The APA Style Paper Format and Documentation of a Research Study Copyright 2003
The Title Page •Page Header (5 spaces) Page number (1 inch margin) •Running Head: right justified complete title •Title •Name These items are centered & •Institution double-spaced!All pages are numbered in sequence beginningKeep 1” margins on all sUse athroughout font Do standard type fontsidesnot use bold the with the title page such as Times New forpaper. emphasis.(excludes figure page). Roman, 12 point size throughout
Title Page Example Schedule-Induced Attack 1Running Head: SCHEDULE-INDUCED ATTACK IN MOUSE TRAPS Schedule-Induced Attack in Mouse Traps: Behavior Modification of Inanimate Objects Michael Maus Lunchburg College Running Head: This is an abbreviated title, The name(s) of the author(s) is/are given, followed by the name Header:left at the2 or ofwords fromWrite out the words flush The first top 3 the page. the title, followed by of the institution at which the research was done. 5 spaces, then theas shown. Theflush right, 1” from the edge. “Running Head:” page number, abbreviated title is written Double space this section. in all capital letters.
Schedule-Induced Attack 2 AbstractAlthough aggression has repeatedly been observed in mousetraps in thefield , the variable controlling the aggression has not previously beenidentified. The purpose of the present study was to determine whetheraggression in mouse traps could be induced by an intermittent schedule ofreinforcement. The necessary condition for concluding that attack isschedule-induced is that more attack occurs during exposure to anintermittent schedule of reinforcement (e.g. food) than in its absence. The past tense is used the ones page in the paper. This section and throughout most of the manuscript that follow are double-spaced. The abstract has 100-150-word summary of the purpose, its own The abstract is a brief,including presentation of results. included on this page. tense No other information is to be However, the present method, results, and the first line of the abstract. Also, do not indent conclusions of the study. is used when discussing results and presenting conclusions.
The intro is not labeled in the paper Introduction Schedule-Induced Attack 3Complete title Schedule Induced Attack in Mouse Traps: Behavior Modification of Inanimate Objects The introduction begins on the page following the abstract. Theintroduction is never labeled. This is where you present the logic andbackground research that suggested this study. The general problem area ismentioned in the first paragraph, followed by a brief review of the relevantpublished findings. There are specific ways to cite previously published works (Miller, 1941).When there are two or more authors, they are cited this way (Looney & Dove, Introduction: The topic of study is stated, research relevant1978). Continue to use double-spacing through-out the paper. to your study is described, similarities and differences a typical asection for and others are citation. are This is typical stops in the middle of a 2-author in-text This is When onecitationstudya single-author work.page, between your noted as Indent the first line ofuse afterstartsfrom this point on. Remember, each paragraph of name. when the the comma “&” instead immediately. hypotheses/predictions you have “and” Notice the next section the last regarding Also, (DO NOT start a newparenthetical. section!) initials are not usedis of your study. the citation in in-text citations. outcome page for each
Schedule-Induced Attack 4 However, Wallace and Singer (1976) noted that facillima saepenon sunt optima accepit hoc. Also in similar studies it was observedthat blah blah blah blah blah (Flory & Everist, 1977; Gentry, 1968;Killeen, 1979). Similarly, Flory (1969) pointed out the problem of“plures viri quam appellabant” (p.384). Consistent with this viewSchaal, Shahan, Kovera and Reilly (1998) note that babble babblebabble pessimi copiis maius deum . For the present study I will lookat the phenomenon mentioned first by Flory (1969b). When you cite authors the first time bywork same author within the same List all more than one article a the is cited in you paper. When more than one work direct quotes sparingly; When use Use is cited in the same parenthetical reference, publication year, the authors or more authors shouldof the text, are mentioned as part Thereafter, worksthe lowercase letters to identify them in alphabetical with 3 be cited using the always order them alphabetically outthe last name of the first author. write by title. indicate the page by“and”. as shown. order number first author with “et al” after it. Example: (Schaal, et al., 1998)
Schedule-Induced Attack 10 A similar avenue of research is suggested by recent work with blahblah bla (Schaal, et al., 1998). The results of this study are consistent withtristissiumus haec tibi scribo. Fundani nostri filia defuncta, qua puella nihilumquam festivus, amabilius, nec longiore vita (Calvillo, 1999). The conclusions of this study are limited by vicibus inhaerebat utnos officio quemque studiose intelligenter qua patientia valetudinem tulit.Medicis obsequebatur, sororem, patrem adhortabatur; ipsamque sedestitutam corpis viribus vigore. Recall that this citation was seen on p.4, therefore does not need each author listed again.
Start references on a new page! Schedule-Induced Attack 11 ReferencesCalvillo, D. (1999). The theoretical development of aggression. Retrieved August 21, 2002 from: http://www.csubak.edu/~1vega/dustin2.htmlFlory, R.K. (1969a). Attack behavior as a function of minimum inter-food interval.Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior . 12, 825-828.Flory, R.K. (1969b). Attack behavior in a multiple fixed-ratio schedule of reinforcement. Psychonomic Science, 16, 383-386.Flory, R.K. & Everist, H.D. (1977). The effect of a response requirement on schedule- induced aggression. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society 9, 383-386.Gentry, W.D. (1968). Fixed-ratio schedule-induced aggression. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior 11, 813-817. The first line of each citation is left-justified; subsequent lines The word “References” is centered at the thanof a new page. In this are indented. have more top one work If you section, do not write “and” If you cite more than one work from an author, List citations in by the same author in “&”. same year, between authors’ names; pageauthor’sthe numbers Individual order by citation. ABC web always use last name, and volume numbers are italicized; with Journal names in chronological order (i.e. by date) page the earliest first. list them followed by initials for first order by title of the article. list in alphabetical and middle names. aren’t.
Schedule-Induced Attack 12Killeen, P. R. (1979). Arousal: Its genesis, modulation, and extinction. In M. Zeiler & P. Harzen (Eds.), Advances in the experimental analysis of behavior (pp.31-78). NewYork: Wiley.Looney, T.A. & Dove, L.D. (1978). Schedule-induced attack as a function of length of exposure to a fixed-time 90-sec schedule. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society 12, 320- 322.Moyer, K.E. (1976) The psychobiology of aggression. New York: Harper and Row Publishers.Miller, N. E. (1941). The frustration-aggression hypothesis. Psychological Review 48, 337-342. Chapter in is book with twoformat for citing a from the This a the standard editors different book. author of the chapter.
Schedule-Induced Attack 13Pitts, R.C. & Malagodi, E.F. (1996). Effects of reinforcement amount on attack induced under fixedinterval schedule in pigeons. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior 65, 93-112.Article number A18506179. Retrieved 11 June, 2001 from Expanded AcademicASAP/InfoTrac database.Schaal, D., Shahan, T., Kovera, C., & Reilley, M. (1998). Mechanisms underlying the effects of unsignaled delayed reinforcement on key pecking of pigeons under variable-interval schedules. [Electronic Version] Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior 69, 103-122.Wallace, M. & Singer, G. (1976). Schedule-induced behavior: A review of its generality, determinants, and pharmacological data. Pharmacology, Biochemistry and Behavior 5, 483-490. Article titles are written in sentence format. The first word Online journal article that is identical to the of the title, proper nouns, and the first letter Everything in are capitalized. (See above for example). after a colon this section are listedretrieved the paper; must be cited in available print version.. Remember, all the authors article in citations in the Online journal through Everything cited in subscriptionmust be in this section; the paper database withinitials. URL. reference section. Last names precede the rolling Library No additional items are to be included.
Documentation• Usually, you will summarize your research, putting it in your own words.• You will use a parenthetical note to state where you got the information, but you won’t use quotation marks.
Direct Quotes• When you use a direct quote, introduce the quote by first telling who or what is being quoted. Don’t just start the sentence off with a quote.• Use direct quotes when: – you are giving the opinion of a recognized expert in the field and you think his words can lend weight to your argument. – your source makes the point in a very effective way (like a really good analogy). – The particular word or way of stating something is important (like a poem or a book).
What needs to be documented?• Information and ideas that are “Common Knowledge” do not need to be documented.• You always need a parenthetical note for: – Direct quotes – Facts or statistics – Unusual or questionable ideas• When in doubt, cite the source.
Make the paper yours, not just a summary of what you’ve read.• In your research paper you are seeking the answer to a question you are interested in.• The paper represents your answer to the question, what you think after researching the subject.• Your THESIS states your opinion. Your paper gives facts, illustrations and arguments that back up your opinion.• The Thesis, Topic Sentences and Conclusion are your opinion, so don’t cite sources there.