Mutiny Delhi 1857


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Mutiny Delhi 1857

  1. 1. <ul><li>British Artillery position at Bara Hindu Rao 1857 Delhi </li></ul>Mutiny - Delhi 1857 (First War of Independence) With special emphasis on the role of 60 th Rifles and 2 Gurkha Rifles –the Sirmur Battalion.
  2. 2. <ul><li>British Tryst with India – How it started? </li></ul><ul><li>During the 1500’s, Europeans began vying with Arab merchants for India’s sea routes. The Portuguese, Vasco-da-gama, was the first to reach India by sea from Europe in 1498. Nearly a hundred years later, it was the Dutch who controlled the spice trade in Europe. They raised the price of one pound of pepper by five shillings. Incensed at this, twenty-four merchants of London met in Leadenhall Street in September, 1599 to found a trading firm with an initial capital of 72,000 pounds subscribed to by 125 shareholders. The British East India Company was formed under a Charter from H.M. on 31st December, 1599. The Company had taken permission to trade in India from Jahangir, the Mughal Emperor. Taking advantage of the lack of central power in India during the 1700’s, the British East India Company manipulated conflicts between local rulers and acquired large areas where it became the supreme power. During the 1800’s, India was under many rulers including the East India Company alias John Company or Company Sarkar. </li></ul>Mutiny - Delhi 1857
  3. 3. <ul><li>Why the mutiny or the first war of Independence? </li></ul><ul><li>Coming events cast their shadow/ Not learnt from past mistakes –Page 32 D. Str. </li></ul><ul><li>Bullets/paper packaging smeared with fat of pigs and cows. </li></ul><ul><li>Battta – foreign allowance withdrawn after occupation. </li></ul><ul><li>Sepoy Postal facility withdrawn </li></ul><ul><li>Rumours 100 years of British domination since 1757 (Battle of Plassey) are over </li></ul><ul><li>Reforms fast pace-Sati, widow re-marriage, executing brahmins for capital offences </li></ul><ul><li>Missionaries zeal </li></ul><ul><li>Educational system/ Railways / Telegraph </li></ul><ul><li>Doctrine of Lapse-Oudh, Bithur, Jhansi </li></ul><ul><li>New regulation w.e.f. Sept. 1856 - serving abroad a precondition to employment for recruits. Agreement at time of recruitment. Page 91-D.Str. </li></ul><ul><li>Number of British Soldiers to Indian Soldiers 36000/ 257000. Crimea/ Persia. </li></ul><ul><li>Army officers cut off from soldiers. Age factor of officers. Complascent, Lackadaisical. Derogatory attitude ‘Niggers, Blacks’ </li></ul>Mutiny - Delhi 1857
  4. 4. <ul><li>Events at Barrackpore/ Meerut/ Delhi….1 </li></ul><ul><li>Barrackpore – British authorities forewarned by several officers. Captains J.A. Wright, A. S. Alan, W.St. Mitchell, Martineau even informed C in C. Ignored. </li></ul><ul><li>March 29, 1857 – Sepoy Mangal Pandey (26 years and 7 years in the army) shot at Sergeant Hewson and Lt Baugh during parade. 34 NI. Attempted suicide. Court Martial. Hanged April 8 th, 1857. 19 th and 34 NI disbanded. </li></ul><ul><li>Meerut- Forwarned by Captain Craigie – even up to the C in C. Ignored. </li></ul><ul><li>April 24 th 1857 – 3 rd Light Cavalry issued 3 rounds each. 85 out of 90 refused the drill. Subsequent to a court martial the 85 convicted and sentenced to 10 years imprisonment with hard labour. </li></ul><ul><li>Saturday May 9 th 1857, 85 Stripped off uniform. Shackled ankles and led to prison. Lt. Hugh Gough informed station commander re. Outbreak of Mutiny. Humiliated and reprimanded by senior officers. </li></ul><ul><li>10 th May 1857 - Greathead, Hewitt. Slaughter, Mrs. Muter, 60 th Rifles church parade, telegraph lines severed. Rebels bolted to Delhi – No pursuit. </li></ul>Mutiny - Delhi 1857
  5. 5. <ul><li>Events at Barrackpore/ Meerut/ Delhi….2 </li></ul><ul><li>Delhi 11 th May 1857. 7 A.M. – arrival of rebel troops. </li></ul><ul><li>Captain Douglas and Simon Fraser killed by rebels. RIOTS. All Christians attacked. </li></ul><ul><li>Troops highly excited. At parade Mangal Pandey’s execution was read out. </li></ul><ul><li>Lt. Willoughby blows up the Magazine inside the city. </li></ul><ul><li>38 th NI closes Gates of the city. Fugitives escape some shot. </li></ul><ul><li>Flag Staff Tower –last point of resistance. Brigadier Graves asks ‘What to do now?’ </li></ul><ul><li>Captain Burrowes tomb behind Flag Staff Tower. Page 125 Tytler’s memoirs. </li></ul><ul><li>General flight to Karnal. </li></ul>Mutiny - Delhi 1857
  6. 6. <ul><li>ANSON MOVES </li></ul><ul><li>C in C George Anson (43 years service, 4 years in India). Ignored complaints warnings earlier. </li></ul><ul><li>Tuesaday 12 th May 1857. Telegraph from Delhi received. Orders 75 th Foot, First and second Bengal Fusiliers to march to Delhi. </li></ul><ul><li>Notice to all stations –Armoury and Treasury to be guarded by British troops </li></ul><ul><li>2GR(Dehradun), Sikh Pioneers raised, Sappers and Miners from Rurkee to Meerut and to Delhi. Sir Henry Bernard to move from Ambala to Delhi with 9 th Lancers, 2 troops of Horse Artillery, 4 th Bengal Light Cavalry, 75 th foot. </li></ul><ul><li>19 th May 1857 –Guides and 4 th Punjab Infantry ordered to march to Delhi- Sir John Lawrence emphasises importance of Delhi to C in C Anson. Emissaries to Patiala, Nabha, Jind, Faridkot and Kapoorthala. Punjab sides with the Britishers. </li></ul><ul><li>Meerut column u/Archdale Wilson and Ambala column u/Sir Henry Bernard to meet at Baghput. Colonel Jones of 60 the Rifles ordered to Delhi from Ambala u/Brig Hallifax. </li></ul><ul><li>Anson dies of Cholera at Karnal on 26 th May 1857. </li></ul>Mutiny - Delhi 1857
  7. 7. <ul><li>General Sir Henry Bernard in command. Grenadier Guards.Complete stranger to India. 600 Cavalry, 2400 Infantry,22 field Guns-8 are 18 pounders, 4 are 8”and 12 are 5.5 “ mortars. 52 nd u/ Colonel Campbell marches to Delhi from Jullundhur. </li></ul><ul><li>30 th May 1857 Battle of Ghaziabad. Wilson marches from Meerut with 1stBN 60 th Rifles, Sapper and Miners, Tombs Horse Artillery, Carabineers, 2 guns 18 pounders. </li></ul><ul><li>1 st Bn/2GR joins up Wilson on 1 st June. </li></ul><ul><li>31 st May 1857- Battle of Hindun Bridge. Ensign Napier of 60 th Rifles. </li></ul><ul><li>OCCUPATION OF THE RIDGE </li></ul><ul><li>June 8 th 1857. Badli ki Serai affair- Brigadier Hope Grant. </li></ul><ul><li>Bernard goes to British Cantonement and Wilson occupies Bara Hindu Rao to Flag Staff Tower. Colonel Chester Adjutant General of Queens regiment +51 killed and 131 wounded. </li></ul><ul><li>Arrival of the Guides-600 miles in 22 days. Absolutely fresh and ready for combat. </li></ul>Mutiny - Delhi 1857
  8. 8. <ul><li>The Ridge </li></ul><ul><li>Extreme flank Bara Hindu Rao occupied by 2 GR and 60 th Rifles. </li></ul><ul><li>10 th June Attack on Bara –repulsed by 2 GR / 60 th u/Major C. Reid of 2GR </li></ul><ul><li>11 th June as on 10 th June above. Reid never left Bara till the assault date. The Bara was the 2GR hospital and barracks.Pg 91-41years </li></ul><ul><li>Indian Artillery better in all respects –rapidity and accuracy of fire. Pg 90/41Y. </li></ul><ul><li>12 th June Attack Flag Staff Tower-Timely arrival of 60 th R saves day Pg 91. Again attack on Bara and Subzi Mandi also Metcalfe house piquet. </li></ul><ul><li>13 th June British forces nearly attack Delhi –withdrawn wisely by Sir Bernard. </li></ul><ul><li>15 th June-Metcalfe house attack. 17 th June –attacks all over. Battery at Idgah destroyed by 2 GR and 60 th Rifles and Tombs Horse Artillery. </li></ul><ul><li>18 th June –attacks all over 9 th Lancers and Guides but 300 men of 60 th Rifles save the day. Pg 94. Peace at Midnight. </li></ul>Mutiny - Delhi 1857
  9. 9. Mutiny - Delhi 1857 Map of Delhi 1857
  10. 10. <ul><li>The Ridge </li></ul><ul><li>19 th June attack on rear to cut off supply line from Punjab. SAMUEL TURNER VC. Information –big attack on 23 rd June. </li></ul><ul><li>June 21 st 1857 - Birth of Stanley Delhi Field Force. </li></ul><ul><li>23 rd June. Arrival of 6 H.A. Guns, 2 nd Punjab Cavalry, 4 th Sikhs, British Infantry, 850 men in total. Attack on Bara, Artillery and musket fire like hell. Attack again and again. Reid holds on with his soldiers. SUNSTROKES. Subzi Mandi piquet established with 150 men on both sides of road. Breastwork till Bara Hindu Rao. </li></ul><ul><li>27 th June Metcalfe house Subzi Mandi in attacks. Arrival of Captain Stewart. 60 th Rifles lost 165 men in June 1857. </li></ul><ul><li>OBJECTIVE- to silence guns on the ramparts, open heavy fire on city walls to open a way into the city. SIMPLE but so difficult to implement. In absence of heavy guns install guns nearer to city walls. Responsibility –Engineers. </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of antiseptics, anaesthesia used. Amputees died. Flies. Animal carcasses. Sanitary conditions. Troops exhausted by heat, daily fighting, disease. ADJUTANTS. </li></ul><ul><li>YOU SAY ATTACK BUT WE ARE UNDER ATTACK AND NEED TO DEFEND OURSELVES WHEN ATTACKED- SIR BERNARD. Who is the besieged? Daily Casualty and sickness astonishing. DELHI IS THE FOCAL POINT-Sir John Lawrence. </li></ul>Mutiny - Delhi 1857
  11. 11. <ul><li>The Ridge </li></ul><ul><li>July 3 rd Reinforcements- 4 HA Guns,8 th and 61 st foot, 5 th Punjab Cavalry, 1 st Punjab Infantry, Sikh Pioneers. Total 6,600 against estimated 30,000. All hindustani troops removed from 4 th Sikhs. Arrival of Col Baird Smith. Subzi Mandi and Alipur attacked by 6,000 men Major Coke leads attack successfully. </li></ul><ul><li>July 5 th . General Sir Henry Bernard dies of Cholera within 6 hours of contacting it. General Reed in command. Destroys all bridges and the canal flowing into the city. </li></ul><ul><li>July 9 th Hills and Tombs VC. Attack on the rear. Head Bhishti voted for VC by 9 th Lancers to Sir Colin Campbell pg 104. JAMES THOMPSON VC 60 R.-Serai. </li></ul><ul><li>July 14 th –Severe attack enemy forces back. Artillery fire devastating 15 killed 177 wounded, 22 missing. Enemy loss 1,000. </li></ul><ul><li>17 th July- Reeds gives in and proceeds on sick leave for hills. Archdale Wilson takes command. Brig. Graves leaves camp. Congreve and Longfield stay back. U/ Colonel Jones of 60 th R-4HAG, 750 infantry, Guides Cavalry- Subzi mandi is cleared of rebels. </li></ul><ul><li>18 th July Engineers clear Serai and surrounding buildings in S. Mandi. Sammy house strengthened. True as steel 2GR and 60 th Rifles only British regiment in which Wilson had unqualified trust. Discipline only in 60 th Rifles by Colonel Jones. </li></ul><ul><li>23 July – Enemy occupies Ludlow Castle. Attacks Metcalfe House, Mosque piquet. Counter attack by Brig Showers (wounded) Retirement conducted very well by Jones of 60 th Rifles. </li></ul>Mutiny - Delhi 1857
  12. 12. <ul><li>The Ridge </li></ul><ul><li>23 till 31 st July Fairly peaceful. </li></ul><ul><li>31 st July Attack on rear. </li></ul><ul><li>Ist August – Bakra-Id. Attacks. Attacks. Attacks. Feeling of despair inside city. Sepoys going home. </li></ul><ul><li>August 12 th Occupy Ludlow Castle. Enemy Loss 250, 4 guns our loss 20 killed 92 wounded and 5 missing. Died Major Coke of Punjab Infantry. Pg 114 </li></ul><ul><li>August 14 th –Arrival of Punjab column / Brigadier John Nicholson (Age 35 Irish,). Pg 33. Pg 125. 52 nd light Infantry, Wing 61 st foot, a Field Battery, wing of 1 st Baluch, 2 nd Punjab,200 Multan Cavalry, 400 M.P. SIEGE TRAIN ON WAY –3 co’s 8 th foot, detachment of 60 th Rifles, 4 th Punjab, 4 th Sikh recruits, J&K and Jind and siege train. </li></ul><ul><li>25 th August-Enemy passes out in force to intercept siege train. Nicholson ordered to engage enemy 16 HA Guns, 1600 Infantry, 450 Cavalry. Rain, Quagmire. Enemy loss 800 and 13 guns. Loss 25 men. And 71 wounded. Pg 116 </li></ul><ul><li>26 th August Another attack on ridge but repulsed. 71 wounded </li></ul>Mutiny - Delhi 1857
  13. 13. <ul><li>The Ridge </li></ul><ul><li>6 th September- All men and equipment received. NOTHING to SPARE. ATTACK AND CAPTURE DELHI–Sir John Lawrence. 2977 men in hospital (2368 on August 1st). British forces 3217, 580 ART, 443 CAV and 2294 INF. 52 nd arrived 600 and within 6 days only 242 fit. </li></ul><ul><li>WILSON ASKS BAIRD SMITH TO PREPARE ASSAULT PLAN . Nicholson –If Wilson dithers, I propose Campbell be selected leader. Pg 118. </li></ul><ul><li>THE ASSAULT </li></ul><ul><li>Installation of Battery at Subzi Mandi to prevent siege guns from fire from Lahore Gate.4 –9 pounders, 2-24 pounders. </li></ul><ul><li>10,000 fascines and 10,000 gabions, 100,000 sand bags, platforms, scaling ladders Field Magazines. Responsibility Engineers. </li></ul><ul><li>Batteries installation and location, target and calibre. Refer MAP. </li></ul>Mutiny - Delhi 1857
  14. 14. <ul><li>THE ASSAULT </li></ul><ul><li>Columns leader, strength, target. Refer Map. </li></ul><ul><li>Lt. Duncan Home order Pg 63 K. Gate. Picture. His feat. 4 VC’s. Cover by 60 th Rifles to all columns in skirmishing order by 60 th Rifles. Overhang, Buglers three signals, George Chesney’s intelligence. </li></ul><ul><li>Nicholson wounded. Wilson wavers. Hope Grant. Neville Chamberlain. </li></ul><ul><li>2 GR lost as Reid is wounded. Captain Muter of 60 th Rifles leads 2 GR back to Bara. 66 officers and 1104 men killed and wounded on September 14 th . 992 killed and 2845 wounded besides disease/sunstroke. </li></ul><ul><li>Palace takeover by 20 th September by 60 th Rifles and 2 GR. King Bahdur Shah arrested 21 st . Hoson kills 3 Princes on 22 nd . Nicholson dies 23 rd and funeral on 24 th September. His brother Charles also an amputee !st Punjab. Horse auctionrd Roberts </li></ul><ul><li>Sack of Delhi Prize agents. Hodson, Wagentreiber, Captain Muter and Griffith, Harriet Tytler, Soldiers, 60 th Rifles as guards of Military chest. Soldiers of 60 th R-Silks. </li></ul><ul><li>Meerut repeated acts. </li></ul>Mutiny - Delhi 1857
  15. 15. Mutiny 1857 British versus rebels advantages <ul><li>Arms- Enfield/Minie Rifles against Brown Bess muskets, matchlocks, swords. </li></ul><ul><li>Training- very good against poor. </li></ul><ul><li>Planning- very good against poor </li></ul><ul><li>Leadership- excellent against shades of good spread out over the country. </li></ul><ul><li>Handling military formations- very good against poor. </li></ul><ul><li>Co-ordination, communication –very good against poor. </li></ul><ul><li>Motivation –High against wavering </li></ul><ul><li>Individual bravery – high on both sides. Nothing like this before-remark by Infantry officer Crimea veteran. Pandi is as good a soldier as us- Wilson. </li></ul><ul><li>Artillery – Delhi gunners were good but rest of India lacked. </li></ul><ul><li>Sikhs and Gurkhas and loyal native troops were a big advantage to the British </li></ul><ul><li>Intelligence information– better against poor. </li></ul><ul><li>Overall plan- better with a C in C against no centralised C in C. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Mutiny 1857 <ul><li>Miscellaneous </li></ul><ul><li>House of Commons and House of Lords </li></ul><ul><li>Tour plan for visit to Mutiny points at Delhi. </li></ul><ul><li>Pictures from books </li></ul><ul><li>General discussion. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Mutiny 1857 Delhi -High points of the Mutiny <ul><li>  43 VC's were awarded in this area in 1857 . </li></ul><ul><li>Kabul Gate - Spot where Nicholson fell./ George Waller VC+ SUNDAY MORNING WILL FACILITATE VISIT -THE MOST CONGESTED POINT </li></ul><ul><li>British Magazine- 3 VC's. </li></ul><ul><li>Kashmir Gate/ Nicholson Road/ Lothian Road/ Lt. Duncan Home's feat (4 VC's) and John Divane and William Sutton VC </li></ul><ul><li>Pass Nicholson Cemetery /Ludlow Castle+ </li></ul><ul><li>Jeetgarh Memorial / Bara Hindu Rao(Hospital now) The 60th R and 2GR were posted here during the seige. James Thompson, Stephen Garvin and Samuel Turner, Alfred Spencer Heathcote VC's </li></ul><ul><li>Mosque, Flag Staff tower, Bell of Arms , Barracks at DU+ </li></ul><ul><li>Pass Rajpur Cemetry- Hills and Tombs 2 VC's / Harriet Tytler -Reids Lane+ </li></ul><ul><li>Metcalfe house ++ NO PHOTOGRAPHS </li></ul><ul><li>Bloody Gate -where Hodson killed the three princes.+ </li></ul><ul><li>+ We do not alight either too crowded or not advisable. </li></ul><ul><li>Green means 60th Rifles VC </li></ul>