Rural industries are classified as:BROADACRE – wheat & other crops, sheep, beef, oilseedsDAIRYHORTICULTURE – fruit, vegies, nuts & honey
foods are more often than not calorically dense due to the high proportions of fats and sugars they contain.
Week 2 XNB151 Food and Nutrition
Pre- food supply (week 2)- anthropology & sociology of food (week 3) - Why do we eat what we eat? Post- physiology (weeks 4-13) - Nutritional requirements and consequences of too little/ too much nutrition) - Difficult to determine as we cannot test on humans – rely on labs tests with animal or epidemiology
Evolution may have occurred in association with particular diets understanding diets and health of early humans assist in optimising present food consumption to enhance health Three main ways to investigate eating patterns of early humans1. Anthropological study of our ancestors2. Study of contemporary communities that follow ancestral dietary patterns3. Study of the human genome
It’s not my fault, it’s genetic! Human species has existed for some 6000 generations (determined by studies of genes in mitochondria) Likely that most of genetic attributes of hunter gathers have been retained How advantageous are these now? ‘Thrifty gene’
Includes Grain growers F & V growers Cattle, sheep & pig farmers Dairy farmers Our source of FOOD! Significant contribution to gross domestic product for Australia
Value of production varies annually. Depend on: Weather, world export prices, value of Australia $Primary production may be affected by: Climate Government policies War Economy Weather/ natural disasters
Food security is defined as the state in which all persons obtain a nutritionally adequate, culturally-appropriate diet at all times through local non-emergency services. • access – physical & economic access to food • availability – the foods required for an active healthy life are available to all members of a community • acceptability – the food is safe to eat & fits in with social norms
Modification of primary produce into recognisable items of food using technologyAdds value through procedures that: preserve food & decrease waste product diversity & availability Reduces food preparation at home (convenience) Improvements in perceived appearance, flavour, appeal of food, food safety etc
Specialised shops Supermarkets with 20,000 – 30,000 different items• Served by individual staff Saving to clients by: member • self service• Stocked basic products • bar-code identification used to create in home • bulk buying by large companies meals Price Wars
Other changes include: control of food retailing by 2 major supermarket chains variety of products preparation time required advertising layout of the store petrol discount schemes
Manufacturers may introduce new food products Advertising for satisfactory sales Inadequate sales = decline to stock product For companies to profits they must gain market share from another company, by: creating a new food marketing foods with a higher price & profit margin e.g. Logicol margarine (~$17/kg vs $4/kg!) Burgen Soy & Linseed bread Foods go in & out of fashion like clothing, particularly ‘health foods’ Examples include: very low alcohol beer high fibre foods esp. oat bran olive oil
Costnot always basis of consumer choice, often opt for convenience Preparation time vs cost Convenience meals require minimal preparation Open package, heat, serve Ready-to-eat meals fastest growing area
More food is eaten away from the home More snack foods are bought, because of: increased wealth (purchasing power) increased leisure time increased mobility (personal transport, more time away from home) new technologies development of large-scale manufacturing (allow for low costs) Eating out has dramatically Has this caused us to become one of the most overweight/obese countries in the world?!
Previously the composition of the food was obvious Nowlabels are required so that we know what we are eating!
Regulation of food industry occurs at all levels – farm, food industry & consumer May help or hinder depending on where you fit in the food chain Examples include: Ensuring fair prices Environmental protection Ensuring safety of food exports & imports Ensuring accurate food informationhttp://www.news.com.au/business/egg-farmers-join-the-milk-battle/story-e6frfm1i- 1226016891683
FSANZ(Food Standards Australia and New Zealand) Responsible for food control, including formulation of food laws and regulations, labelling requirements, co- ordinating food recalls Australia New Zealand Food Standards Code (The Code) Revised version introduced by FSANZ in 2000 www.foodstandards.gov.au
Foods defined in food regulations are standardised foods (foods not meeting this specifications for standardised foods cannot legally used the name of the standardised food or be sold as such). Specifications include: Specification for identity Specification for ingredient composition Specification for nutritional content Microbiological specifications Specified method of analysis Extra labelling requirements
Other foods Foods that do not have a particular standard must be safe for human consumption and must comply with general provisions (e.g. Labelling) Fortified foods Foods with added vitamins and minerals Mandatory – bread with folic acid and iodine Voluntary – permitted when evidence of health benefit exists
Four critical areas for data collection include Food Food and physical activity Nutritional Food supply purchasing and behaviours status acquisitionCurrently no formal monitoring system in place in Australia
To calculate ‘available food for consumption’ – Food balance sheets Information on amounts of food (raw commodities) available for consumption per yearFood available for use = production + imports – exportsFood available for consumption =production + imports – exports – industrial use – animal use Important – food available for consumption does NOT tell us how much food is actually eaten!
To compare food trends within Australia Apparent food consumption data Apparent consumption =(commercial production + estimated home production + imports + opening stocks) MINUS(exports + usage for processed foods + non-food usage + wastage + closing stocks)
food balance sheets food available, not food consumed national average, not individual/sub-group specific apparent consumption data not used for all foods Overall– no ongoing, regular and comprehensive system for monitoring food supply and food availability
Global Environment Monitoring System - Food Contamination Monitoring and Assessment Programme (GEMS/Food) WHO Initiative Assesses & monitors food contaminants, their contribution to human exposure, & significance for public health and trade WHO 13 cluster diets, that have been created to cover average food consumption in 13 regions Twenty Key Foods Investigated Groups of countries based on consumption create ‘clusters’. Comparisons demonstrate major differences between clusters
Retail food sales- provide information on: type of foods purchased amount purchased population level consumption not measuring actual consumption of individuals
Household food expenditure budget surveys provides data on amount of money/proportion of income spent on food by different kinds of households provides weighting figures for CPI (Consumer Price Index) not measuring foods or nutrients