XNB151 Week 3 Influences on food consumptionPresentation Transcript
What Lies Beneath War Natural disaster ClimatePolitics Technology DietaryReligion composition TradePreference/ taste Economics Culture
Cuisine is defined by how & why foods are acquired, prepared and eaten and what people believe and understand about these activities.
Five Main Elements of CuisineCuisine Basic foods Distinctive cooking Flavour principles techniques Rules/Codes of etiquette Food chain that moves from farm to fork
Cuisines & Nutrition Regional food cultures can develop from necessity (using foods that will grow well within a region) May be nutritionally inadequate E.g. Use of corn as staple crop – Niacnin (Vitamin B3) deficiency Major disaster if one food becomes unavailable e.g. Irish potato famine – potatoes developed disease, became unavailable Millions died or emigrated Population has still not recovered to pre- famine levels
Cuisines & Nutrition Particular regional diets may have many beneficial components, including: nutrient profile, selection of foods, style of choosing, preparing & eating food, family & social structure Adoption of both diet AND other lifestyle components to achieve benefits e.g. Mediterranean diet http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ml277yeFyZw
Influences on food choices within cuisine Beliefs Age GenderSocial situation Day of the week Cuisine Who is home Who cooks Socioeconomic Celebrations status
Beliefs Largely influenced by culture and religion Lent Halal vs Haram Kosher Forbidden foods We will discuss these later on in the semester!
Cuisine & food choices shaped by gender Work involved in feeding household mostly undertaken by women ~8 hours food prep per week by women; ~3 hours food prep by men Women’s interests should be used to shape nutrition policies and interventions – this will ensure realistic policies and desirable consequences Particularly important in developing countries http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1S0eHdHDo6U
Social situations & meal structure
Meal StructurePreviously Now availability no discrete meal times religious rules more fast food fixed no. of meals eating not so social, specific food for more individual specific people no set definition of the ‘proper’ was term ‘meal’ considered to be ‘proper’ depends on meat & 3 vegetables location & occasion
Social stratification Social class well-recognised factor in dietary differences and inequality Social disadvantaged/ lower-social class associated with dietary intakes less consistent with recommendations and poor health Reverse association: obesity increased social disadvantage
What social factors may explain these dietary differences?
Food Security Food security is defined as the state in which all persons obtain a nutritionally adequate, culturally- appropriate diet at all times through local non- emergency services. Food insecurity can cause: physical impairment capacity to work or learn nutritional inadequacies higher rates of depressive illness social isolation or exclusion in the developed world, obesity
Food security In the 1995, 2001 & 2004 NHS surveys, ~5% of the adults reported that in the previous 12 mths they had, at times, run out of food & could not afford to buy more Those at particular risk of food insecurity include: homeless people/unstable living arrangements newly arrived refugees low income earners/welfare recipients the elderly those living in rural & remote areas those with a disability
Why is food security important?Because people who are unable to obtain enough to eat are unlikely to pay attention to educational message about health food consumption!
Why is the consumption of convenience and snack foods increasing?
Marketing & Advertising Advertising, esp. TV advertising crucial to manufacturing companies Manufacturers spend large amounts of money on advertising Strong influence on food choice Subtle and pervasive – may not be aware of it’s effect on our food choices
Children and Advertising Controversial issue – children are especially vulnerable due to: Long TV viewing hours Fast food and confectionary most common product advertised during children tv viewing hours Not able to critically interpret advertising ~ 30% of non-programme content in Children’s viewing hours in Aust and NZ is food (Wilson et al, 1999; Hill et al 1997 in Nut Aust Position Statement 2009) Children in the United States who view television as a normal part of their meal routine have poorer dietary habits than those who do not (Coon et al in Nut Aust Position Statement 2009)
REFERENCES Wahlqvist (2011) Food and Nutrition, Allen & Unwin Gallegos, Chapter 3, Social approaches to understanding food, eating and nutrition Baines & Rutishauser, Chapter 13, Contemporary food use: Food supply and food consumption Wahlqvist, Chapter 5, Food security, nutrition in transition & sustainable environments, p59 to 63 Chapman et al (2006) How much food advertising is there on Australian television? Health Promotion International, Vol. 21 No. 3 Nutrition Australia Position Statement Food Advertising Directed at Children (2009). Available at http://www.nutritionaustralia.org/sites/www.nutritionaustralia.org/files/ Nutrition_Australia_position_on_food_advertising_to_children_feb20 09.pdf DAA Submission on Food Advertising to Children (2007) Available at http://daa.asn.au/for-the-media/hot-topics-in-nutrition/food- advertising-to-children/