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  • As the 21 st century continues to unfold, so does the dynamism of the Asia Pacific Region as it has seen double-digit annual growth rates. The economic miracle began by Japan in the 1970s and carried on by the Four Asian Tigers in the 1980s has now been embraced by Greater China and the region as a whole. Opportunities in the Asia-Pacific region abound, brought about by the combination of fast economic growth and half the population of the world! Opening Side
  • Dynamic growth in the Asia Pacific region: Greater China, Japan, India, the Four Asian Tigers, and Vietnam; Bottom-of-the-Pyramid Markets (BOPMs); Market Metrics; Asia Pacific Trade Associations: ASEAN, ASEAN+3, and APEC; Focus on diversity within China: Northeast China, Beijing-Tianjin, Shanghai and the Yangtze River delta, Pearl River delta, and the Other Billion. Opening Side
  • Developing markets are experiencing rapid industrialization, growing industrial and consumer markets, and new opportunities for foreign investment. Walmart operates over 8,000 units in 15 countries, including almost 150 in China and about 95% of what Walmart sells is sourced locally, example the Three-Snake rice wine. P&G’s Tide detergent turned into unwieldy clumps in China because of its oppressive summer humidity. Opening Side
  • Opening Side
  • Refers to both the People’s Republic of China (PRC) and Taiwan (Republic of China - ROC) which were in 1949, and each government claimed the other as its territory The ROC was one of the founding members of the United Nations in 1945, but the PRC was recognized into the UN in 1971. Relationship between the ROC and the PRC has been both politically difficult and militarily dangerous; this has been eased in the 21 st century due to increased trade between them. Opening Side
  • Aside from the United States and Japan, there is no more important single national market than the PRC. The PRC with a dual economic system, embracing socialism along with many tenets of capitalism, has produced an economic boom with expanded opportunity for foreign investment. Its GNP averaged nearly 10% since 1970 and is predicted to be around 8 – 10% in the next 10 to 15 years, equaling that of the US by 2015 Opening Side
  • Two major events that occurred in 2000 had a profound effect on China’s economy: Admission to the World Trade Organization (WTO) and US granting normal trade relations (NTR) to China on a permanent basis (PNTR). Two steps China must take if its road to economic growth must be smooth: Improving human rights and Reforming the legal system. Opening Side
  • International businesses in China have complained about the hypocritical role played by China; it is as if China has two faces. In fact, there are two Chinas: Old China - Maddening, bureaucratic, bottomless money pit, heaps demands on MNCs, local officials shaking down major corporations, whipsawed by policy swings, railroaded into bad partnerships, and squeezed for technology. Then there is the New China (Market-Driven) - Fast emerging, open to products from fast food to shampoo, entry barriers eroding even in tightly guarded sectors. Opening Side
  • After 155 years of British rule, Hong Kong reverted to China in 1997, when it became a special administrative region (SAR) of the PRC. Hong Kong is given a high degree of autonomy. It negotiates bilateral agreements (which are then “confirmed” by the PRC0 and makes major economic decisions on its own. Hong Kong is a free society with legally protected rights as the PRC continues to pursue a generally noninterventionist approach to economic policy that stresses the private sector. Opening Side
  • Both Taiwan and China continue to implement WTO provisions between themselves Taiwan companies have invested over %50 billion in China, and about 250,000 Taiwanese-run factories are responsible for about 12% of China’s exports. Trade helps out both countries: Taiwanese companies face rising costs at home - China offers a nearly limitless pool of cheap labor and engineering talent; China’s SOEs are laying off millions and Taiwan provides plentiful jobs. Opening Side
  • Japan’s fast growth in the 1970s and 1980s amazed the world. Then came the early 1990s, and Japan’s economy produced a stunning surprise: it slowed, sputtered, and stalled. Four explanatory themes have emerged and they are discussed in the following slides: Faulty economic policies, Inept political apparatus, Disadvantages due to global circumstances, and Cultural inhibitions. Opening Side
  • Exhibit 11.1 represents the real miracle of Japan’s economic prowess. According to the above chart, we can see that Japan pretty much avoided the Asian financial crisis that resulted in a precipitous economic decline in neighboring South Korea. Indeed, using this metric, the stability of the Japanese economy is miraculous, particularly given the troubles its close neighbors experienced in 1997 and the dimensions of both its stock and property market declines in the early 1990s.
  • In the early 1990s, Japan’ s stock market collapsed as its Nikkei index level plummeted from over 35,000 to under 13, 000 (it is now around 11,000). Why did this happen to Japan? The most common answer goes like this: Decades of galloping economic recovery success had bred a prideful national overconfidence. This was followed by willingness to take exaggerated risks which came in the form of borrowing heavily. After a while, lenders became cautious and this caused the inflated structure to collapse Spending habits curtailed, causing demand to fall; this caused industry to cut back on output and hiring; unemployment soared and confidence fell. Opening Side
  • Two major villains: First, Japan’s long entrenched liberal democratic political party – a one party sickness brought on by a 40-year hardening of political arteries. Second, Hidebound Japanese Bureaucracy – Japanese Bureaucracy controlled its elected politicians. Opening Side
  • Two major villains: First, Japan’s long entrenched liberal democratic political party – a one party sickness brought on by a 40-year hardening of political arteries. Second, Hidebound Japanese Bureaucracy – Japanese Bureaucracy controlled its elected politicians. Opening Side
  • The lack of a national goal for Japan plagued them after successfully building themselves from the ruins of World War II. The Japanese management culture such as, lifetime employment, job promotion based not on merit but on length of service, reciprocal contractor/subcontractor loyalties, hindered their adjustment to the new economic era. Japan is expected to continue its slow-growth economy into the second decade of the 21 st century; Toyota’s 2010 quality problems may have disrupted its contributions to the Japanese economy. Opening Side
  • India’ s traditional insular policies, import substitution, and aversion to free trade has constrained its growth. While other Asian countries were wooing foreign capital, India was doing its best to keep it out. However, times have changed. India’s five -point agenda: Improving the investment climate, Developing a comprehensive WTO strategy, Reforming agriculture, food processing, an small-scale industry, Eliminating red tape, and Instituting better corporate governance. Opening Side
  • The following steps have already been taken: Privatizing state-owned companies ; reducing stake to about 51%, Recasting the telecom sector’s regulatory authority and demolishing the monopolies enjoyed by SOEs (State Owned Enterprises), Signing a trade agreement with the U.S. to lift all quantitative restrictions on imports, Maintaining momentum in the reform of the petroleum sector, and planning the opening of domestic long-distance phone services, housing, and real estate and retail trading sectors to foreign direct investment. Opening Side
  • India still presents a difficult business environment. Here are some examples: Tariffs are well above those of developing world norms, Inadequate protection of intellectual property rights, Anti-business attitudes of India’s federal and state bureaucracies continue to hinder potential investors and plague their routine operations, Delay by policymakers on selling money-losing SOEs, making labor laws flexible, and deregulating banking, and Widespread corruption and ingrained bribery. Opening Side
  • India still presents a difficult business environment. Here are some examples: Tariffs are well above those of developing world norms, Inadequate protection of intellectual property rights, Anti-business attitudes of India’s federal and state bureaucracies continue to hinder potential investors and plague their routine operations, Delay by policymakers on selling money-losing SOEs, making labor laws flexible, and deregulating banking, and Widespread corruption and ingrained bribery. Opening Side
  • Hong Kong, South Korea, Singapore, and Taiwan are the four Asian Tigers or the Four Dragons. They were the first countries in Asia, after Japan, to move from developing countries to newly industrialized countries. They are rapidly industrializing and extending their trading activity to other parts of Asia. They are also becoming more important as economic leaders as the economies of other Asian countries have strengthened and industrialized. Opening Side
  • Its economy and infrastructure were in shambles after 20 years of socialism and war, but this country of more than 88 million is poised for significant growth. Although the population is educated and highly motivated and the government is committed to economic growth, there still exists poor infrastructure, onerous government restrictions, minimal industrial base, competition for resources with China, and a lack of capital technology. Opening Side
  • Its economy and infrastructure were in shambles after 20 years of socialism and war, but this country of more than 88 million is poised for significant growth. Although the population is educated and highly motivated and the government is committed to economic growth, there still exists poor infrastructure, onerous government restrictions, minimal industrial base, competition for resources with China, and a lack of capital technology. Opening Side
  • Exhibit 11.2 represents the ingredients and processes involved in establishing a viable industry cluster in a LLDC. Craftsmen must network and collaborate to attain efficiencies in production, domestic and international distribution, and other marketing activities. Key to the vibrancy of the industry cluster will be a series of cluster characteristics, external inputs, and macroenvironment factors. The scheme presented might serve as a checklist for stimulating economic development through marketing in bottom-of-the-Pyramid Markets (BOPMS). Entrepreneurial activities that are networked appear to be perhaps the best way to stimulate economic development and growth from within developing countries. And marketing is key.
  • In Exhibit 11.3, we can see how the income of the Japanese dominates and the dearth of data in Bangladesh.
  • In Exhibit 11.4, we see the infrastructures in these eight countries. The Japanese rail system is the best in the world, while in the Philippines, people travel by boat and bus. The Vietnamese have few cars, and there most travel by motorbike
  • In Exhibit 11.5, we see the consumption patterns in these eight countries. Of course, Japan stands out and also notice the difference between the Chinese and Indian emphases on education.
  • Once a source of inexpensive labor for products shipped to Japan or to third markets, countries in the Asia Pacific region are now seen as viable markets. Three free trade associations in this region: Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN) – which is slowly evolving into the ASEAN Free Trade Association (AFTA), ASEAN+3 (ASEAN members plus ministers from China, Japan, and South Korea), and Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC). All three of these associations will be discussed in the ensuing slides. Opening Side
  • The primary multinational trade group in Asia is ASEAN. The goals of the group are o perating within a free trade area, the ability to sell in an entire region without differing tariff and nontariff barriers, distribution can be centralized at the most cost-effective point rather than having distribution points dictated by tariff restrictions, pricing can be more consistent, which helps reduce smuggling and parallel importing, and marketing can become more regionally and centrally managed.
  • Four major events account for the vigorous economic growth of the ASEAN countries and their transformation from cheap-labor havens to industrialized nations: the ASEAN governments’ commitment to deregulation, liberalization, and privatization of their economies; the decision to shift their economies from commodity based to manufacturing based; the decision to specialize in manufacturing components in which they have a comparative advantage (this created more diversity in their industrial output and increased opportunities for trade); and Japan’s emergence as a major provider of technology and capital necessary to upgrade manufacturing capability and develop new industries.
  • In Exhibit 11.6, we see that the steps taken by countries in ASEAN to expand and diversify their industrial base to foster intraregional trade when ASEAN was first created have resulted in the fastest growing economies in the region and an increase in trade among members.
  • ASEAN plus China, Japan, and South Korea was created as a result of the Asian financial crisis (1997-1998) to deal with trade and monetary issues facing Asia. ASEAN+3 consists of foreign and finance ministers of each country, which meets annually after ASEAN meetings. Closer links between Southeast Asia and Northeast Asia are seen as a step toward strengthening Asia’s role in the global economy creating a global three-bloc configuration.
  • The other important grouping that encompasses the Asian-Pacific Rim is the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation. Formed in 1989, APEC provides a formal structure for the major governments of the region, including the United States and Canada, to discuss their mutual interests in open trade and economic collaboration. APEC is a unique forum that has evolved into the primary regional vehicle for promoting trade liberalization and economic cooperation. APEC includes all the major economies of the region and the most dynamic, fastest-growing economies in the world. APEC has as its common goal a commitment to open trade, to increase economic collaboration, to sustain regional growth and development, to strengthen the multilateral trading system, and to reduce barriers to investment and trade without detriment to other economies.
  • Today’s China is divided into mutually competitive, complementary economic “warring states,” just as it was two thousand years ago, before being united in the Qin Dynasty. There are four regional economies from the north to the south of the country, along the Pacific Coast: Northeast China – Industrial heartland, Beijing-Tianjin information technology corridor, Yangtze River Delta, and Pearl River Delta.
  • In Exhibit 11.7, we list the economic differences across the regions, provinces, and municipalities. People in the shanghai municipality make eight times the income of those in Guizhou in the inland south of the country. Per capita incomes in the previously separate areas of Hong Kong, Macau, and Taiwan are the highest.
  • Today’s China is divided into mutually competitive, complementary economic “warring states,” just as it was two thousand years ago, before being united in the Qin Dynasty. There are four regional economies from the north to the south of the country, along the Pacific Coast: Northeast China – Industrial heartland, Beijing-Tianjin information technology corridor, Yangtze River Delta, and Pearl River Delta.
  • The 75-mile corridor between Beijing and its coast cousin Tianjin hosts some 5,000 Chinese high-tech companies, among them Lenovo, and more than 1,000 international IT companies. Tianjin is China’s third largest industrial city after Shanghai and Beijing, but it is also the fastest growing one. Primary industries include automotive, electronics, metals, and petrochemicals. Motorola’s huge investments in the Tianjin Economic and Technology Development Zone have yielded perhaps the biggest mobile phone manufacturing operations in the world.
  • Shanghai has been undergoing a major industrial renaissance during the past two decades. Although medium value-added industries now account for the vast majority of Shanghai’s industrial employment, but new emphases are being put on developing its automobile assembly industry and other high-tech industries, such as computer, telecommunications equipment, and integrated circuit manufacturing. China’s sustained economic growth and accession to the WTO have aided Shanghai’s position as a regional trade and financial center.
  • The Greater Pearl River area includes three cities of over 5 million inhabitants; five cities with more than 1 million inhabitants; and a number of cities that each contain approximately half a million inhabitants. Shenzhen, bordering Hong Kong, leads the local economy. It’s population is 7 million, reflecting the significance and attractiveness of the city as a manufacturing and transportation in base. Proximity to Hong Kong is one of its advantages as it can use Hong Kong as a trade platform to expand the global market.
  • There is a part of China that few Westerners ever see and has not yet participated in the global economy. They are called the “Other Billion,” and they usually receive about 10 % of the central government budget which amounts to less than $100 a head for rural roads, water, power supplies, schools, and hospitals. Although the government is not spending much in the area, MNCs such as HP, Volvo, and Yamaha are funding development, with Yum! Brands, Tricon Global (Pizza Hut, KFC, and Taco Bell), and McDonalds closely following. But, the area is filled with economic divide and a massive lack of infrastructure and technology.
  • Northeastern negotiators (Forthright, industrious, competent, honest, and plainspoken, yet averse to risk and lack of creativity); Beijing area (Bureaucracy, imperialist perspective, lack of creativity); Shanghai area (Shrewd, outgoing, big talkers and spenders, creative-thinkers, and successful); Pearl River Delta (Entrepreneurship, spontaneity, honest, and forthright); Hong Kong (Bilingual, adept with the British culture, and humble); Taiwan (Conservative, age, rank, and family important, and autocratic decision style).
  • Everyone knows the Chinese market is huge and growing fast. But across this vast land of opportunity, there are extreme differences in economic wellbeing, cultures, and political structures. The following sectors are great for American exporters: Automotive components, cleaner coal, construction equipment, education and training services, machine tools, marine industries, healthcare, water and wastewater treatment, rail equipment, renewable energy, and green building. Finally, the influence of national government policies and regulations of marketing will often be minor compared with that of their local counterparts.
  • The Asia Pacific region is the most dynamic of the three regions covered in chapters 9-11. China and India both grew at double-digit rates during the last five years, and so far, they have fared better than the United States or Europe coming out of the 2008-2009 global recession. Japan still remains the second most important national market, behind only the United States. The mixed stages of economic development present a variety of opportunities for international marketers. .
  • The mixed stages of economic development present a variety of opportunities for international marketers are Infrastructure development, new industrial markets, and huge consumer markets. The countries of the Asia Pacific region are cooperating in two major trade associations: ASEAN+3 and APEC. There is a great deal of diversity in markets, industries, and cultures within China.

Student international marketing_15th_edition_chapter_11 Student international marketing_15th_edition_chapter_11 Presentation Transcript

  • International Marketing 15th edition Philip R. Cateora, Mary C. Gilly, and John L. GrahamMcGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2011 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • Introduction• As the 21st century continues to unfold, so does the dynamism of the Asia Pacific Region as it has seen double-digit annual growth rates• The economic miracle began by Japan in the 1970s and carried on by the Four Asian Tigers in the 1980s has now been embraced by Greater China and the region as a whole• Opportunities in the Asia-Pacific region abound, brought about by the combination of fast economic growth and half the population of the world! Roy Philip 11-2
  • Overview• Dynamic growth in the Asia Pacific region – Greater China, Japan, India, the Four Asian Tigers, and Vietnam• Bottom-of-the-Pyramid Markets (BOPMs)• Market Metrics• Asia Pacific Trade Associations – ASEAN, ASEAN+3, and APEC• Focus on diversity within China – Northeast China, Beijing-Tianjin, Shanghai and the Yangtze River delta, Pearl River delta, and the Other Billion Roy Philip 11-3
  • Global Perspective Walmart, Tide, and Three-Snake Wine• Developing markets are experiencing rapid industrialization, growing industrial and consumer markets, and new opportunities for foreign investment• Walmart operates over 8,000 units in 15 countries, including almost 150 in China and about 95% of what Walmart sells is sourced locally, example the Three-Snake rice wine• P&G’s Tide detergent turned into unwieldy clumps in China because of its oppressive summer humidity Roy Philip 11-4
  • Dynamic Growth in the Asia Pacific Region• The Greater China• Japan• India• The Four Asian Tigers• Vietnam Roy Philip 11-5
  • The Greater China• Refers to both the People’s Republic of China (PRC) and Taiwan (Republic of China - ROC) which were in 1949, and each government claimed the other as its territory• The ROC was one of the founding members of the United Nations in 1945, but the PRC was recognized into the UN in 1971• Relationship between the ROC and the PRC has been both politically difficult and militarily dangerous; this has been eased in the 21st century due to increased trade between them Roy Philip 11-6
  • The People’s Republic of China (PRC) (1 of 2)• Aside from the United States and Japan, there is no more important single national market than the PRC• The PRC with a dual economic system, embracing socialism along with many tenets of capitalism, has produced an economic boom with expanded opportunity for foreign investment• Its GNP averaged nearly 10% since 1970 and is predicted to be around 8 – 10% in the next 10 to 15 years, equaling that of the US by 2015 Roy Philip 11-7
  • The People’s Republic of China (PRC) (2 of 2)• Two major events that occurred in 2000 had a profound effect on China’s economy: – Admission to the World Trade Organization (WTO) – US granting normal trade relations (NTR) to China on a permanent basis (PNTR)• Two steps China must take if its road to economic growth must be smooth: – Improving human rights – Reforming the legal system Roy Philip 11-8
  • The Tale of Two Chinas• Old China – Maddening, bureaucratic, bottomless money pit, heaps demands on MNCs, local officials shaking down major corporations, whipsawed by policy swings, railroaded into bad partnerships, and squeezed for technology• New China (Market-Driven) – Fast emerging, open to products from fast food to shampoo, entry barriers eroding even in tightly guarded sectors Roy Philip 11-9
  • Hong Kong• After 155 years of British rule, Hong Kong reverted to China in 1997, when it became a special administrative region (SAR) of the PRC• Hong Kong is given a high degree of autonomy. It negotiates bilateral agreements (which are then “confirmed” by the PRC0 and makes major economic decisions on its own• Hong Kong is a free society with legally protected rights as the PRC continues to pursue a generally noninterventionist approach to economic policy that stresses the private sector Roy Philip 11-10
  • Taiwan, The ROC• Both Taiwan and China continue to implement WTO provisions between themselves• Taiwan companies have invested over %50 billion in China, and about 250,000 Taiwanese- run factories are responsible for about 12% of China’s exports• Trade helps out both countries: Taiwanese companies face rising costs at home - China offers a nearly limitless pool of cheap labor and engineering talent; China’s SOEs are laying off millions and Taiwan provides plentiful jobs Roy Philip 11-11
  • Japan• Japan’s fast growth in the 1970s and 1980s amazed the world. Then came the early 1990s, and Japan’s economy produced a stunning surprise: it slowed, sputtered, and stalled• Four explanatory themes have emerged: – Faulty economic policies – Inept political apparatus – Disadvantages due to global circumstances – Cultural inhibitions Roy Philip 11-12
  • Japan’s GNI per capita (Current International $)Exhibit 11.1 Roy Philip 11-13
  • Faulty Economic Policies• In the early 1990s, Japan’s stock market collapsed as its Nikkei index level plummeted from over 35,000 to under 13, 000 (it is now around 11,000)• Decades of galloping economic recovery success had bred a prideful national overconfidence. This was followed by willingness to take exaggerated risks which came in the form of borrowing heavily. After a while, lenders became cautious and this caused the inflated structure to collapse• Spending habits curtailed, causing demand to fall; this caused industry to cut back on output and hiring; unemployment soared and confidence fell Roy Philip 11-14
  • The Political Explanation• Two major villains: – Japan’s long entrenched liberal democratic political party – a one party sickness brought on by a 40-year hardening of political arteries. – Hidebound Japanese Bureaucracy – Japanese Bureaucracy controlled its elected politicians Roy Philip 11-15
  • Global Circumstances• Japanese population is shrinking faster than the U.S. In 2005, while American baby boomers were at their peak of productivity, the Japanese were about 10 years ahead to population declines and graying hair• Serious disadvantage in the information age: its complex language (three alphabet system) hindered software innovations• With historically low real prices of oil and the U.S. peak consumption level of SUVs, Japan was late to tap this market Roy Philip 11-16
  • The Cultural Explanation• The lack of a national goal for Japan plagued them after successfully building themselves from the ruins of World War II• The Japanese management culture such as, lifetime employment, job promotion based not on merit but on length of service, reciprocal contractor/subcontractor loyalties, hindered their adjustment to the new economic era• Japan is expected to continue its slow-growth economy; Toyota’s 2010 quality problems may have disrupted its contributions to the economy Roy Philip 11-17
  • India (1 of 4)• India’ s traditional insular policies, import substitution, and aversion to free trade has constrained its growth• Its five -point agenda: – Improving the investment climate – Developing a comprehensive WTO strategy – Reforming agriculture, food processing, an small- scale industry – Eliminating red tape, and – Instituting better corporate governance Roy Philip 11-18
  • India (2 of 4)• The following steps have already been taken: – Privatizing state-owned companies ; reducing stake to about 51% – Recasting the telecom sector’s regulatory authority and demolishing the monopolies enjoyed by SOEs – Signing a trade agreement with the U.S. to lift all quantitative restrictions on imports – Maintaining momentum in the reform of the petroleum sector – Planning the opening of domestic long-distance phone services, housing, and real estate and retail trading sectors to foreign direct investment Roy Philip 11-19
  • India (3 of 4)• India still presents a difficult business environment – Tariffs are well above those of developing world norms – Inadequate protection of intellectual property rights – Anti-business attitudes of India’s federal and state bureaucracies continue to hinder potential investors and plague their routine operations – Delay by policymakers on selling money-losing SOEs, making labor laws flexible, and deregulating banking – Widespread corruption and ingrained bribery Roy Philip 11-20
  • India (4 of 4)• But India presents a lot of opportunities – Massive market (over 1 billion, second in size only to China) – Cheap and qualified labor – Knowledge of English – Educated middle class numbering 250 million (college graduates, scientists, engineers, etc) – Supplier and exporter of expertise in all areas of information technology – Time zone puts India in a competitive position with their European counterparts (they work while Americans sleep) Roy Philip 11-21
  • Four Asian Tigers• Hong Kong, South Korea, Singapore, and Taiwan• First countries in Asia, after Japan, to move from developing countries to newly industrialized countries• They are rapidly industrializing and extending their trading activity to other parts of Asia• They are also becoming more important as economic leaders as the economies of other Asian countries have strengthened and industrialized Roy Philip 11-22
  • Vietnam• Its economy and infrastructure were in shambles after 20 years of socialism and war, but this country of more than 88 million is poised for significant growth• Although the population is educated and highly motivated and the government is committed to economic growth, there still exists poor infrastructure, onerous government restrictions, minimal industrial base, competition for resources with China, and a lack of capital technology Roy Philip 11-23
  • Bottom-of-the-Pyramid Markets (BOPMs)• It consists of the 4 billion people across the globe with incomes of less than $1200.• These 4 billion consumers are, of course, concentrated in the LDCs and LLDCs• They have been relatively ignored by international marketers because of misconceptions about their lack of resources (both money and technology)and the lack of appropriateness of products and services usually developed for more affluent consumers Roy Philip 11-24
  • Dynamic Transformation of BOPM ClustersExhibit 11.2 Roy Philip 11-25
  • Standard of Living in the Eight Most Populous Countries in the Asia Pacific RegionExhibit 11.3 Roy Philip 11-26
  • Infrastructures of the Eight Most Populous Countries in the Asia Pacific RegionExhibit 11.4 Roy Philip 11-27
  • Consumption Patterns in the Eight Most Populous Countries in the Asia Pacific RegionExhibit 11.5 Roy Philip 11-28
  • Asia Pacific Trade Associations• Once a source of inexpensive labor for products shipped to Japan or to third markets, countries in the Asia Pacific region are now seen as viable markets• Three free trade associations in this region: – Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN) – ASEAN+3 (ASEAN members plus ministers from China, Japan, and South Korea) – Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) Roy Philip 11-29
  • Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN)(1 of 2) • Goals of the ASEAN – Operating within a free trade area – The ability to sell in an entire region without differing tariff and nontariff barriers – Distribution can be centralized at the most cost- effective point rather than having distribution points dictated by tariff restrictions – Pricing can be more consistent, which helps reduce smuggling and parallel importing – Marketing can become more regionally and centrally managed Roy Philip 11-30
  • Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN)(2 of 2) • Four major events that caused the vigorous economic growth of ASEAN – The ASEAN governments’ commitment to deregulation, liberalization, and privatization of their economies – The decision to shift their economies from commodity based to manufacturing based – The decision to specialize in manufacturing components in which they have a comparative advantage – Japan’s emergence as a major provider of technology and capital Roy Philip 11-31
  • Asia Pacific Market Group Fundamental Market MetricsExhibit 11.6 Roy Philip 11-32
  • ASEAN+3• ASEAN plus China, Japan, and South Korea was created as a result of the Asian financial crisis (1997-1998) to deal with trade and monetary issues facing Asia• ASEAN+3 consists of foreign and finance ministers of each country, which meets annually after ASEAN meetings• Closer links between Southeast Asia and Northeast Asia are seen as a step toward strengthening Asia’s role in the global economy creating a global three-bloc configuration Roy Philip 11-33
  • Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC)• APEC was formed in 1989 – Provides formal structure for major governments to discuss mutual interests in open trade and economic collaboration – Includes all major economies of the region and the most dynamic, fastest-growing economies in the world• Common goal and commitment to: – Open trade – Increase economic collaboration – Sustain regional growth and development – Strengthen the multilateral trading system – Reduce barriers to investment and trade without detriment to other economies Roy Philip 11-34
  • A Focus on Diversity Within China• Today’s China is divided into mutually competitive, complementary economic “warring states,” just as it was two thousand years ago, before being united in the Qin Dynasty• There are four regional economies from the north to the south of the country, along the Pacific Coast: – Northeast China – Industrial heartland – Beijing-Tianjin information technology corridor – Yangtze River Delta – Pearl River Delta Roy Philip 11-35
  • Chinese Administrative DivisionsExhibit 11.7 Roy Philip 11-36
  • Northeast China• Northeast China was the industrial and technological center of the country in the 1970s and 1980s• The three contiguous provinces in Northeast China: – Liaoning (43.2 million persons) closest economic ties with Japan – Jilin (27.4 million persons) shares border with North Korea and houses 60% of North Koreans – Heilongjiang (38.3 million persons) shares border with Russia; the capital city of Harbin is called the “little Moscow” Roy Philip 11-37
  • Beijing - Tianjin• The 75-mile corridor between Beijing and its coast cousin Tianjin hosts some 5,000 Chinese high-tech companies, among them Lenovo, and more than 1,000 international IT companies• Tianjin is China’s third largest industrial city after Shanghai and Beijing, but it is also the fastest growing one• Primary industries include automotive, electronics, metals, and petrochemicals• Motorola’s huge investments in the Tianjin Economic and Technology Development Zone have yielded perhaps the biggest mobile phone manufacturing operations in the world Roy Philip 11-38
  • Shanghai and the Yangtze River Delta• Shanghai has been undergoing a major industrial renaissance during the past two decades• Although medium value-added industries now account for the vast majority of Shanghai’s industrial employment, but new emphases are being put on developing its automobile assembly industry and other high-tech industries, such as computer, telecommunications equipment, and integrated circuit manufacturing• China’s sustained economic growth and accession to the WTO have aided Shanghai’s position as a regional trade and financial center Roy Philip 11-39
  • Pearl River Delta• The Greater Pearl River area includes three cities of over 5 million inhabitants; five cities with more than 1 million inhabitants; and a number of cities that each contain approximately half a million inhabitants• Shenzhen, bordering Hong Kong, leads the local economy. It’s population is 7 million, reflecting the significance and attractiveness of the city as a manufacturing and transportation in base• Proximity to Hong Kong is one of its advantages as it can use Hong Kong as a trade platform to expand the global market Roy Philip 11-40
  • The Other Billion• There is a part of China that few Westerners ever see and has not yet participated in the global economy. They are called the “Other Billion,” and they usually receive about 10 % of the central government budget which amounts to less than $100 a head for rural roads, water, power supplies, schools, and hospitals• Although the government is not spending much in the area, MNCs such as HP, Volvo, and Yamaha are funding development, with Yum! Brands, Tricon Global, and McDonalds closely following• But, the area is filled with economic divide and a massive lack of infrastructure and technology Roy Philip 11-41
  • Differences in Business Negotiation Styles within Greater China• Northeastern negotiators (Forthright, industrious, competent, honest, and plainspoken, yet averse to risk and lack of creativity)• Beijing area (Bureaucracy, imperialist perspective, lack of creativity)• Shanghai area (Shrewd, outgoing, big talkers and spenders, creative-thinkers, and successful)• Pearl River Delta (Entrepreneurship, spontaneity, honest, and forthright)• Hong Kong (Bilingual, adept with the British culture, and humble)• Taiwan (Conservative, age, rank, and family important, and autocratic decision style) Roy Philip 11-42
  • Marketing Opportunities in Greater China• Across this vast land of opportunity, there are extreme differences in economic wellbeing, cultures, and political structures• The following sectors are great for American exporters: – Automotive components, cleaner coal, construction equipment, education and training services, machine tools, marine industries, healthcare, water and wastewater treatment, rail equipment, renewable energy, and green building• Finally, the influence of national government policies and regulations of marketing will often be minor compared with that of their local counterparts Roy Philip 11-43
  • Summary (1 of 2)• The Asia Pacific region is the most dynamic of the three regions covered in chapters 9-11• China and India both grew at double-digit rates during the last five years, and so far, they have fared better than the United States or Europe coming out of the 2008-2009 global recession• Japan still remains the second most important national market, behind only the United States• New concepts, such as marketing to the bottom of the pyramid, are also most applicable in south Asia Roy Philip 11-44
  • Summary (2 of 2)• The mixed stages of economic development present a variety of opportunities for international marketers – Infrastructure development, new industrial markets, and huge consumer markets• The countries of the Asia Pacific region are cooperating in two major trade associations: ASEAN+3 and APEC• There is a great deal of diversity in markets, industries, and cultures within China Roy Philip 11-45