Microwave Photonics


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Review work on Microwave Photonics, an upcoming branch

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Microwave Photonics

  2. 2. Abstract Microwave photonics can be generally defined as the study of high-speed photonic devices operating at microwave or millimeter wave frequencies and their use in microwave or photonic systems. In this multidisciplinary field at the interface between microwave techniques, ultra fast electronics and photonic technologies, typical investigations include, for example, high-speed and microwave signal generation, processing and conversion as well as the distribution and transmission of microwave signals via broadband optical links. From pioneering experiments in the 70´s, this field of microwave photonics has paved the way for an enabling novel technology with a number of commercially important applications. This paper is intended to give an overview on this multidisciplinary field of microwave and millimeter wave photonics.
  3. 3. 1. Introduction Term of microwave photonics was introduced in 1991 and used to describe novel optoelectronic components based upon the interaction of traveling optical and microwaves Microwave technologies are used and employed in photonics and photonic technologies are utilized in microwave techniques Three technologies involved: (i) Ultra fast photonic components such as optical modulators and detectors with special emphasis on traveling wave devices, (ii) Broadband analog optical links for high-speed interconnects, (iii) Microwave photonic systems based upon the merging of microwave and optical technologies
  4. 4. 2. Microwave Photonics Components Electronic devices are usually scaled down with respect to the lateral dimensions High frequencies the packaging of highspeed devices or circuits has basically to include wave propagation effects Interaction between electrons, electrical fields and photons take place which can be regarded as microwave-optical interactions
  5. 5. Microwave optical interaction devices with vertical (a) and horizontal (b) light wave propagation
  6. 6. Traveling wave (TW) device where wave propagation effects in the electrical as well in the optical domain are utilized Concept is based on the fundamentals of nonlinear optics where interaction takes place during wave propagation
  7. 7. Broadband photonic communication networks, the electroabsorption modulator (EAM) will be a key element because it can be used also as an electroabsorption detector (EAD) EAM lumped element exhibits a RC time constant corresponding to about 10 GHz whereas the TW EADdevice shows a clear response beyond 160 GHz Use of microwave technologies can drastically improve the bandwidth of such photonic devices
  8. 8. A comparison is made between a lumped EAM and a TW EAD with comparable cross sections.
  9. 9. 3. Broadband Fiber Optical Links Transmitting side a cw laser diode and an external modulator (electrooptic or EAM) and on the receiving side an optoelectronic photodetector can be used Link gain can easily be achieved when an optical amplifier (EDFA) and/or external modulators, preferably on both sides, are being used
  10. 10. The great advantage is that due to the broadband low-loss transmission capability the optical fiber can ideally be used to transmit microwave signals and therefore replace other lossy metallic waveguides, e. g. X-band WG or coax Propagation loss of different transmission media, SM = single mode and MM = multimode glass fiber
  11. 11. 4. Microwave Photonic Systems Broadband fiber optic links are regarded to be basic building blocks for different microwave systems: (i) Photonic signal generation and local oscillators (ii) EMC sensor (iii) Optoelectronic testing (iv) Hybrid fiber-coax systems (v) Fiber-radio systems (vi) Antenna systems
  12. 12. (i) Photonic signal generation and local oscillators Concept of UWB signal generation using a microstrip resonator with an optoelectronic switch as an RF mirror integrated with a broadband antenna Difference frequency is photonically generated by heterodyne techniques and where wavelength tuning provides a bandwidth of several THz depending on the bandwidth of the detector
  13. 13. (ii) EMC sensor Modulator at the end of a fiber is driven by an electrical input signal Received optical signal can be used to measure the electrical signal quantitatively at Tx side Electrical dc power required at the sensor side can also be transmitted optically by employing a photovoltaic cell at Rx side
  14. 14. (iii) Optoelectronic testing Microminiaturized modulator chip working in reflection mode and coupled to the end of a fiber Basic concept for contactless high-speed testing of integrated circuits, well-known as the electrooptic sampling principle
  15. 15. (iv)Hybrid fiber-coax systems In cable TV (CATV) the signals received from TV satellites can be converted into the optical domain Also fed into a fiber to be transmitted over long distances with only small attenuation Optical signals being transmitted are converted back into the electrical domain and guided to the costumer via coaxial cable
  16. 16. (v) Fiber-radio systems Broadband services the frequencies are in the millimeter wave range Concept is based upon an optical link between the central station (CS) and the base station (BS) in a pico cellular structure A novel architecture of a 60 GHz fiber-radio system using an EAT (i) to generate the 57 GHz carrier frequency from LD1 and LD1’ where LD1 is directly modulated by the downlink IF signal at 2.6 GHz (ii) to mix the photonic LO signal directly with the IF signal
  17. 17. Architecture for a 60 GHz fiber-radio access system [23]. LD denotes a laser diode, PD a photodetector, and EAT-X an EAT – mixer. MT is the mobile terminal
  18. 18. (vi)Antenna systems A major application of optical link technology is the remoting of antenna systems and, particularly, the optical control of array antennas A millimeter wave or THz camera with photonic interconnection is foreseen
  19. 19. Thank You