Chapter 1Aspect of management specially focusing on economics ,accounting, finance and quantities techniquesTechnical Aspects of Management =Human behaviour and people skillsHuman behaviour plays the rule the management effectivenessManager=make decision allocate resources ,direct activity of other to attain goalsAdministrators=The people who oversee the activities of others and who are responsible for attaining goal inorganizationManagement function 1. Planning=defining an organization goal,strategy to achieve the goals. Developing a comprehensive plan 2. Organizing=Determining what task to be done, tasks are be grouped 3. Leading=Manager motivate and directing employee,select the most effective 4. Controlling=To ensure the things are going as they should,Monitoringperformance, correctingManagerial role 1. Interpersonal= symbolic Head- figurehead perform number of routine duties of legal or social Leader motivate and direct employee –Liaison maintain networks 2. Informational=Varity of information-Monitor internal and external information-Disseminator received from outsiders-spokesperson transmit information to outsiders. 3. Decisional =Entrepreneur search opportunities, Disturbancehandler correct action-resourceallocator make/approve the significant organization decision-Negotiator representing the organization Management Skills=Robert katz 1. Technical Skills=The ability to apply specialized knowledge or expertise 2. Human Skills=The ability to work with, understand, and motivate other people, both individually and in groups 3. Conceptual Skills=The mental ability to analyze and diagnose complex situationsOrganizational BehaviorA field of study that investigates the impact that individuals, groups, and structure have on behavior withinorganizations, for the purpose of applying such knowledge toward improving an organization’s effectiveness.Intuition=Gut feelings ,Individualobservation,Commonsense not by researchSystematic Study=Looks at relationships,Scientificevidence,Predictsbehaviorsdony by researchWorkforce Diversity=organizations are becoming more heterogeneous demographically in terms of gender, race,ethnicity, sexual orientation and inclusion of other diverse groups.Embracing Diversity is accepting different diverse groups in organization. Dependent Variables
1. Productivity=Transforming inputs to outputs at lowest cost. Includes the concepts of effectiveness (achievement of goals) and efficiency (meeting goals at a low cost). 2. Absenteeism=Failure to report to work – a huge cost to employers.sick not come to work. 3. Turnover=Voluntary and involuntary permanent withdrawal from an organization. 4. DeviantWorkplaceBehavior=Voluntary behavior that violates significant organizational norms and thereby threatens the well-being of the organization and/or any of its members.Chapter 2IntellectualAbilities=abilities to perform by mental (GMA –General Mental Ability) Numberofaptitude=speedy and accurate sales ,tax, Accountant Verbalcomprehension=Understand what is read,heard,spoke ability-plant manger (hire/fire) Perceptualspeed=identify similarity and differences quickly and acuratly-Fire investigator,Insurance Inductivereasoning=identify logical sequences,problem,solve the problem-market research Deductivereasoning =uses the logic acsses the implantation of an argument-supervisor Spatialvisualization=Imagine how the object look like-Interior decorator Memory=retain and recall past experience –salesperson-remembering name of the customerPhysicalAbilities=capacity to do tasks demanding stamina, dexterity, strength, and similar characteristics Strength Factor Dynamic Strength=extert muscular force repatedly over time Trunk Strength=exert muscular strength using trunk Static strength=exert force against external objects Explosive Strength=expand maximum energy FlexibilityFactors Extent flexibility=move the trunk and back muscles as far as possible Dynamic Flexibility=make rapid ,repeated flexing movement OtherFactors Body Coordination=coordinate and simultaneous actions Balance=maintain equilibrium despite forces pulling off balance Stamina=contain maximum effort requiring Chapter 3
Attitude =evaluate statement or judgments concerning objects,people or events 3 main components of attitude Cognitive component=opinion,belief “my pay is low” Affective component=emotional,feeling,anger,critical “I am angry over how little I’m paid” Behavioural component =Considerable ,an intention behave in certain way toward someone or something”I am going to look for another job”CognitiveDissonance: Any incompatibility between two or more attitudes or between behavior and attitudes,Individuals seek to reduce this uncomfortable gap, or dissonance,attitude and behavior, the stronger the relationship: Specific attitudes predict specific behavior General attitudes predict general behaviourMajorofjobAttitude Job Satisfaction A positive feeling about the job resulting from an evaluation of its characteristics Job Involvement Degree of psychological identification with the job where perceived performance is important to self-worth.employee care about what he does.Identify your specific job Psychological Empowerment Belief in the degree of influence over the job, competence, job meaningfulness, and autonomy Low in absence need high in job involvement and psychological empowerment OrganizationalCommitment -Identifying with a particular organization and its goals, while wishing to maintain membership in the organization. Three dimensions: Affective commitment – emotional,belief,value attachment to organization ContinuanceCommitment – economic value of staying”she is paid well” Normativecommitment- moral or ethical obligations (he leaves her colleague has more work) -Has some relation to performance, especially for new employees.
-Less important now than in past – now perhaps more of occupational commitment, loyalty to profession rather than a given employer. Perceived Organizational Support (POS) -Degree to which employees believe the organization values their contribution and cares about their well-being. -Higher when rewards are fair, employees are involved in decision-making, and supervisors are seen as supportive. -High POS is related to higher OCBs and performance. Employee Engagement -The degree of involvement with, satisfaction with, and enthusiasm for the job. -Engaged employees are passionate about their work and company.Causeofjobsatisfaction=Pay influence and personality influencesChapter 5Personality=The dynamic organization within the individual of those psychophysical systems that determine hisunique adjustments to his environment. an individual reacts and interacts with others- Gordon AllportHeredity:Factors determined at conception: physical stature, facialattractiveness, gender, temperament, musclecomposition and reflexes, energy level, and bio-rhythms. “Heredity Approach” genes are the source of personalityPersonality traits=enduring characteristic that describing individual behaviour-aggressive,submassive,lazy,ambitionTwo dominant frameworks used to describe personality: Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI®) Big Five ModelMyers Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) Big Five Model -Extraverted=>outgoing,sociableVS Introverted=>shy,quit -Sensing=>practical,routineVS intuitive =>unconscious process,big picture -Thinking=>reason,logicVS feeling=>value ,emotion -judging=>ordered,structuredVS Perceiving=>flexible and spontaneousVisionaries (INTJ) – original, stubborn, and driven.Organizers (ESTJ) – realistic, logical, analytical, and businesslike.Conceptualizer (ENTP) – entrepreneurial, innovative, individualistic, and resourcefulThe big five personality
Extroversion=Sociable, gregarious, and assertiveAgreeableness=Good-natured, cooperative, and trustingConscientiousness=Responsible, dependable, persistent, and organizedEmotionalStability=Calm, self-confident, secure under stress (positive), versus nervous, depressed, and insecureunder stress (negative)OpennesstoExperience=Curious, imaginative, artistic, and sensitiveCoreSelf-Evaluation=The degree to which people like or dislike themselves-Positive self-evaluation leads to higherjob performanceMachiavellianism=A pragmatic, emotionally distant power-player who believes that ends justify the means.HighMachsaremanipulative, win more often, and persuade more than they are persuaded. Flourish when: -Have direct interaction=>Work with minimal rules and regulations=>Emotions distract othersNarcissism=An arrogant, entitled, self-important ,person who needs excessive admiration.Self-Monitoring=The ability to adjust behavior to meet external, situational factors.High monitors conform moreand are more likely to become leaders.RiskTaking=The willingness to take chances.May be best to align propensities with job requirements.Risk takersmake faster decisions with less informationValue=Basic convictions on how to conduct yourself or how to live your life that is personally or socially preferable– “How To” live life properly-Provide understanding of the attitudes, motivation, and behaviors-Influence our perception of the world around us-Represent interpretations of “right” and “wrong”I-mply that some behaviors or outcomes are preferred over othersContent Attribute – that the mode of conduct or end-state is importantIntensity Attribute – just how important that content is.Value System=A person’s values rank ordered by intensity-Tends to be relatively constant and consistentIndividualism=The degree to which people prefer to act as individuals rather than a member of groupsCollectivism=A tight social framework in which people expect others in groups of which they are a part to look afterthem and protect themMasculinity=The extent to which the society values work roles of achievement, power, and control, and whereassertiveness and materialism are also valuedFemininity=The extent to which there is little differentiation between roles for men and womenPersonality
Screen for the Big Five trait of conscientiousness Take into account the situational factors as well MBTI® can help with training and developmentValues Often explain attitudes, behaviors, and perceptions Higher performance and satisfaction achieved when the individual’s values match those of the organization.Chapter5Perception=A process by which individuals organize and interpret their sensory impressions in order to givemeaning to their environment.Factors that Influence Perception=Perceiver ,Situation ,TargetAttributionTheory= Our perception and judgment of others is significantly influenced by our assumptions of theother person’s internal state] – Distinctiveness=Shows different behaviors in different situations. – Consensus=Response is the same as others to same situation.everybody late so I am – Consistency=Responds in the same way over time.every time come lateSelective Perception=People selectively interpret what they see on the basis of their interests, background,experience, and attitudes-first sight see perceptionHalo Effect=Drawing a general impression about an individual on the basis of a single characteristic.IllusionContrast Effects=Evaluation of a person’s characteristics that are affected by comparisons with other peoplerecently encountered who rank higher or lower on the same characteristicsStereotyping= Judging someone on the basis of one’s perception of the group to which that person belongs – aprevalent and often useful, if not always accurate, generalizationRational Decision-Making=The “perfect world” model: assumes complete information, all options known, andmaximum payoff.Six step decision-making process-base on the dataBounded Reality=The “real world” model: seeks satisfactory and sufficient solutions from limited data andalternatives-Intuition=A non-conscious process created from distilled experience that results in quick decisionsRelies on holistic associations=Affectively charged – engaging the emotion-number
Errors in Decision-MakingOverconfidence Bias=Believing too much in our own ability to make good decisions – especially when outside ofown expertiseAnchoring Bias=Using early, first received information as the basis for making subsequent judgmentsConfirmation Bias=Selecting and using only facts that support our decision.Availability Bias=Emphasizing information that is most readily at handRecent-Vivid,aviable nowEscalation of Commitment=Increasing commitment to a decision in spite of evidence that it is wrong – especially ifresponsible for the decision!..stay on decision ..means you saying that you are right.Randomness Error=Creating meaning out of random events – superstitions-believe that can predict the outcome ofrandome event.Winner’s Curse=Highest bidder pays too much due to value overestimation’Likelihood increases with the numberof people in auctionHindsight Bias=After an outcome is already known, believing it could have been accurately predicted beforehandAn outcome comes out good .pretty good.3 Ethical Decision CriteriaUtilitarianism Decisions made based solely on the outcome,Seeking the greatest good for the greatest number,Dominant method for businesspeople Pro: Promotes efficiency and productivity Con: Can ignore individual rights, especially minoritiesRights Decisions consistent with fundamental liberties and privileges-Respecting and protecting basic rights of individuals such as whistle-blowers Pro: Protects individuals from harm; preserves rights Con: Creates an overly legalistic work environmentJustice Imposing and enforcing rules fairly and impartially-Equitable distribution of benefits and costs Pro: Protects the interests of weaker members Con: Encourages a sense of entitlement
Creativity=The ability to produce novel and useful ideasWho has the greatest creative potential? Those who score high in Openness to Experience People who are intelligent, independent, self-confident, risk-taking, have an internal locus-of-control, tolerant of ambiguity, low need for structure, and who persevere in the face of frustrationThe three component of creativityExpertise =is the foundation creativity. Knowledge &experienceCreative-Thinking Skills =are the personality characteristics associated with creativityIntrinsic Task Motivation= is the desire to do the job because of its characteristics,exciting ,satisfying ,motiovationalChapter 6Motivation=The processes that account for an individual’s intensity, direction, and persistence of effort towardattaining a goal – specifically, an organizational goalThree key elements: Intensity – how hard a person tries Direction – effort that is channeled toward, and consistent with, organizational goals Persistence – how long a person can maintain effortHierarchy of needs theory= consist of five elements of phsycological,safety,social,esteem, self-acturazationERG theory 3 concept Existence (Maslow: physiological and safety) Relatedness (Maslow: social and status) Growth (Maslow: esteem and self-actualization)Herzberg says that hygiene factors must be met to remove dissatisfaction. If motivators are given, thensatisfaction can occur. Herzberg is limited by his procedure =Participants had self-serving bias Reliability of raters questioned =Bias or errors of observation No overall measure of satisfaction was used Herzberg assumed, but didn’t research, a strong relationship between satisfaction and productivityhygiene factors=company policy and administration ,adequate in job,placate workers ppl will not satisfied.
Three needs theory(McClellandsthory)Need for Achievement (nAch)=The drive to excel, to achieve in relation to a set of standards, to strive to succeedNeed for Power (nPow)=The need to make others behave in a way that they would not have behaved otherwiseNeed for Affiliation (nAff)=The desire for friendly and close interpersonal relationshipsCognitive Evaluation Theory=Providing an extrinsic reward for behavior that had been previously only intrinsicallyrewarding tends to decrease the overall level of motivationBasic Premise: That specific and difficult goals, with self-generated feedback, lead to higher performanceGoals mustbe:Tangible-Verifiable-MeasurableSelf-efficiency= An individual’s belief that he or she is capable of performing a task. Higher efficacy is related to: Greater confidence Greater persistence in the face of difficulties Better response to negative feedback (work harder) Enactive mastery – Most important source of efficacy – Gaining relevant experience with task or job – “Practice makes perfect” Vicarious modeling – Increasing confidence by watching others perform the task – Most effective when observer sees the model to be similar to him- or herself Verbal persuasion – Motivation through verbal conviction – Pygmalion and Galatea effects - self-fulfilling prophecies Arousal – Getting “psyched up” – emotionally aroused – to complete task – Can hurt performance if emotion is not a component of the taskReinforcement theory=A theory says that behaviour is a function of its consequences ..pay can motivate pplEquity theory= Employees compare their ratios of outcomes-to-inputs of relevant others.salary comparisonEmployee compare their job inputs and out comes with those of others and then respond to eliminate inequities
Self-Inside=The person’s experience in a different job in the same organizationSelf-Outside=The person’s experience in a different job in a different organizationOther-Inside=Another individual or group within the organizationOther-Outside=Another individual or group outside of the organizationVroom’s Expectancy Theory=The strength of a tendency to act in a certain way depends on the strength of anexpectation that the act will be followed by a given outcome and on the attractiveness of the outcome to theindividual. Need Theories (Maslow, Alderfer, McClelland, Herzberg) – Well known, but not very good predictors of behavior Goal-Setting Theory – While limited in scope, good predictor Reinforcement Theory – Powerful predictor in many work areas Equity Theory – Best known for research in organizational justice Expectancy Theory – Good predictor of performance variables but shares many of the assumptions as rational decision making