as a synonym for either the Australasian ecozone (Wallacea and Australasia) or the Pacific ecozone (Melanesia, Polynesia, and Micronesia apart either from New Zealand[30] or from mainland New Guinea).[31] Flag Name Capital Currency Official language American Samoa Pago Pago Insular area of the United States of America United States dollar English Samoan Ashmore and Cartier Islands External territory of Australia — — Australia Canberra Australian dollar None[c] Baker Island — Insular area of the United States of America Cook Islands Avarua Self-governing parliamentary democracy in free association with New Zealand New Zealand dollar Cook Islands dollar English Cook Islands Māori
  • Coral Sea Islands — External territory of Australia Fiji Suva French Polynesia Papeete Overseas collectivity of France Guam Hagåtña Insular area of the United States of America Howland Island — Insular area of the United States of America Jarvis Island — Insular area of the United States of America Johnston Atoll — Insular area of the United States of America Kingman Reef — Insular area of the United States of America Kiribati South Tarawa Marshall Islands Majuro Micronesia Palikir Midway Atoll — Insular area of the United States of America Nauru Yaren (seat of government) New Caledonia Nouméa Sui generis collectivity (special collectivity) of France New Zealand Wellington Niue Alofi Self-governing parliamentary democracy in free association with New Zealand Norfolk Island Kingston Self-governing territory of Australia Northern Mariana Islands Saipan Insular area of the United States of America Palau Melekeok
  • Antarctica Area 14,000,000 km2 (5,400,000 sq mi)[32] Demonym Antarctican Palmyra Atoll — Insular area of the United States of America Papua New Guinea Port Moresby Pitcairn Islands Adamstown Overseas territory of the United Kingdom Samoa Apia Solomon Islands Honiara Tokelau Nukunonu (main settlement, although each atoll has its own administrative centre) Dependent territory of New Zealand Tonga Nukuʻalofa Tuvalu Funafuti Vanuatu Port Vila Vanuatu vatu Wake Island — Insular area of the United States of America Wallis and Futuna Mata-Utu Overseas collectivity of France Antarctica Main article: Antarctica Further information: Geography of Antarctica Antarctica ( i /æntˈɑrtɨkə/ or /ænˈtɑrktɨkə/)[d] is Earth's southernmost continent, containing the geographic South Pole. It is situated in the Antarctic region of the Southern Hemisphere, almost entirely south of the Antarctic Circle, and is surrounded by the Southern Ocean. At 14.0 million km2 (5.4 million sq mi), it is the fifth-largest continent in area after Asia, Africa, North America, and South America. For comparison, Antarctica is nearly twice the size of Australia. About 98% of Antarctica is covered by ice that averages at least 1 mile (1.6 km) in thickness. Antarctica, on average, is the coldest, driest, and windiest continent, and has the highest average elevation of all the continents.[35] Antarctica is considered a desert, with annual precipitation of only 200 mm (8 inches) along the coast and
  • far less inland.[36] The temperature in Antarctica has reached −89 °C (−129 °F). There are no permanent human residents, but anywhere from 1,000 to 5,000 people reside throughout the year at the research stations scattered across the continent. Only cold-adapted organisms survive there, including many types of algae, animals (for example mites, nematodes, penguins, seals and tardigrades), bacteria, fungi, plants, and protista. Vegetation where it occurs is tundra. Although myths and speculation about a Terra Australis ("Southern Land") date back to antiquity, the first confirmed sighting of the continent is commonly accepted to have occurred in 1820 by the Russian expedition of Fabian Gottlieb von Bellingshausen and Mikhail Lazarev on Vostok and Mirny. The continent, however, remained largely neglected for the rest of the 19th century because of its hostile environment, lack of resources, and isolation. The Antarctic Treaty was signed in 1959 by 12 countries; to date, 49 countries have signed the treaty. The treaty prohibits military activities and mineral mining, prohibits nuclear explosions and nuclear waste disposal, supports scientific research, and protects the continent's ecozone. Ongoing experiments are conducted by more than 4,000 scientists from many nations. Antarctica is regulated by the Antarctic Treaty System, which defines it as all land and ice shelves south of 60°S, and has no government and belongs to no country. However, the following territorial claims in Antarctica have been made: Argentina: Argentine Antarctica Australia: Australian Antarctic Territory Brazil: Brazilian Antarctica (unofficial) Chile: Antártica France: Adélie Land New Zealand: Ross Dependency Norway: Peter I Island and Queen Maud Land United Kingdom: British Antarctic Territory (Unclaimed: Marie Byrd Land) Moreover, the following dependent territories are situated in the wider Antarctic Region:
  • Flag Name Capital Currency Official Language Bouvet Island Dependent territory of Norway — — — French Southern Territories Alfred Faure (Crozet Islands) Port-aux-Français (Kerguelen Islands) Martin-de-Viviès (Saint Paul and Amsterdam Islands) Overseas territory of France Euro French Heard Island and McDonald Islands External territory of Australia — — — South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands King Edward Point Overseas territory of the United Kingdom Pound sterling English See also List of countries and capitals in native languages List of national capitals List of currencies Notes a. ^ In the Faroe Islands the currency has a separate design and is known as the króna, but is not a separate currency. b. ^ This North American density figure is based on a total land area of 23,090,542 km2 only, considerably less than the total combined land and water area of 24,709,000 km². c. ^ English does not have de jure status. d. ^ The word was originally pronounced without /k/, but the spelling pronunciation has become very common. The "c" was originally added to the spelling for etymological reasons and then began to be pronounced.[33][34] References 1. ^ "World Population Prospects: The 2010 Revision" (http://esa.un.org/unpd/wpp/Excel-Data/population.htm/) United Nations (Department of Economic and Social Affairs, population division) 2. ^ Sayre, April Pulley. (1999) Africa, Twenty-First Century Books. ISBN 0-7613-1367-2. 3. ^ See List of sovereign states and dependent territories in Africa. 4. ^ Homo sapiens: University of Utah News Release: Feb. 16, 2005 (http://web.utah.edu/unews/releases/05/feb/homosapiens.html) 5. ^ Visual Geography. "Africa. General info" (http://www.visualgeography.com/continents/africa.html). Retrieved 2007-11-24. 6. ^ IMF WEO Oct. 2010 (http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/weo/2010/02/pdf/c2.pdf). Retrieved 2010 October 15.