The composition of diets is influenced by a wide range of factors, includingclimate & the physical environ, social & cultural influences, technologies, trade, personal & community wealth & political influences.
Particular regional diets may have beneficial components – thus are subjects of interest. In particular, the Mediterranean dietParticular components of the Mediterranean diet that may promote health include: Nutrient profile – low in saturated fat, high in antioxidants, high in MUFSelection of foods – low in meat, high in F & V & cereals, high in olive oil, wine consumption with mealsStyle of choosing, preparing & eating food – i.e. a cuisineCuisine must be understood from bother social and medical perspective to gain advantages. Culinary culture and cuisine come as a complex package – to create similar morbidity and mortality patterns among non-Mediterranean countries required not only a particular diet, but attention to other lifestyle components and relationships.Family & social structure – gender roles, family meals, food exchange amongst family & friends pleasure
So cuisine is essentially A framework within which people choose food, influenced by:day of the weekwho is cookingwho is home for dinnerdifferent social situations/occasionssocio-economic statusGenderAge Not all people who adhere to a cuisine will follow the same diet – variation is significant within food cultures. Adherence to food traditions may be affected by reality of every day life e.g. person responsible for cooking may be home late, children may be participating in sport etc Meals may also be influenced by the experiences and preferences of the individual (social class, standing, festive occasion, religious belief)Cuisine as a product of culture is that it is constantly changing (health care workers would avoid stereotyping individual or family choices based on ethnicity – but rather use cuisine as a general guide only)
Food beliefs will be discussed later in the semester:Important to note however that various beliefs do exist and will affect food choices (and recommendations to clients).
Gender preferences/ expectations. Stereotype? Or true?Are men hard-wired to eat meat? Do women have an innate need for cupcakes? Interesting research has been emerging suggesting that each gender may have a predisposition for different types of foods. Indeed, it has been hypothesised that women are also likely to form more emotional relationships with food, which may result in very different food choices compared to men.
Social situations will also impact on the types of foods eaten at particular times. Inregards to nutrition, days are divided into eating occasions in which foods are combined to constitute a meal – where that meal is eaten and with whom all constitute important factors in both determining and influencing health outcomes. Social context will affect food choices and cuisine, whether one is eating at home or dining out – what is chosen is appropriate for the location.Also – different social contexts have different codes of etiquette (ie. What is appropriate in a fast-food restaurant may not be in a more formal restaurant.Family meal (meal eaten at the table with all family members present) is deemed to be the gold standards of proper meals. Research suggests that participation in family meals improves socialisation among children and adolescents, leading to decreases in risk of obesity, eating disorders and substance abuse and increases in fruit and veg consumption.- trends indicate increase in take-away consumption and convenience food
Meals are structured occasions that follow rules about where, when and in what sequence particular food could or should be served. Rules vary according to culture, class and location (e.g. Rules that apply to a meal in a house differ to those that apply in a fine dining restaurant).Previously, food consumption was controlled by (see slide ‘previously ’). Most of these rules no longer exist due to a decline in discrete meal times leading to. As a result, the term meal is now broader and what is chosen is appropriate for the location.
Socioeconomic status is also a very important factor impacting on food choice. As practitioners SES will often dictate whether our clients can follow advice or not (i.e. A client with lower incomes may be unlikely to afford 2 fruit and 5 veg per day) The term social class encompasses a broad range of factors, including income, education etc. Differences in diet between social classes relate to both the types of foods accessible and available as well as the food preferences of different groups. Set against background of class distinctions are nutritionists concerns about food security and obesity. It is known that those who are socially disadvantaged have poorer health outcomes the higher the disadvantage the more likely the rates of morbidity and mortality are higher. This is because lower SES groups more likely to engage in risky behaviours and less likely to meet recommendations for fruit and exercise. Objective data collection has revealed that Poorest 10% of the population consume higher amounts of snack foods/ take-away foods, and less lean meats, vegetables, fruits and wholegrains. Whereas their wealthier counterparts consume increased intakes of lean meats, fruit, vegetables, low-fat options, wholegrain options and exhibit lower intakes of take-away/ snack foods. Based on these findings it is no surprise that people from lower socioeconomic groups are significantly more likely to be overweight/obese,. These findings suggests a need for interventions to also focus on social and environmental factors, and not just the individual.In addition to te above relationship, reverse association whereby being overweight or obese results in stigmatisation, reduces social acceptance and increase level of social disadvantage.
Some answers may include: lower incomes, employment status, level of education, type of occupation, household structure (e.g. Single-parent family), poor public transport in low-income areas, lack of shops in low-income areas.
Diagram – factors associated with food insecurity (potential determinants and outcomes)
For class discussion – some possible answers may include:Convenience foods: Changes to female role in society – rather than homemakers many women are in the workforce (decreased time) Increased working hours/ job expectations Loss of skills (food prep and cooking)Increased wealth (purchasing power)Snack foods: Increased wealth (purchasing power) Increased leisure time Increased mobility (personal transport, more time away from home) New technologies Development of large-scale manufacturing (allow for low costs)
Example of soft-drinks: Low cost of production, most of price of drink is made up or marketing costs.Advertising strongly influences food choices, however it’s subtle and pervasive nature mean that we may not be aware of it’s influences on us!Some advertising aims to increase customer base/ profits/ market share by marketing ‘values’ (ie. McDonalds adds targeting family values and the ‘typical’ Aussie family) – see link
Australian children are particularly vulnerable due to longtv viewing hours (watch 2 – 3 hours tv per day) during which ~30% of non-program content during children’s tv viewing hours is food related (majority of these foods are of low-nutritional value) Proportionally more ads for unhealthy foods during TV shows that are most popular with children with Fast food restaurants and confectionery are the two most common categories of food ads shown. Balance of ads for healthy and unhealthy food groups is well out of proportion to healthy eating guidelinesCompanies use Attention grabbing and persuasivepromotional techniques including endorsements by characters and celebrities, ‘premium offers', visuals, jingles and claims which can misrepresent the true nutritional value of the food. However, children under eight years old do not have the critical literacy skills to recognise the persuasive intention of advertising. Thus advertising has a significant impact on children's food preferences - undermines parents' efforts to provide their children with a healthy dietWhilst some regulations around advertising to children do exist, these currently only apply to advertisements screened during children's TV shows, when only around 100,000 children watch television at these times. The peak viewing period for children under 14 years old is 5-9pm when up to 500,000 children watch TV, and when unhealthy food and drink ads are also most frequent.
XNB151 Week 3 Influences on food consumption
What Lies Beneath War Natural disaster ClimatePolitics Technology DietaryReligion composition TradePreference/ taste Economics Culture
Cuisine is defined by how & why foods are acquired, prepared and eaten and what people believe and understand about these activities.
Five Main Elements of CuisineCuisine Basic foods Distinctive cooking Flavour principles techniques Rules/Codes of etiquette Food chain that moves from farm to fork
Cuisines & Nutrition Regional food cultures can develop from necessity (using foods that will grow well within a region) May be nutritionally inadequate E.g. Use of corn as staple crop – Niacnin (Vitamin B3) deficiency Major disaster if one food becomes unavailable e.g. Irish potato famine – potatoes developed disease, became unavailable Millions died or emigrated Population has still not recovered to pre- famine levels
Cuisines & Nutrition Particular regional diets may have many beneficial components, including: nutrient profile, selection of foods, style of choosing, preparing & eating food, family & social structure Adoption of both diet AND other lifestyle components to achieve benefits e.g. Mediterranean diet http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ml277yeFyZw
Influences on food choices within cuisine Beliefs Age GenderSocial situation Day of the week Cuisine Who is home Who cooks Socioeconomic Celebrations status
Beliefs Largely influenced by culture and religion Lent Halal vs Haram Kosher Forbidden foods We will discuss these later on in the semester!
Cuisine & food choices shaped by gender Work involved in feeding household mostly undertaken by women ~8 hours food prep per week by women; ~3 hours food prep by men Women’s interests should be used to shape nutrition policies and interventions – this will ensure realistic policies and desirable consequences Particularly important in developing countries http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1S0eHdHDo6U
Meal StructurePreviously Now availability no discrete meal times religious rules more fast food fixed no. of meals eating not so social, specific food for more individual specific people no set definition of the ‘proper’ was term ‘meal’ considered to be ‘proper’ depends on meat & 3 vegetables location & occasion
Social stratification Social class well-recognised factor in dietary differences and inequality Social disadvantaged/ lower-social class associated with dietary intakes less consistent with recommendations and poor health Reverse association: obesity increased social disadvantage
What social factors may explain these dietary differences?
Food Security Food security is defined as the state in which all persons obtain a nutritionally adequate, culturally- appropriate diet at all times through local non- emergency services. Food insecurity can cause: physical impairment capacity to work or learn nutritional inadequacies higher rates of depressive illness social isolation or exclusion in the developed world, obesity
Food security In the 1995, 2001 & 2004 NHS surveys, ~5% of the adults reported that in the previous 12 mths they had, at times, run out of food & could not afford to buy more Those at particular risk of food insecurity include: homeless people/unstable living arrangements newly arrived refugees low income earners/welfare recipients the elderly those living in rural & remote areas those with a disability
Why is food security important?Because people who are unable to obtain enough to eat are unlikely to pay attention to educational message about health food consumption!
Why is the consumption of convenience and snack foods increasing?
Marketing & Advertising Advertising, esp. TV advertising crucial to manufacturing companies Manufacturers spend large amounts of money on advertising Strong influence on food choice Subtle and pervasive – may not be aware of it’s effect on our food choices
Children and Advertising Controversial issue – children are especially vulnerable due to: Long TV viewing hours Fast food and confectionary most common product advertised during children tv viewing hours Not able to critically interpret advertising ~ 30% of non-programme content in Children’s viewing hours in Aust and NZ is food (Wilson et al, 1999; Hill et al 1997 in Nut Aust Position Statement 2009) Children in the United States who view television as a normal part of their meal routine have poorer dietary habits than those who do not (Coon et al in Nut Aust Position Statement 2009)
REFERENCES Wahlqvist (2011) Food and Nutrition, Allen & Unwin Gallegos, Chapter 3, Social approaches to understanding food, eating and nutrition Baines & Rutishauser, Chapter 13, Contemporary food use: Food supply and food consumption Wahlqvist, Chapter 5, Food security, nutrition in transition & sustainable environments, p59 to 63 Chapman et al (2006) How much food advertising is there on Australian television? Health Promotion International, Vol. 21 No. 3 Nutrition Australia Position Statement Food Advertising Directed at Children (2009). Available at http://www.nutritionaustralia.org/sites/www.nutritionaustralia.org/files/ Nutrition_Australia_position_on_food_advertising_to_children_feb20 09.pdf DAA Submission on Food Advertising to Children (2007) Available at http://daa.asn.au/for-the-media/hot-topics-in-nutrition/food- advertising-to-children/