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The Indian Removal Act of 1830 Margaret P. McAllister EDUC 6100 21 June 2010
The Age of Jackson: Indian Removal The Big Idea:President Jackson supported apolicy of Indian removal for alllands east of the MississippiRiver.
Main Ideas— What you need to know!• The Indian Removal Act of 1830 authorized the relocation of Native Americans to the West.• Cherokee resistance to removal led to disagreement between Jackson and the Supreme Court.• Other Native Americans resisted removal with force.
Key Terms and People(All vocabulary should be completed in your composition book.)• Indian Removal Act• Indian Territory• Bureau of Indian Affairs• Sequoya• Worcester v. Georgia• Trail of Tears• Black Hawk• Osceola
Check What You Know!Question #1:True or False—The Cherokee Nation fought removal from their ancestral lands by suing the State of Georgia.TrueFalse Next Slide!
Check What You Know!Question #2:True or False—Osceola led the Fox and Sauk resistance against removal to Indian Territory.TrueFalse
Good for You!Question #1—The Cherokee Nation suedthe State of Georgia in Worcester v.Georgia. The Supreme Court sided infavor of the Cherokee Nation.However, Georgia state officials, with thesupport of President Jackson, removedthe Cherokees on a forced march thatbecame known as the Trail of Tears. Click Here
You’re right! That statement was false. The correct answer is…Black Hawk, not Osceola, was the leaderof the Fox and Sauk tribes. He fought heremoval of his people into IndianTerritory. The Fox and Sauk wereeventually defeated and were forced tomove from Illinois by 1850. Next Page!
Q#1Ooopps! Sorry, that is NOT the right answer! Click Here
Q#2Not Quite…that is NOT the correct answer!Osceola was the leader of the Seminole Indians in what is now Florida. Click Here
Indian Removal from the East: Complete the following graphic organizer using information from your notes and textbook.Native Response to RemovalAmericanGroups Next Slide!
Indian Removal from the EastNative Response to RemovalAmericanGroupsChoctaw The Choctaw were the first tribe sent to Indian Territory. The Mississippi legislature abolished the Choctaw government and then forced the Choctaw leaders to sign the Treaty of Dancing Rabbit Creek which gave more than 7.5 million acres of their land to the state. The Choctaw moved to Indian Territory during a disastrous winter trip. Federal officials in charge of the move did not provide enough food or supplies to the Choctaw, most of whom were on foot. About one-fourth of the Choctaw died of cold, disease, or starvation.Chickasaw The Chickasaw, who lived in upper Mississippi, negotiated a treaty for better supplies on their trip to Indian Territory and left peacefully. Nevertheless, many Chickasaw lives were also lost during removal.Creek The Creek resisted in 1836, federal troops moved in and captured some 14,500 of them. They led the Creek, many in chains, to Indian Territory. Continued on Next Slide
Indian Removal from the EastNative Response to RemovalAmericanGroupsFox and Led by Black Hawk, the Fox and Sauk decided to fight rather than leaveSauk Illinois. By 1832, however, the Sauk forces were running out of food and supplies, and by 1850 they had been forced to leave.Cherokee The Cherokee attempted to assimilate into the white culture by teaching their children to read and write in English. They also set up a government in the same style as the American government. When that did not work they used the court system to resist against removal. Ultimately their resistance failed and they were forcibly removed on the Trail of Tears. Approximately 18,000 died on the march.Seminole Seminole leaders were forced to sign a removal treaty that their followers decided to ignore. A leader named Osceola called upon his followers to resist with force, and the Second Seminole War began. Osceola was captured and soon died in prison. His followers, however, continued to fight. Some 4,000 Seminole were removed and hundreds of others killed. Eventually, U.S. officials decided to give up the fight. Small groups of Seminole had resisted removal, and their descendants live in Florida today. References
Chapter 10, Section 3 Key Terms and PeopleIndian Removal Act of 1830: a congressional act thatauthorized the removal of Native Americanswho lived east of the Mississippi River. Go Back!
Chapter 10, Section 3 Key Terms and PeopleIndian Territory: an area covering most of present-dayOklahoma to which most Native Americans in theSoutheast were forced to move in the 1830s. Go Back!
Chapter 10, Section 3 Key Terms and PeopleBureau of Indian Affairs: a governmentagency created in the 1800s to overseefederal policy toward Native Americans.
Chapter 10, Section 3 Key Terms and People Sequoya: (between 1760 and 1770- 1843) American Indian scholar and craftsman, he created a writing system for the Cherokee language and taught literacy to many Cherokee. Go back to Pg. 8
Chapter 10, Section 3 Key Terms and PeopleWorcester v. Georgia: (1832) the SupremeCourt ruling that stated the Cherokee nationwas a distinct territory over which only thefederal government had authority; ignored byboth President Andrew Jackson and the Stateof Georgia. Go Back!
Chapter 10, Section 3 Key Terms and People Interactive Map of The Trail of Tears• http://www.pbs.org/indiancountry/history/interactive_map.htmlTrail of Tears: (1838-1839) an 800-mile forced marchmade by the Cherokee from their homeland inGeorgia to Indian Territory; resulted in the death ofalmost one-fourth of the Cherokee people.
Chapter 10, Section 3 Key Terms and PeopleBlack Hawk: leader of the Fox and Sauk tribes, he resistedthe U.S.-ordered removal of Indian nations from Illinois andraided settlements and fought the U.S. Army. Go Back!
Chapter 10, Section 3 Key Terms and People Osceola: (c. 1804-1838) Florida Seminole leader, he resisted removal by the U.S. government despite an earlier treaty that Seminole leaders had been forced to sign. He was eventually captured and died in prison. Go to correct answer!
References• Definitions and content for presentation: United States History, Ch. 10: The Age of Jackson: Holt, Rinehart, and Winston, 2007, pgs. 332-335.• Trail of Tears Image: Painting by Robert Lindneux, Woolaroc Museum, Bartlesville, Oklahoma. From United States History, Ch. 10: The Age of Jackson: Holt, Rinehart, and Winston, 2007.http://my.hrw.com/ss2/ss06_07_08/student/images/ush/musaj_cbfng/ah06se_c09 mcb008bp.jpg• Image of President Andrew Jackson: United States History, Ch. 10: The Age of Jackson: Holt, Rinehart, and Winston, 2007, pg. 325• “Conflict: The Trail of Tears”, from United Streaming: G:School Year 2010-20117 Social StudiesPower Point Presentations• Image of Black Hawk: http://freepages.family.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~randyhanna/image/Black%20Hawk%20Indian.jpg• Indian Removal Map: From United States History, Holt, Rinehart, and Winston, 2007. http://my.hrw.com/ss2/ss06_07_08/student/images/ush/musaj_cbfng/finah06se_u04hag002a.jpg• Image of Sequoya: http://www.powersource.com/gallery/people/sequoyah.gif• Interactive Map of Trail of Tears: From “Indian Country Diaries”, Native American Public Telecommunications, 2006. http://www.pbs.org/indiancountry/history/interactive_map.html• Image of Indian Territory: http://www.sonofthesouth.net/american-indians/indian-territory- map.htm• Image of Osceola: http://americanhistory.si.edu/westpoint/history_2c1_pop3_l.html