Robbins organization behaviour 13-chapter 14


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Robbins organization behaviour 13-chapter 14

  1. 1. Robbins & JudgeOrganizational Behavior13th Edition Power and Politics Power and Politics Bob Stretch Southwestern College© 2009 Prentice-Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 14-1
  2. 2. Chapter Learning Objectives Chapter Learning Objectives After studying this chapter, you should be able to: – Define power, and contrast leadership and power. – Contrast the five bases of power. – Identify nine power or influence tactics and their contingencies. – Show the connection between sexual harassment and the abuse of power. – Distinguish between legitimate and illegitimate political behavior. – Identify the causes and consequences of political behavior. – Apply impression management techniques. – Determine whether a political action is ethical. – Show the influence of culture on the uses and perceptions of politics.© 2009 Prentice-Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 14-2
  3. 3. A Definition of Power A Definition of Power Power – The capacity that A has to influence the behavior of B so that B acts in accordance with A’s wishes – Exists as a potential or fully actualized influence over a dependent relationship Dependency – B’s relationship to A when A possesses something that B requires – The greater Bs dependence, the more power A has© 2009 Prentice-Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 14-3
  4. 4. Contrasting Leadership and Power Contrasting Leadership and Power Leadership Power – Focuses on goal – Used as a means for achievement achieving goals – Requires goal compatibility – Requires follower with followers dependency – Focuses influence – Used to gain lateral and downward upward influence Research Focus – Leadership styles and  Research Focus relationships with – Power tactics for gaining followers compliance © 2009 Prentice-Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 14-4
  5. 5. Bases of Power: Formal Power Bases of Power: Formal Power Formal Power – Established by an individual’s position in an organization – Three bases: • Coercive Power » A power base dependent on fear of negative results • Reward Power » Compliance achieved based on the ability to distribute rewards that others view as valuable • Legitimate Power » The formal authority to control and use resources based on a person’s position in the formal hierarchy© 2009 Prentice-Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 14-5
  6. 6. Bases of Power: Personal Power Bases of Power: Personal Power Power that comes from an individual’s unique characteristics – these are the most effective – Expert Power • Influence based on special skills or knowledge – Referent Power • Influence based on possession by an individual of desirable resources or personal traits E X H I B I T 14-1 E X H I B I T 14-1© 2009 Prentice-Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 14-6
  7. 7. Dependency: The Key to Power Dependency: The Key to Power The General Dependency Postulate – The greater B’s dependency on A, the greater the power A has over B – Possession/control of scarce organizational resources that others need makes a manager powerful – Access to optional resources (e.g., multiple suppliers) reduces the resource holder’s power Dependency increases when resources are: – Important – Scarce – Nonsubstitutable© 2009 Prentice-Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 14-7
  8. 8. Power Tactics Power Tactics Power Tactics – Ways in which individuals translate power bases into specific actions – Nine influence tactics: • Legitimacy • Rational persuasion* • Inspirational appeals* • Consultation* • Exchange • Personal appeals • Ingratiation • Pressure * Most effective • Coalitions (Pressure is the least effective)© 2009 Prentice-Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 14-8
  9. 9. Preferred Power Tactics by Influence Direction Preferred Power Tactics by Influence DirectionUpward Influence Downward Influence Lateral InfluenceRational persuasion Rational persuasion Rational persuasion Inspirational appeals Consultation Pressure Ingratiation Consultation Exchange Ingratiation Legitimacy Exchange Personal appeals Legitimacy Coalitions E X H I B I T 14-2 E X H I B I T 14-2© 2009 Prentice-Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 14-9
  10. 10. Factors Influencing Power Tactics Factors Influencing Power Tactics Choice and effectiveness of influence tactics are moderated by: – Sequencing of tactics • Softer to harder tactics work best – Political skill of the user – The culture of the organization • Culture affects user’s choice of tactic© 2009 Prentice-Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 14-10
  11. 11. Sexual Harassment: A Case of Unequal Power Sexual Harassment: A Case of Unequal Power Sexual Harassment: – Any unwanted activity of a sexual nature that affects an individual’s employment and creates a hostile work environment • Overt actions, like unwanted touching, are relatively easy to spot • Subtle actions, like jokes or looks, can cross over the line into harassment Sexual harassment isn’t about sex: it is about abusing an unequal power relationship – Harassment can damage the well-being of the individual, work group, and organization© 2009 Prentice-Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 14-11
  12. 12. Managerial Actions to Prevent Sexual Harassment Managerial Actions to Prevent Sexual Harassment Make sure a policy against it is in place. Ensure that employees will not encounter retaliation if they file a complaint. Investigate every complaint and include the human resource and legal departments. Make sure offenders are disciplined or terminated. Set up in-house seminars and training.© 2009 Prentice-Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 14-12
  13. 13. Politics: Power in Action Politics: Power in Action Political Behavior – Activities that are not required as part of one’s formal role in the organization, but that influence, or attempt to influence, the distribution of advantages or disadvantages within the organization – Legitimate Political Behavior • Normal everyday politics - complaining, bypassing, obstructing – Illegitimate Political Behavior • Extreme political behavior that violates the implied rules of the game: sabotage, whistle-blowing, and symbolic protest© 2009 Prentice-Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 14-13
  14. 14. The Reality of Politics The Reality of Politics Politics is a natural result of resource scarcity – Limited resources lead to competition and political behaviors Judgments on quality differ markedly based on the observer’s perception – “Blaming others” or “fixing responsibility” – “Covering your rear” or “documenting decisions” – “Perfectionist” or “attentive to detail” Most decisions are made under ambiguous conditions – Lack of an objective standard encourages political maneuvering of subjective reality E X H I B I T 14-3 E X H I B I T 14-3© 2009 Prentice-Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 14-14
  15. 15. Causes and Consequences of Political Behavior Causes and Consequences of Political Behavior Factors that Influence Political Behavior E X H I B I T 14-4 E X H I B I T 14-4© 2009 Prentice-Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 14-15
  16. 16. Employee Responses to Organizational Politics Employee Responses to Organizational Politics Most employees have low to modest willingness to play politics and have the following reactions to politics: E X H I B I T 14-5 E X H I B I T 14-5© 2009 Prentice-Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 14-16
  17. 17. Defensive Behaviors Defensive Behaviors Employees who perceive politics as a threat have defensive reactions – May be helpful in the short run, dangerous in the long run Types of defensive behaviors – Avoiding Action • Overconforming, buck passing, playing dumb, stalling – Avoiding Blame • Bluffing, playing safe, justifying, scapegoating – Avoiding Change • Prevention, self-protection E X H I B I T 14-6 E X H I B I T 14-6© 2009 Prentice-Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 14-17
  18. 18. Impression Management (IM) Impression Management (IM) The process by which individuals attempt to control the impression others form of them IM Techniques – Conformity – Excuses – Apologies – Self-Promotion – Flattery – Favors – AssociationSource: Based on B. R. Schlenker, Impression Management (Monterey, CA: Brooks/Cole, 1980); W. L. Gardner and M. J. Martinko, “ImpressionManagement in Organizations,” Journal of Management, June 1988, p. 332; and R. B. Cialdini, “Indirect Tactics of Image Management Beyond Basking,”in R. A. Giacalone and P. Rosenfeld (eds.), Impression Management in the Organization (Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1989), pp. 45–71. E X H I B I T 14-7 E X H I B I T 14-7© 2009 Prentice-Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 14-18
  19. 19. IM Effectiveness IM Effectiveness  Job Interview Success – IM does work and most people use it – Self-promotion techniques are important – Ingratiation is of secondary importance  Performance Evaluations – Ingratiation is positively related to ratings – Self-promotion tends to backfire© 2009 Prentice-Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 14-19
  20. 20. The Ethics of Behaving Politically The Ethics of Behaving Politically It is difficulty to tell ethical from unethical politicking Three questions help: 1. What is the utility of engaging in the behavior? 2. Does the utility balance out any harm done by the action? 3. Does the action conform to standards of equity and justice? Answers can be skewed toward either viewpoint© 2009 Prentice-Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 14-20
  21. 21. Global Implications Global Implications Politics Perceptions – Negative consequences to the perception of politics seem to be fairly widespread Preference for Power Tactics – The choice of effective tactics is heavily dependent on the culture of the country in which they are to be used Effectiveness of Power Tactics – Still open to debate; too little research has been done© 2009 Prentice-Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 14-21
  22. 22. Summary and Managerial Implications Summary and Managerial Implications Increase your power by having others depend on you more. Expert and referent power are far more effective than is coercion. – Greater employee motivation, performance, commitment, and satisfaction – Personal power basis, not organizational Effective managers accept the political nature of organizations. Political astuteness and IM can result in higher evaluations, salary increases, and promotions.© 2009 Prentice-Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 14-22
  23. 23. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by anymeans, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise,without the prior written permission of the publisher. Printed in the United States of America. Copyright ©2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
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