Role of Neem in Organic Farming Ramanjaneyulu Centre for Sustainable Agriculture International Conference on Neem
Neem in India• Grows in the plains and in areas that reach an elevation of about 1850m• Tolerant to most soil types including dry, stony, shallow soils, lateritic crusts, highly leached sands and clays• With an extensive and deep-rooted system, the hardy Neem can grow and flourish even in poor, marginal and leached soils• The Neem tree flowers between February and May. The honey-scented white flowers, found in clusters are a good source of nectar for bees• Neem fruits are green drupes that turn golden yellow on ripening in the month of June July and August in India.
Neem as fertiliser• Neem seed, cake and leaves can be used as fertilisers• Neem Cake has an adequate quantity of NPK in organic form for plant growth• Contains – N(Nitrogen 2.0% to 5.0%) – P(Phosphorus 0.5% to 1.0%) – K(Potassium 1.0% to 2.0%) – Ca(Calcium 0.5% to 3.0%) – Mg(Magnesium 0.3% to 1.0%), – S(Sulphur 0.2% to 3.0%) – Zn(Zinc 15 ppm to 60 ppm) – Cu(Copper 4 ppm to 20 ppm) – Fe (Iron 500 ppm to 1200 ppm) – Mn (Manganese 20 ppm to 60 ppm) – It is rich in both sulphur compounds and bitter limonoids.
• Neem seed cake also has the capacity to reduce alkalinity in the soil by producing organic acids which help in removing the alkalinity of the soil• The calcium and magnesium in the neem cake also aid in removing alkalinity• Being totally natural, it is compatible with soil microbes, improves and rhizosphere microflora and hence ensures fertility of the soil• Neem Cake improves the organic matter content of the soil, helping improve soil texture, water holding capacity, and soil aeration for better root development.
Neem: Denitrificator• The oxidation of ammonium (NH4+) to nitrate (NO3-) in the microbially mediated process of nitrification has long been recognised as a key nitrogen transformation process in soil–plant systems• Several reports show impact of nitrification on other N-transformation processes such as NO3-leaching and reduction of NO3_ to gaseous N compounds (denitrification) that can reduce the availability of N for crop production• The impact of the nitrification process itself and subsequent reduction of NO3_ on the release of nitrous oxide to the atmosphere, a key greenhouse gas, has also been widely studied• Better timing of fertiliser N, splitting of N inputs and use of chemicals to block nitrification in soils are strategies that have been advocated to reduce N losses.• Meliacin in neem blocks soil bacteria from converting nitrogenous compounds into nitrogen gas (acts as a nitrification inhibitor) thereby prolongs the availability of nitrogen to both short duration and long duration crops
Soil pest management• Neem cake organic manure protects plant roots from nematodes, soil grubs and white ants probably due to its residual limonoid content• Neem cake is widely used in India to fertilize paddy, cotton and sugarcane
Neem in pest management• Neem extracts can influence nearly 200 species of insects• Some of these pests are resistant to pesticides, or are inherently difficult to control with conventional pesticides (floral thrips, diamond back moth and several leaf miners).
Neem biological impacts• Insect growth regulation: Azadirachtin has a unique property of working on juvenile hormone. The insect larva feeds and when it grows, it sheds the old skin and again starts growing (ecdysis or moulting) which is governed by an enzyme called ecdysone. When the Azadirachtin enter the body of larvae, the activity of the ecdysone is suppressed and the larva fails to moult, remains in the larval stage and ultimately dies. If the larva escapes this stage due to sublethal dose, it would be malformed/sterile in the pupal or adult stage.• Feeding deterrent: The most important property of neem is feeding deterrence. The Azadirachtin, Salanin and Melandriol create a vomiting sensation in the insect body which prevents them eating. Sometimes, the swallowing is also blocked.• Oviposition deterrent: Prevents female insects from depositing eggs. When the seeds or grains are treated with neem seed kernel extract or neem oil, the insect will not feed on them and when female comes to the egg laying period of its life cycle, egg laying is prevented.• formation of chitin (exoskeleton) is inhibited• Mating as well as sexual communication is disrupted• Larvae and adults of insects are repelled• Adults are sterilised• Larvae and adults are poisoned.
Preparation of Neem Seed Kernal Extract Soak 5 kg neem kernal from shade dried fruitsin 10 lit of water for 4 hrs 10 to 15 kg shade dried fruit powder can also be used Ground neem kernals to paste and tie in a piece ofDilute the solution in 100 l of water to spray for cloth and soaked in water one acre Strain the milk like extract and add 100 g detergent powder Squeeze to extract the solution for 15-20 min
Effect of Neem Seed Kernal Extract on Spodoptera larva
Neem use against different pests• Orthoptera (Grasshoppers, crickets, katydids, etc): Neem products act as antifeedants. Several species of these insects refuse to feed on these plants treated with neem for several days to several weeks. Recently it has also been discovered that neem products convert the gregarious swarms of locusts to solitary forms.• Homoptera (Cicadas, Aphids, Scale insects, leafhoppers, etc): In leaf hoppers and plant hoppers neem products show considerable antifeedant and growth regulating effects. Scale insects are not much affected. In some cases, the host plant may influence the degree of control; this seems to apply to some whiteflies. The ability of certain homopterous insects to carry and transmit viruses are also influenced by neem products. Low doses prevent the green rice leaf hopper from infecting rice fields with tungro virus• Thysanoptera (Thrips): Neem products are very effective in controlling thrips larvae which are found in the soil. Their effect is moderate when used on adult thrips and related pests found on plants. Neem oil is more effective as it suffocates these tiny creatures.
• Coleoptera (Beetles and weevils): Larvae of all kinds of beetles refuse to feed on plants treated with neem. Their growth is retarted and some soft skinned ones are killed on contact.• Lepidoptera (Moths, skippers, millers and butterflies): neem products act as growth deterrents in the case of the larvae of most lepidopterous pests. They also act as anti-feedant.• Diptera (Flies): Insects like fruit flies, face flies, bot flies, house flies and horn flies are affected by neem products.• Hymenoptera (Bees, wasps, sawflies, ants etc): larvae of sawflies exhibit the antifeedant and growth regulatory effects.• Heteroptera (bugs): Neem products exhibit antifeedant and growth retardant properties on bugs like rice bugs etc and vegetable bugs.
• Plant viruses: besides insecticidal properties, neem is also a promising agent for control of plant diseases. Neem oil in combination with paraffin oil reduces the incidence of Yellow Vein Mosaiv (YVM) of okra, yellow mosaic of grain legumes and leaf curl of chillies. Neem oil and custard apple oil will interfere with transmission of rice tungro virus. Neem leaf extracts have shown to reduce transmission of tobacco mosaic virus which is a serious pest of vegetable crops.•• Fungi: neem exhibits antifungal properties. It prevents powdery mildew when sprayed before the outbreak of the disease. When treated with neem, Aspergillus flavus do not produce aflotoxins.
2004 2006Commnity Managed Sustainable Agriculture inAndhra Pradesh 2004-05 started with 225 acres in one dist and reached 7 lakh acres in 2007-08 in 18 dist. today the prog covers 20 lakh acres in 18 dist World Bank says this is a good tool for poverty eradication With 50 % development expenditure one can double the incomes of the farmers 2009
Farmers and area covered under CMSA RKVY funds MKSP funds 4000000 3500000 3500000 3000000 2800000 2500000 2000000 2000000 2000000 1500000 1500000 1300000 1000000 1000000 700000 600000 500000 200000 225 25000 300000 Acerage 0 80000 100 15000 Farmers pilot * Planned intervertion CSA handholding support NGOs technical support at field level SHG groups ind. handling…aiming to reach 100 lakh acres across crops in all districts of AP in by 2014
Pesticide use in Indian States (in Metric tons)1200010000 9563 89688000 7414 7332 Andhra Pradesh 6671 Gujarat6000 5975 6080 5760 5810 5610 Maharashtra 4639 Punjab4000 3198 3193 3050 Uttar Pradesh 2700 2670 2660 2650 2750 24002000 1997 1394 1541 1381 1015 0 2005-06 2006-07 2007-08 2008-09 2009-10
Average Reduction in costs and net additional income for different crops Crops Reduction in cost Reduction in costs due to use Net additional due to NPM (Rs) of organic fertilisers/manures income (Rs) (Rs) Paddy 940 1450 5590 Maize 1319 2357 5676 Cotton 1733 1968 5676 Chillies 1733 1968 7701 Groundnut 1021 3462 10483 Vegetables 1400 390 37903rd Party Evaluation of Rashtriya Krishi Vikas Yojana (RKVY) : Community Managed OrganicFarmingimplemented by SERPEvaluation TeamProf. R. Ratnakar, Director, Dr. M. Surya Mani, Professor, EXTENSION EDUCATION INSTITUTE,(Southern Region), Ministry of Agriculture, Government of India
Evaluation Report – ANGRAU• Third party evaluation commissioned by Department of Agril for RKVY• Study conducted in 18 districts funded by RKVY• Proportionate Random sampling method was used• Study conducted in 24 Mandals, 62 clusters, 320 villages• 3200 farmers, 10 farmers from each sample village
General Observations – ANGRAU• The crops viz paddy, Chillys, vegetables etc are very healthy• In case of POP activities beneficiaries earned upto Rs.40,000/- from ½ acre• Farmers who practiced Palekar models felt happy for the benefits derived by them• The lands allocated to POP beneficiaries were enthusiastic to cultivate SRI and NPM methods• In some of the sample villages farmers were earning Rs.1000 per month through NPM shop• In Sunflower and horse grams seed setting were good with NPM practices• FFS farmers are practicing AESA and decision making based on field observations
• Red gram introduced as an inter crop in soya bean fields, due to which beneficiary organisms were observed in the field• Information materials about NPM practices were very good• Wall writings with pictures are very impressive• Majority of the beneficiaries shifted from Monocropping to Mixed farming• There was yield increase about 1-2qtls in different crops• Increase in Nutritional status and livelihoods observed
Cost incurred on Fertilizer and Pesticide usage in PADDY crop during Post CMSA –NPM compared to Pre CMSA & and Non NPM fields (in Rs./ha.) District Material Pre CMSA Post CMSA NPM Post CMSA Non NPM Kharif Rabi Kharif Rabi Kharif RabiSrikakulam Fertilizers 1543.00 1428.00 1120.50 980.43 2514.90 1992.00 (44.55) (49.21) Plant 1235.95 1300.00 986.00 772.00 2245.00 2145.00 Protection (43.91) (35.99)Guntur Fertilizers 2863.50 - 1888.00 - 3968.00 - (47.58) Plant 1480.56 - 949.18 - 3261.90 - Protection (29.09)Nellore Fertilizers 2104.00 2312.00 1868.70 1781.15 3838.60 3584.00 (48.68) (49.69) Plant 2369.00 2095.00 918.88 1068.00 3182.90 3212.10 protection (28.86) (33.24) 25
Cost incurred on Fertilizer and Pesticide usage in CHILLY crop during Post CMSA –NPM compared to Pre CMSA & and Non NPM fields (in Rs./ha.) District Material Pre Post CMSA NPM Post CMSA Non CMSA NPMGuntur Fertilizers 3720.00 2867.00 4200.00 (68.26) Plant 12000.00 4224 18200.00 Protection (23.20) Irrigation 4482.00 8470.00 9960.00 (85.04) 26
Cost incurred on Fertilizer and Pesticide usage in COTTON crop during Post CMSA –NPM compared to Pre CMSA & and Non NPM fields (in Rs./ha.) District Material Pre CMSA Post CMSA NPM Post CMSA Non NPM Guntur Fertilizers 3486.00 3392.80 3585.60 (94.62) Plant Protection 7723.00 5431.04 10560.00 (51.43) Warangal Fertilizers 2120.00 2472.00 2590.00 (95.44) Plant Protection 6225.00 5260.92 9920.00 (53.03) Warangal 27 Guntur
Yield & Income Measures of Paddy Crop Post CMSA Non Post CMSA NPM Yield and Income Pre CMSA NPM Kharif KharifTotal Cost of Cultivation 19300.73 25527.64 33675.65Physical Yield Unit Main Product 54.78 65.96 65.95(in Quintals)Rate Rs Unit Main Product 722.30 1073.00 1053.00Total Returns Main Product 39567.59 70775.08 69445.35Total Returns By Product 2000.00 3750.00 3750.00Gross Returns 41567.59 74525.08 73195.35Net Returns 22266.86 48997.44 39519.70 Particulars NPM Non-NPMBenefit Cost Ratio 2.92:1 2.17:1Profitability 65.75% 53.99% 28
Yield & Income Measures of Chilly Post CMSA Non Yield and Income Pre CMSA Post CMSA NPM NPMTotal Cost of Cultivation 51528.80 64649.38 83333.25Physical Yield Unit Main Product 31.13 45.00 44.82(in Quintals)Rate Rs Unit Main Product 2875.00 4200.00 4200.00Total Returns Main Product 89498.75 189000.00 188244.00Total Returns By Product 0.00 0.00 0.00Gross Returns 89498.75 189000.00 188244.00Net Returns 37969.95 124350.62 104910.75 Particulars NPM Non-NPM Benefit Cost Ratio 2.92:1 2.26:1 Profitability 65.79% 55.73% 29
Yield & Income Measures of Cotton Post CMSA Non Pre CMSA Post CMSA NPM Yield and Income NPMTotal Cost of Cultivation 29598.50 38269.84 42711.60Physical Yield Unit Main Product 28.63 32.00 31.37(in Quintals)Rate Rs Unit Main Product 2700.00 3500.00 3500.00Total Returns Main Product 77301.00 112000.00 109795.00Total Returns By Product 0.00 0.00 0.00Gross Returns 77301.00 112000.00 109795.00Net Returns 47702.50 73730.16 67083.40 Particulars NPM Non-NPMBenefit Cost Ratio 2.93:1 2.57:1Profitability 65.83% 61.10% 30
Improved Agricultural Incomes (Pre CMSA Compared to Post CMSA farms)Average Returns: District wise/ Farmer/ha.: Average returns per farmer/ha. (Rs. per S.N annum) Percent of Increase in District o Net Returns (in %) Pre-CMSA Post-CMSA 1 Srikakulam 52,398. 80 55,596.84 6.10 2 Guntur 29,631.43 65,319.97 120 3 Nellore 37,976.19 72,894.48 91.94 4 Anantapur 15,333.54 25,493.16 66.25 5 Warangal 51,351.39 73,904.52 43.91 6 Medak 35.511.10 37,962.04 6.90 Note: A huge increase is observed in Guntur district due to the fact that the Chilly crop has had a high remunerative price which has more than doubled. 31
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