Training and        DevelopmentManaging Human ResourcesBohlander • Snell                                  14th edition© 20...
ObjectivesAfter studying this chapter, you should be able to: 1. Discuss the systems approach to training and     developm...
Training and Development andOther HRM Functions  Availability of training can aid   Availability of training can aid      ...
The Scope of Training• Training    Effort initiated by an organization to foster learning     among its members.    Tend...
Figure 7–1                 Training Dollars Spent by Employee Type© 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved.Source...
The Systems Approach to Training andDevelopment• Four Phases    Needs assessment    Program design    Implementation   ...
Figure 7–2   Systems Model of Training© 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved.            7–7
Phase 1: Conducting the NeedsAssessment• Organization Analysis    An examination of the environment, strategies, and     ...
Needs Assessment for Training• Competency assessment    Analysis of the sets of skills and knowledge needed for decision-...
Figure 7–3   Needs Assessment for Training© 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved.                7–10
Highlights in HRM 1           Notes on Rapid Needs Assessment           NOTE 1: Look at the problem scope.           NOTE ...
Phase 2: Designing the Training Program     Issues in training design      Issues in training design             Instructi...
Phase 2: Designing the Training Program• Instructional Objectives    Represent the desired outcomes of a training     pro...
Trainee Readiness and Motivation• Strategies for Creating a Motivated Training  Environment:    Use positive reinforcemen...
Figure 7–4   Principles of Learning© 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved.         7–15
Principles of Learning     Focus on learning and transfer     Focus on learning and transfer                Goal setting -...
Principles of Learning (cont’d)     Focus on method and process     Focus on method and process                 Active pra...
Figure 7–5   A Typical Learning Curve© 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved.           7–18
Feedback and Reinforcement• Behavior Modification    The technique that operates on the principle that     behavior that ...
Characteristics of Successful Instructors• Knowledge of the subject• Adaptability• Sincerity• Sense of humor• Interest• Cl...
Phase 3: Implementing the TrainingProgram      Choosing the instructional method      Choosing the instructional method   ...
Training Methods for NonmanagerialEmployees• On-the-Job Training (OJT)• Apprenticeship Training• Cooperative Training,  In...
Training Methods for NonmanagerialEmployees (cont’d)• On-the-job training (OJT)    Method by which employees are given ha...
On-the-Job Training• Overcoming OJT training problems    1. Develop realistic goals and/or measures for each       OJT are...
Highlights in HRM 3         The PROPER Way to Do On-the-Job Training© 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved.Sour...
Training Methods for NonmanagerialEmployees (cont’d)• Apprenticeship training    A system of training in which a worker e...
Training Methods for NonmanagerialEmployees (cont’d)• Internship Programs    Are jointly sponsored by colleges, universit...
Highlights in HRM 5   Making the Most of Internships   How to Increase the Value of Interns   To increase the internal val...
Figure 7–6                 Delivery Method of Training© 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved.Source: Holly Dole...
Training Methods for NonmanagerialEmployees (cont’d)• Programmed Instruction    Referred to as self-directed learning—inv...
Training Methods for NonmanagerialEmployees (cont’d)• E-Learning    Learning that takes place via electronic media such  ...
E-Learning Advantages• Learning is self-paced.• The training comes to the employee.• The training is interactive.• Employe...
E-Learning Advantages (cont’d)• It is easier to change a web site than to retype,  photocopy, and distribute new classroom...
Highlights in HRM 6© 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved.Source: Holly Dolezalek, “2004 Industry Report,” Trai...
Training Methods for NonmanagerialEmployees (cont’d)• Simulation    The simulation method emphasizes realism in     equip...
Training Methods for ManagementDevelopment• On-the-Job Experiences• Seminars and Conferences• Case Studies• Management Gam...
On-the-Job Experiences• Coaching• Understudy Assignment• Job Rotation• Lateral Transfer• Special Projects• Action Learning...
Figure 7–7                The Leadership Grid© 2007 Thomson/South-Source: Robert R. Blake and Anne Adams McCanse, Leadersh...
Case Studies• The use of case studies is most appropriate  when:     1. Analytic, problem-solving, and critical thinking  ...
Figure 7–8            Case StudiesWHEN USING CASE STUDIES . . . • Be clear about learning objectives, and list possible wa...
Role Playing• Successful role play requires that instructors:    Ensure that group members are comfortable with     each ...
Role Playing (cont’d)• Successful role play requires that instructors:    Prepare the observers by giving them specific t...
Behavior Modeling• Behavior Modeling    An approach that demonstrates desired behavior and     gives trainees the chance ...
Phase 4: Evaluating the Training Program      Measuring program effectiveness      Measuring program effectiveness        ...
Figure 7–9   Criteria for Evaluating Training© 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved.                   7–45
Criterion 1: Reactions• Participant Reactions.    The simplest and most common approach to training     evaluation is ass...
Criterion 2: Learning• Checking to see whether they actually learned  anything.    Testing knowledge and skills before be...
Criterion 3: Behavior• Transfer of Training      Effective application of principles learned to what       is required on...
Criterion 4: Results or Return onInvestment (ROI)• Utility of Training Programs.    Calculating the benefits derived from...
Criterion 4: Results or Return onInvestment (ROI)• Return on Investment    Viewing training in terms of the extent to whi...
Highlights in HRM 7© 2007 Thomson/South-Source: Richard J. Wagner and Robert J. Weigand, “Can the Value of Training Be Mea...
Criterion 4: Results (cont’d)• Benchmarking     The process of measuring one’s own services and      practices against th...
Criterion 4: Results (cont’d)• Deming’s Benchmarking Model     1. Plan: conduct a self-audit to identify areas for        ...
Highlights in HRM 8© 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved.   7–54
Special Training and Development Topics      Organization-wide training programs      Organization-wide training programs ...
Special Topics in Training andDevelopment (cont’d)• Orientation     A formal process of familiarizing new employees      ...
Highlights in HRM 9© 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved.   7–57
Special Topics in Training andDevelopment (cont’d)• Basic Skills Training    Basic skills have become essential occupatio...
Special Topics in Training andDevelopment (cont’d)• To implement a successful program in basic  and remedial skills:    1....
Special Topics in Training andDevelopment (cont’d)• Team Training Issues    1. Team building is a difficult and comprehens...
Figure 7–10                 Team Training Skills© 2007 Thomson/South-Source: George Bohlander and Kathy McCarthy, “How to ...
Special Topics in Training andDevelopment (cont’d)• Cross-Training    The process of training employees to do multiple jo...
Highlights in HRM 10Characteristics of Effective Diversity Training ProgramsSteering committee represents all levels of th...
Special Topics in Training andDevelopment (cont’d)• To avoid the pitfalls of substandard diversity  training, managers wil...
Key Terms•   apprenticeship training     •   instructional objectives•   behavior modeling           •   internship progra...
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  • Snell bohlander-human resource management chapter 7

    1. 1. Training and DevelopmentManaging Human ResourcesBohlander • Snell 14th edition© 2007 Thomson/South-Western. PowerPoint Presentation by Charlie CookAll rights reserved. The University of West Alabama
    2. 2. ObjectivesAfter studying this chapter, you should be able to: 1. Discuss the systems approach to training and development. 2. Describe the components of training-needs assessment. 3. Identify the principles of learning and describe how they facilitate training. 4. Identify the types of training methods used for managers and nonmanagers. 5. Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of various evaluation criteria. 6. Describe the special training programs that are currently popular.© 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved. 7–2
    3. 3. Training and Development andOther HRM Functions Availability of training can aid Availability of training can aid Provide an additional Provide an additional in recruitment Recruitment Recruitment source of trainees in recruitment source of trainees Training may permit hiring Training may permit hiring Effective selection may Effective selection may Selection Selection reduce training needs less-qualified applicants less-qualified applicants reduce training needs Training aids in the Training aids in the Performance Performance A basis for assessing A basis for assessing achievement of performance achievement of performance Appraisal training needs and results training needs and results Appraisal Training and development may Compensation Training and development may Compensation A basis for determining A basis for determining lead to higher pay lead to higher pay Management employee’s rate of pay employee’s rate of pay Management Management Training may include aarole for Training may include role for Labor Relations Union cooperation can Union cooperation can the union the union Labor Relations facilitate training efforts facilitate training efforts© 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved. 7–3
    4. 4. The Scope of Training• Training  Effort initiated by an organization to foster learning among its members.  Tends to be narrowly focused and oriented toward short-term performance concerns.• Development  Effort that is oriented more toward broadening an individual’s skills for the future responsibilities.© 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved. 7–4
    5. 5. Figure 7–1 Training Dollars Spent by Employee Type© 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved.Source: Holly Dolezalek, “2004 Industry Report,” Training (October 2004): 28. 7–5
    6. 6. The Systems Approach to Training andDevelopment• Four Phases  Needs assessment  Program design  Implementation  Evaluation© 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved. 7–6
    7. 7. Figure 7–2 Systems Model of Training© 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved. 7–7
    8. 8. Phase 1: Conducting the NeedsAssessment• Organization Analysis  An examination of the environment, strategies, and resources of the organization to determine where training emphasis should be placed.• Task Analysis  The process of determining what the content of a training program should be on the basis of a study of the tasks and duties involved in the job.• Person Analysis  A determination of the specific individuals who need training.© 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved. 7–8
    9. 9. Needs Assessment for Training• Competency assessment  Analysis of the sets of skills and knowledge needed for decision- oriented and knowledge-intensive jobs. • •ORGANIZATIONAL ORGANIZATIONAL …of environment, strategies, and resources …of environment, strategies, and resources ANALYSIS ANALYSIS to determine where to emphasize training to determine where to emphasize training TASK ANALYSIS …of the activities to be performed in order to …of the activities to be performed in order to TASK ANALYSIS determine the KSAs needed. determine the KSAs needed. …of performance, knowledge, and skills in …of performance, knowledge, and skills in • •PERSON ANALYSIS PERSON ANALYSIS order to determine who needs training. order to determine who needs training.© 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved. 7–9
    10. 10. Figure 7–3 Needs Assessment for Training© 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved. 7–10
    11. 11. Highlights in HRM 1 Notes on Rapid Needs Assessment NOTE 1: Look at the problem scope. NOTE 2: Do organizational scanning. NOTE 3: Play “give and take.” NOTE 4: Check “lost and found.” NOTE 5: Use plain talk. NOTE 6: Use the Web. NOTE 7: Use rapid prototyping. NOTE 8: Seek out exemplars.© 2007 Thomson/South-Source: Condensed from Ron Zemke, “How to Do a Needs Assessment When You Think You Don’t Have Time,”Training 35, no. 3 (March 1998): 38–44. Reprinted with permission from the March 1998 issue of Training Magazine.Western. All rights reserved.Copyright 1998. Bill Communications, Inc., Minneapolis, MN. All rights reserved. Not for resale. 7–11
    12. 12. Phase 2: Designing the Training Program Issues in training design Issues in training design Instructional objectives Instructional objectives Trainee readiness and motivation Trainee readiness and motivation Principles of learning Principles of learning Characteristics of successful trainers Characteristics of successful trainers© 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved. 7–12
    13. 13. Phase 2: Designing the Training Program• Instructional Objectives  Represent the desired outcomes of a training program  Performance-centered objectives  Provide a basis for choosing methods and materials and for selecting the means for assessing whether the instruction will be successful.© 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved. 7–13
    14. 14. Trainee Readiness and Motivation• Strategies for Creating a Motivated Training Environment:  Use positive reinforcement.  Eliminate threats and punishment.  Be flexible.  Have participants set personal goals.  Design interesting instruction.  Break down physical and psychological obstacles to learning.© 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved. 7–14
    15. 15. Figure 7–4 Principles of Learning© 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved. 7–15
    16. 16. Principles of Learning Focus on learning and transfer Focus on learning and transfer Goal setting --What’s the value? Goal setting What’s the value? Meaningfulness of presentation Meaningfulness of presentation Behavioral modeling Behavioral modeling Recognition of individual learning Recognition of individual learning differences differences© 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved. 7–16
    17. 17. Principles of Learning (cont’d) Focus on method and process Focus on method and process Active practice and repetition Active practice and repetition Whole versus-part learning Whole versus-part learning Massed-vs-distributed learning Massed-vs-distributed learning Feedback and reinforcement Feedback and reinforcement© 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved. 7–17
    18. 18. Figure 7–5 A Typical Learning Curve© 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved. 7–18
    19. 19. Feedback and Reinforcement• Behavior Modification  The technique that operates on the principle that behavior that is rewarded, or positively reinforced, is repeated more frequently, whereas behavior that is penalized or unrewarded will decrease in frequency.© 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved. 7–19
    20. 20. Characteristics of Successful Instructors• Knowledge of the subject• Adaptability• Sincerity• Sense of humor• Interest• Clear instructions• Individual assistance• Enthusiasm© 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved. 7–20
    21. 21. Phase 3: Implementing the TrainingProgram Choosing the instructional method Choosing the instructional method Nature of training Nature of training Type of trainees Type of trainees Organizational extent of training Organizational extent of training Importance of training outcomes Importance of training outcomes© 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved. 7–21
    22. 22. Training Methods for NonmanagerialEmployees• On-the-Job Training (OJT)• Apprenticeship Training• Cooperative Training, Internships, and Governmental Training• Classroom Instruction• Programmed Instruction• Audiovisual Methods• Computer-based Training and E-Learning• Simulation Method© 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved. 7–22
    23. 23. Training Methods for NonmanagerialEmployees (cont’d)• On-the-job training (OJT)  Method by which employees are given hands-on experience with instructions from their supervisor or other trainer.• Drawbacks  The lack of a well-structured training environment  Poor training skills of managers  The absence of well-defined job performance criteria© 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved. 7–23
    24. 24. On-the-Job Training• Overcoming OJT training problems 1. Develop realistic goals and/or measures for each OJT area. 2. Plan a specific training schedule for each trainee, including set periods for evaluation and feedback. 3. Help managers establish a nonthreatening atmosphere conducive to learning. 4. Conduct periodic evaluations, after training is completed, to prevent regression.© 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved. 7–24
    25. 25. Highlights in HRM 3 The PROPER Way to Do On-the-Job Training© 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved.Source: Scott Snell, Cornell University. 7–25
    26. 26. Training Methods for NonmanagerialEmployees (cont’d)• Apprenticeship training  A system of training in which a worker entering the skilled trades is given thorough instruction and experience, both on and off the job, in the practical and theoretical aspects of the work.• Cooperative Training  A training program that combines practical on-the-job experience with formal educational classes.© 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved. 7–26
    27. 27. Training Methods for NonmanagerialEmployees (cont’d)• Internship Programs  Are jointly sponsored by colleges, universities, and other organizations that offer students the opportunity to gain real-life experience while allowing them to find out how they will perform in work organizations.• Classroom Instruction  Enables the maximum number of trainees to be handled by the minimum number of instructors.  “Blended” learning—lectures and demonstrations are combined with films, DVDs, and videotapes or computer instruction.© 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved. 7–27
    28. 28. Highlights in HRM 5 Making the Most of Internships How to Increase the Value of Interns To increase the internal value of your internship programs, take the following steps: 1. Assign the intern to projects that are accomplishable and provide training as required. 2. Involve the intern in the project-planning process. 3. Appoint a mentor or supervisor to guide the intern. 4. Invite project suggestions from other staff members. 5. Ask interns to keep a journal of their work activities. 6. Rotate interns throughout the organization. 7. Explain the rationale behind work assignments. 8. Hold interns accountable for projects and deadlines. 9. Treat interns as part of the organizational staff and invite them to staff meetings. 10. Establish a process for considering interns for permanent hire.© 2007 Thomson/South-Source: Condensed from John Byrd and Rob Poole, “Highly Motivated Employees at No Cost? It’s Not an Impossible Dream,” Nonprofit World 19,Western. All rights reserved. 7–28no. 6 (November/December 2001): 312–32. Reprinted by permission of Nonprofit World, http://www.snpo.org, telephone: 734-451-3582
    29. 29. Figure 7–6 Delivery Method of Training© 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved.Source: Holly Dolezalek, “2004 Industry Report,” Training (October 2004): 32. 7–29
    30. 30. Training Methods for NonmanagerialEmployees (cont’d)• Programmed Instruction  Referred to as self-directed learning—involves the use of books, manuals, or computers to break down subject matter content into highly organized, logical sequences that demand continuous response on the part of the trainee.• Audiovisual Methods  Technologies, such as CDs and DVDs, are used to teach skills and procedures by illustrating the steps in a procedure or interpersonal relations.© 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved. 7–30
    31. 31. Training Methods for NonmanagerialEmployees (cont’d)• E-Learning  Learning that takes place via electronic media such web and computer-based training (CBT)  Allows the firm to bring the training to employees  Allows employees to customize their own learning in their own time and space  Provides continuously updated training materials.© 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved. 7–31
    32. 32. E-Learning Advantages• Learning is self-paced.• The training comes to the employee.• The training is interactive.• Employees do not have to wait for a scheduled training session.• The training can focus on specific needs as revealed by built-in tests.• Trainees can be referred to online help or written material.© 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved. 7–32
    33. 33. E-Learning Advantages (cont’d)• It is easier to change a web site than to retype, photocopy, and distribute new classroom- training materials.• Record keeping is facilitated.• The training can be cost-effective if used for both large and small numbers of employees.© 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved. 7–33
    34. 34. Highlights in HRM 6© 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved.Source: Holly Dolezalek, “2004 Industry Report,” Training (October 2004): 34. 7–34
    35. 35. Training Methods for NonmanagerialEmployees (cont’d)• Simulation  The simulation method emphasizes realism in equipment and its operation at minimum cost and maximum safety.  Used when it is either impractical or unwise to train employees on the actual equipment used on the job.© 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved. 7–35
    36. 36. Training Methods for ManagementDevelopment• On-the-Job Experiences• Seminars and Conferences• Case Studies• Management Games• Role Playing• Behavior Modeling© 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved. 7–36
    37. 37. On-the-Job Experiences• Coaching• Understudy Assignment• Job Rotation• Lateral Transfer• Special Projects• Action Learning• Staff Meetings• Planned Career Progressions© 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved. 7–37
    38. 38. Figure 7–7 The Leadership Grid© 2007 Thomson/South-Source: Robert R. Blake and Anne Adams McCanse, Leadership Dilemmas—Grid Solutions (Houston: Gulf Publishing, 1991), 29. (First publishedWestern. All rights reserved. 7–38as The Managerial Grid Figure by Robert R. Blake and Jane S. Mouton.) Courtesy of Grid International, Austin, TX. All rights reserved.
    39. 39. Case Studies• The use of case studies is most appropriate when: 1. Analytic, problem-solving, and critical thinking skills are most important. 2. The KSAs are complex and participants need time to master them. 3. Active participation is desired. 4. The process of learning (questioning, interpreting, and so on) is as important as the content. 5. Team problem solving and interaction are possible.© 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved. 7–39
    40. 40. Figure 7–8 Case StudiesWHEN USING CASE STUDIES . . . • Be clear about learning objectives, and list possible ways to achieve the objectives. • Decide which objectives would be best served by the case method. • Identify available cases that might work, or consider writing your own. • Set up the activity—including the case material, the room, and the schedule. • Follow the principles of effective group dynamics. • Provide a chance for all learners to take part and try to keep the groups small. • Stop for process checks and be ready to intervene if group dynamics get out of hand. • Allow for different learning styles. • Clarify the trainer’s role. • Bridge the gap between theory and practice.© 2007 from Albert A. Einsiedel, Jr., “Case Studies: IndispensableSource: Adapted Thomson/South-Western. Training and Development (August 1995): 50–53.Tools for Trainers,” All rights reserved. 7–40
    41. 41. Role Playing• Successful role play requires that instructors:  Ensure that group members are comfortable with each other.  Select and prepare the role players by introducing a specific situation.  To help participants prepare, ask them to describe potential characters.  Realize that volunteers make better role players.© 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved. 7–41
    42. 42. Role Playing (cont’d)• Successful role play requires that instructors:  Prepare the observers by giving them specific tasks (such as evaluation or feedback).  Guide the role-play enactment through its bumps (because it is not scripted).  Keep it short.  Discuss the enactment and prepare bulleted points of what was learned.© 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved. 7–42
    43. 43. Behavior Modeling• Behavior Modeling  An approach that demonstrates desired behavior and gives trainees the chance to practice and role-play those behaviors and receive feedback.  Involves four basic components:  Learning points  Model  Practice and role play  Feedback and reinforcement© 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved. 7–43
    44. 44. Phase 4: Evaluating the Training Program Measuring program effectiveness Measuring program effectiveness Criterion 1: Trainee reactions Criterion 1: Trainee reactions Criterion 2: Extent of learning Criterion 2: Extent of learning Criterion 3: Learning transfer to job Criterion 3: Learning transfer to job Criterion 4: Results assessment Criterion 4: Results assessment© 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved. 7–44
    45. 45. Figure 7–9 Criteria for Evaluating Training© 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved. 7–45
    46. 46. Criterion 1: Reactions• Participant Reactions.  The simplest and most common approach to training evaluation is assessing trainees.  Potential questions might include the following: What were your learning goals for this program? Did you achieve them? Did you like this program? Would you recommend it to others who have similar learning goals? What suggestions do you have for improving the program? Should the organization continue to offer it?© 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved. 7–46
    47. 47. Criterion 2: Learning• Checking to see whether they actually learned anything.  Testing knowledge and skills before beginning a training program gives a baseline standard on trainees that can be measured again after training to determine improvement.  However, in addition to testing trainees, test employees who did not attend the training to estimate the differential effect of the training.© 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved. 7–47
    48. 48. Criterion 3: Behavior• Transfer of Training  Effective application of principles learned to what is required on the job.• Maximizing the Transfer of Training 1. Feature identical elements 2. Focus on general principles 3. Establish a climate for transfer. 4. Give employees transfer strategies© 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved. 7–48
    49. 49. Criterion 4: Results or Return onInvestment (ROI)• Utility of Training Programs.  Calculating the benefits derived from training: How much did quality improve because of the training program? How much has it contributed to profits? What reduction in turnover and wasted materials did the company get after training? How much has productivity increased and by how much have costs been reduced?© 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved. 7–49
    50. 50. Criterion 4: Results or Return onInvestment (ROI)• Return on Investment  Viewing training in terms of the extent to which it provides knowledge and skills that create a competitive advantage and a culture that is ready for continuous change.  ROI = Results/Training Costs  If the ROI ratio is >1, the benefits of the training exceed the cost of the program  If the ROI ratio is <1, the costs of the training exceed the benefits.© 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved. 7–50
    51. 51. Highlights in HRM 7© 2007 Thomson/South-Source: Richard J. Wagner and Robert J. Weigand, “Can the Value of Training Be Measured? A Simplified Approach toWestern. All rights reserved. 7–51Evaluating Training,” The Health Care Manager 23, no.1 (January–March 2004): 71–78.
    52. 52. Criterion 4: Results (cont’d)• Benchmarking  The process of measuring one’s own services and practices against the recognized leaders in order to identify areas for improvement. 1. Training activity: How much training is occurring? 2. Training results: Do training and development achieve their goals? 3. Training efficiency: Are resources utilized in the pursuit of this mission?© 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved. 7–52
    53. 53. Criterion 4: Results (cont’d)• Deming’s Benchmarking Model 1. Plan: conduct a self-audit to identify areas for benchmarking. 2. Do: collect data about activities. 3. Check: Analyze data. 4. Act: Establish goals, implement changes, monitor progress, and redefine benchmarks.© 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved. 7–53
    54. 54. Highlights in HRM 8© 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved. 7–54
    55. 55. Special Training and Development Topics Organization-wide training programs Organization-wide training programs Orientation training Orientation training Basic skills training Basic skills training Team and cross-training Team and cross-training Diversity training Diversity training© 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved. 7–55
    56. 56. Special Topics in Training andDevelopment (cont’d)• Orientation  A formal process of familiarizing new employees with the organization, their jobs, and their work units.  Benefits: 1. Lower turnover 2. Increased productivity 3. Improved employee morale 4. Lower recruiting and training costs 5. Facilitation of learning 6. Reduction of the new employee’s anxiety© 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved. 7–56
    57. 57. Highlights in HRM 9© 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved. 7–57
    58. 58. Special Topics in Training andDevelopment (cont’d)• Basic Skills Training  Basic skills have become essential occupational qualifications, having profound implications for product quality, customer service, internal efficiency, and workplace and environmental safety.• Typical basic skills:  Reading, writing, computing, speaking, listening, problem solving, managing oneself, knowing how to learn, working as part of a team, leading others.© 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved. 7–58
    59. 59. Special Topics in Training andDevelopment (cont’d)• To implement a successful program in basic and remedial skills: 1. Explain to employees why and how the training will help them in their jobs. 2. Relate the training to the employees’ goals. 3. Respect and consider participant experiences, and use these as a resource. 4. Use a task-centered or problem-centered approach so that participants “learn by doing.” 5. Give feedback on progress toward meeting learning© 2007 objectives. Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved. 7–59
    60. 60. Special Topics in Training andDevelopment (cont’d)• Team Training Issues 1. Team building is a difficult and comprehensive process. 2. Team development is not always a linear sequence of “forming, storming, norming, and performing.” 3. Additional training is required to assimilate new members. 4. Behavioral and process skills need to be acquired through participative exercises.© 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved. 7–60
    61. 61. Figure 7–10 Team Training Skills© 2007 Thomson/South-Source: George Bohlander and Kathy McCarthy, “How to Get the MostWestern. All rights reserved.from Team Training,” National Productivity Review (Autumn 1996): 25–35. 7–61
    62. 62. Special Topics in Training andDevelopment (cont’d)• Cross-Training  The process of training employees to do multiple jobs within an organization  Gives firms flexible capacity.  Cuts turnover  Increase productivity  Pares down labor costs  Lays the foundation for careers rather than dead-end jobs.© 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved. 7–62
    63. 63. Highlights in HRM 10Characteristics of Effective Diversity Training ProgramsSteering committee represents all levels of the organization and a mix ofraces, ages, and gender.• Workshops include the following: • Top executives demonstrate their commitment by early participation. • Each participant is given a workbook with support materials. • Participants are made aware of key topics and company policies. • Participants are asked to describe specific steps they would take to support diversity. • Participants create a list of diversity ground rules or behavioral norms. • Managers discuss and revise rules for their areas. • Participants link diversity training to other HR initiatives such as recruitment and selection, career management, and compensation.• Managers are accountable for achieving goals of diversity training.© 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved. 7–63
    64. 64. Special Topics in Training andDevelopment (cont’d)• To avoid the pitfalls of substandard diversity training, managers will want to do the following:  Forge a strategic link.  Check out consultant qualifications.  Don’t settle for “off the shelf” programs.  Choose training methods carefully.  Document individual and organizational benefits.© 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved. 7–64
    65. 65. Key Terms• apprenticeship training • instructional objectives• behavior modeling • internship programs• behavior modification • on-the-job training (OJT)• benchmarking • organization analysis• competency assessment • orientation• cooperative training • person analysis• cross-training • task analysis• e-learning • transfer of training© 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved. 7–65
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