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Community Managed Sustainable Agriculture

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  • 1. Ramanjaneyulu, Centre for Sustainable Community Managed Sustainable Agriculture …caring for those who feed the nation
  • 2. Context  16 out of 3 crisis 2effected districts  More than 500 suicides in last 12 months (90 in adilabad district alone during kharif season)  Serious indebtedness- ◦ 82 % indebted ◦ Avg: Rs. 23,965/family  Only 9.4 per cent of the farmers had access to information from extension workers in 2002 with 30% accessing information through private traders  Increasing Land Use Shift-  5 lakh acres of biofuels, thousands of acres in command areas under subabul and aquaculture  20 lakh ha shifted from cultivation in last ten years  16 SEZs (of the 32 approaved)  Large scale migration
  • 3. Size of the Holdings 1956 1970-71 1995-96 2005-06 No. of Holdings (Lakhs) Area (Lakh Hectares) No. of Holdings (Lakhs) Area (Lakh Hectares) No. of Holdings (Lakhs) Area (Lakh Hectares) No. of Holdings (Lakhs) Area (Lakh Hectares) Average Size (Hectares ) (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (8) (9) (12) (13) (14) Marginal (< 1 hec.) 16.38 (38.58) 8.16 (7.89) 24.9 (46.00) 10.9 (8.00) 63.00 (59.4) 29.0 (20.2) 75.14 (61.59) 32.87 (22.69) 0.44 Small (1 – 2 hecs.) 7.75 (18.25) 10.00 (9.67) 10.6 (19.60) 15.3 (11.30) 22.6 (21.3) 32.3 (22.5) 26.39 (21.91) 37.30 (25.75) 1.41 Semi-Medium (2 – 4 hecs.) 7.53 (17.73) 16.69 (16.69) 9.4 (17.40) 26.1 (19.20) 14.0 (13.2) 37.4 (26.0) 14.44 (11.99) 38.35 (26.47) 2.66 Medium (4 – 10 hecs.) 7.11 (16.75) 29.04 (28.09) 6.9 (12.70) 47.9 (35.20) 5.6 (05.3) 32.3 (22.5) 4.87 (4.05) 27.59 (19.04) 5.66 Large (> 10 hecs.) 3.69 (8.69) 39.48 (38.19) 2.4 (4.30) 35.7 26.30) 0.8 (00.8) 12.7 (8.9) 0.56 (0.47) 8.78 (6.06) 15.66 Total 42.46 (100.00) 103.37 (100.00) 54.2 (100.00) 135.9 (100.00) 106.0 (100.00) 143.7 (100.00) 120.44 (100.00) 144.89 (100.00) -- Average Size (Hecs) - 2.43 - 2.51 - 1.36 -- 1.20 1.20 • Marginal farmers who account for about 25% of cultivated area contribute 23% of agricultural GSDP of the State. • Small farmers with 24% of cultivated land account for 23% of agricultural GSDP, whereas large farmers cultivating 4.4% of area account for only 3.4% of output. • small-marginal size accounts for 90 percent of the holdings and 66 percent of the area operated by the SCs.
  • 4. 1.1 1.14 1.4 1.84 2.6 5.5 9.42 2.13 2.05 2.27 2.55 3.05 4.13 5.74 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 < 0.01 0.01 – 0.40 0.41 – 1.00 1.01 – 2.00 2.01 – 4.00 2.01 – 10.00 > 10.00 MonthlyIncomeandExpenditureperFarmer ousehold(2002-03)(Rs'000)(Hec.) Size-Class of Land Possessed (Hecs.) Size-Class of Landholdings and Average Monthly Income and Consumption Levels per Farming Household in A.P (2002-03) Income Expenditure
  • 5. Agriculture Cost of Production for Small & Marginal Farmers in AP Series1, seed, 1585, 11% Series1, pesticide, 2057, 14% Series1, fertiliser, 3070, 21% Series1, irrigation, 828, 6% Series1, interest, 446, 3% Series1, land rent, 1662, 12% Series1, labour, 3388, 24% others 9% Source: *NSS Report No. 497: Income, Expenditure and Productive Assets of Farmer Households, 2003 Pesticides and Fertilizers account for >1/3rd of Total Cost of Production
  • 6. Today agriculture is becoming highly LINEAR, • Is based on maximizing the output of a narrow range of species leading to monoculture of crops and varieties • Is based on capital depletion and massive additions of external inputs (e.g. energy, water, chemicals) • Views the farm as a factory with “inputs” (such as pesticides, feed, fertilizer, and fuel) and “outputs” (grain, cotton, chicken, and so forth) • Never cared about the externalities • Where as traditionally agriculture was highly CYCLIC and INTEGRATED.
  • 7. Support systems highly skewed  Research system and extension system promoting only external input based agriculture- technology driven  Subsidies only for external inputs  Price support announced for several crops but procurement is only for few crops  Un-remunerative pricing systems  Regulatory systems and accountability systems disfunctional
  • 8. What is happening…  Heavy dependency on external inputs: Increasing coc, Eco costs  Collapse of support systems  Inputs  Unfavorable markets-un-remunerative prices, low share in consumer prices, tied-up sales  Decreasing govt. support/subsidies/credit  Land degradation, soil erosion, saline  Vicious cycle of indebtedness, losses  Unemployment, Poverty  Regulatory systems and accountability systems dysfunctional  Ecological Crisis  Economic Crisis  Policy Crisis  Production practices  Market and prices  Policy Support
  • 9. Pesticides poisoning past, present and future • Acute poisoning effects • Agriculture workers killed • Chronic poisoning effects • Children growth effected • Effect on reproductive health • Pesticides increased costs of cultivations • Rs. 1000 to 15000/acre • Ecological Disturbances • Beneficials killed, pest shifts • Pest resistances, pest resurgences • Poisoning of resources • Soils • Water • Milk
  • 10. GM crops and foods  Key issues • Relevance of GM crops • Biosafety issues • IPRs andMarket monopoly • Conflicts of interests and scandals  Studies on NPM vs/Bt cotton  Documentary evidences on Violations of regulations in field trials,  Illegal GM food crop field trials  First reports on Bronze wilt, Tobacco Streak Virus, Mealybug  Evidences on sheep death  Studies on Environmental Risk Assessment and Socio Economic Impacts http://www.indiagminfo.org
  • 11. Ever-growing… Years 2005-06 2006-07 2007-08 2008-09 Fertiliser Subsidy 18299 25952 40338 119772* (estimated) Years 2005-06 2006-07 2007-08 2008-09 Fertiliser Subsidy 18299 25952 40338 119772* (estimated) *Source : Department of Fertilisers, Min of Chemicals and Fertilizers, Govt of India The New Indian Express, July 8, 2008
  • 12. Subsidizing pollution Products 2007-08 2008-09 (RE) 2009-10 (BE) Urea (Indegenous) 16.45 19.52 9.78 Urea (Imported) 6.61 10.98 5.95 P & K Fertilisers 16.94 65.35 34.25 Total 39.99 95.85 49.98 Source Fertiliser Statistics, FAI • Factor productivity of Chemical fertilisers come down • Leached nutrients (>40% ) pollute the groundwater and river waters cleaning up needs high energy • GHG emissions from fertiliser manufacture and use in India reached nearly 100 million tonnes of CO2-eq in 2006/07, which represents about 6 percent of total Indian GHG emissions • In AP 30 % of soil are reported to be saline • Shift in crops and varieties can result in high nutrient use (Shift to commercial crops/Hybrids/GM)
  • 13. Fertilizers and pollution  Factor productivity of Chemical fertilisers come down  Leached nutrients (>40% ) pollute the groundwater and river waters cleaning up needs high energy  In AP 30 % of soil are reported to be saline  Shift in crops and varieties can result in high nutrient use  Shift to commercial crops  GM cotton needs 50 % more fertilizer-ANGRAU  Recent study from IARI (Sarkar. et.al,2008*) says Bt cotton may constrain N availability and reduce soil microbial activity The global greenhouse gas emissions from fertiliser manufacture and use in India reached nearly 100 million tonnes of CO2-eq in 2006/07, which represents about 6 percent of total Indian greenhouse gas emissions
  • 14. Lift Irrigation Schemes in AP Today 3,000 mega watts power is supplied freely to agriculture for 29 lakh pump sets • 47 lakh ha would be brought under irrigation by 2012 • It needs 12,682 Megawatt power • Seven and half horse power motor will be used for every 10 acres and five lakh such motors have to be installed in the next four years • Needs 37.5 lakh HP electricity (2775 mega watt) • Major lift irrigation schemes needs 6407 mega watt • Minor lift irrigation schemes needs 500 mega watt • To produce and supply one mega watt power • Rs. 4 cr to create infrastructure to produce • Rs. 4.5 cr for transmission and distribution • Annual costs • Per acre Rs. 11,000/year for supplying 30 days in two seasons • Maintaining costs ???
  • 15. Increasing tenancy  The A.P. (Andhra Area) Tenancy Act of 1956 and its amendment in 1974 (Act 39 of 1974 which came into force in 1980) are known to be too rigid, which have driven the entire leasing operations as informal oral arrangements  To remedy the situation, the Land Revenue Act of 1999, also stipulated that the names of the tenants should be recorded in the revenue records.  The lease should be 33% of the output in case of irrigated and 24% in rainfed areas.  Till now none of these measures are implemented and tenancy remains informal.  hence, the tenant farmers are not eligible for any government support in the form of credit, subsidies, insurance or crop compensations in case of failure.
  • 16.  The incidence of indebtedness among farming households is the highest in Andhra Pradesh (A.P) with 82 percent, compared to 48.6 percent for All India.  The share of non-institutional sources in outstanding debt is the highest in A.P at 68.5 percent compared to 42.4 percent for All India.  The share of non-institutional sources in the total debt of small-marginal farmers is the highest in the State at 76.20 percent compared to 49.50 percent for All India.  The share of the State in the total non-institutional debt of the country as a whole is a whopping 22.32 percent.  It is the only State with “moneylender” as the single largest source of debt at 53.40 percent compared to the All India average of 25.70 percent.  The share of “bank loans” (CBs + RRBs) in the total outstanding loans of farmers is the lowest in the State at 20 percent compared to 35.60 percent for All India.  The share of “cooperative loans” in the total outstanding loans of farmers is one of the lowest in the State at 10 percent compared to 19.60 percent for All India.  While in many states ‘financial exclusion’ of small-marginal farmers is a major problem, in Andhra Pradesh ‘financial inclusion’ – in a big way inclusion in non- institutional finance – is a major problem assuming a serious crisis.
  • 17. Decline in support to small 1985 1990 1995 2003 2006 49.60% 58.70% 52.00% 23.60% 13.30% • 75% decline in the share in amount of small Agri. loans (Rs.25,000 and less) compared to share in 1990) ( percent) • during the same period, share of Agri advances of Rs.1 Crore and above increased by a whopping 400%. No. of A/Cs Amount Small loans unto RS.25,000 1,78,00,000 22,979 Loans Rs 1 crore and above 7,300 50,969 March2006 –amount of agri loans (Rs.in Crores) Sources of loans Less than 0.4 0.41-1.00 1.01-2.00 Above 2.00 Institutional 42.4 52.8 57.6 66.8 Non-Institutional 57.6 47.2 42.4 33.2
  • 18. Community Managed Sustainable Agriculture  Institutional approach for Economic and Ecological Sustainability of Farming based livelihoods  Promote locally adapted and proven successful practices  Built a sustainable institutional model for learning and management  Value addition and collective Marketing  Federated Community Managed Institutions  Converging all government schemes at the villages level to maximize the reach and benefit  Farmers organised into cooperatives/Producer companies  Farmer Field School (for Learning and capacity building)  PGS groups for Quality Management
  • 19. Backyard Biotechnology Soil application Spraying on crops Composts Crop residue/ animal waste Digested vermicompost Leaves and other plant material Green manuring • Insitu • Collection and applicationAerobic: NADEP Anaerobic: Compost Solutions/Extracts • Aqueous or other suitable solvent • Chilli-garlic extract • Neem extracts Decoctions • Boiled in water and filtered • Nux vomica dec • Tobacco dec Fermented solutions • Fermented products • Microbial solutions • Panchagavya, Amruthajalam, buttermilk
  • 20. 20
  • 21. Economics from all locations Crop Cost of cultivation (Rs/Ac.) Yield (Q/Ac.) Gross Returns (Rs.) Net returns (Rs.) Organic Non- Organic Organic Non- Organic Organic Non- Organic Organic Non- Organic Paddy 11950 14340 32 32.2 29340 29630 17390 15370 Maize 7922 8314 21.8 19.6 19620 17640 11698 9326 Ground nut 9270 10340 9.8 9.8 24500 24500 15230 14160 Bengal gram 4800 5650 5.5 6.5 11270 12300 6475 6650 Chilli 48918 72237 24.5 26.5 147000 117000 98082 47013 Onion 13200 15400 71.6 67.6 28800 26000 15600 10600 Cotton 10980 10380 4.5 4 13500 11600 2520 1220
  • 22. Punukula, the first pesticides-free village
  • 23. Yenabavi -Organic Village • Entire village (55 households’ 228 acres) organic for last five years • Most of the inputs internalised into farming • Land Productivity increased, crop yields maintained • In SRI paddy 44 bags were also recorded • Recently awarded Krishi Gaurav Award by Baba Ramdev’s Patanjali Trust for their role in promoting organic farming • More than 30 thousand farmers visited the village in last three years
  • 24. Reach 2010 State District Farmers Cooperative s Seed cooperatives Small farmer Agriculture Ecologic al Farming Community Managed Sustainable Agriculture Partner s Villages AP Ananthpur REDS RDT 13 APPS 14 60 Kurnool CSA 1 5 Mahaboobnagar CSA 1 5 Nalgonda PEACE DDN network 6 15 Warangal CROPS 2 10 MARI Khammam SECURE 1 5 Guntur Rakshana 1 10 Vishakapatnam Viswasamakya 5 14 Chattisgarh Raipur AGROCRAT 1 10 Punjab Batinda Faridkot KVM 1 5 Maharashtra Wardha CSA 1 5 Utter Pradesh Sultanpur RGVMP 1 10Raibareily 14 districts Total 35 154
  • 25. Producers’ Cooperatives (7) Other project villages (130) Consumer Cooperative (1) Sahaja Aharam Cooperatives
  • 26. Sahaja Aharam Mutually Aided Marketing Cooperative FederationDistrict Name of the Cooperative Village, Mandal Facilitating Organisatio n Producer Cooperatives 1 Warangal Yenabavi Organic Farmers’ Mutually Aided Cooperative Society Ltd Yenabavi, Lingalaganapur CROPS, Jangoan 2 Swayamkrushi Organic Farmers’ Mutually Aided Cooperative Society Ltd Parvathagiri MARI, Warangal 2 Nalgonda Bommalaramaram Organic Farmers Mutually Aided Cooperative Society Ltd Chowdaripalli, Bommalaramaram PEACE, Nalgonda 3 Ananthpur Kadiri Swasakthi Organic Farmers and Forest Producers Mutually Aided Cooperative Society Ltd Kadiri REDS, Kadiri 4 Guntur Abyudaya Sustainable Agriculture Farmers Mutually Aided Cooperative Trift and Marketing Society Limited Koyavaripalem, Pattipadu Rakshana, Chirala 5 Khamma m Punukula Organic Farmers Mutually Aided Cooperative Society Ltd Punukula, Palvoncha SECURE, Palvoncha 6 Mahaboo bnagar Nallamalla Agriculture Products Marketing Mutually Aided Cooperative Society Limited Venkatagiri, Balmoor CONARE, Achampet Consumer Cooperative
  • 27. Sahaja Aharam Cooperatives Producer Co-op-1 Farmer Group B Consumer Co-op • Healthy food • Affordable Price • Max share to farmers Organic Store Mobile Store Direct to Home Producer Co-op-2 Other farmers and farmers groups Farmer Group A Farmer Group C Sahaja Aharam Cooperative Federation • Capacity building • Institutional building • Value Chain Fund • Brand building • Qualtiy Management • Fair Trade Market place Direct to resellers Whole sale to traders Bulk buyers Organic Store Processing units Seed market Yet to estiblish
  • 28. Credit needs  Production credit not accessible: tenant farmers/  Farmers holding capacity is very less  Lack of infrastructure (ware house/processing units/machinery…)  Coops can make production plans converging all credit needs for production.  Rolling credit for three years would be ideal  Cash Credit limit for supporting marketing  New credit and insurance instruments needed
  • 29. Financial support  Subsidy recasting to support  internalised inputs  Labour  Common infrastructure  Newer models of Insurance systems  Coupled with risk reducing practices  NPM in crops  Preventive health care in animals  Micro insurance –first 30 DAS/Dry spells/price fluctuation etc  Disaster preparedness  Drought/floods
  • 30. NPM Scaling up in Andhra Pradesh  2004-05 started with 225 acres in one dist and reached 7 lakh acres in 2007-08 in 18 dist. today the prog covers 20 lakh acres in 18 dist  World Bank says this is a good tool for poverty eradication  With 50 % development expenditure one can double the incomes of the 2004 2009 2006
  • 31. Program strategies  Building a Institutional Basis  Five villages are grouped into a cluster  Clusters are managed by Federation of Women/Farmers group at Block level  Monthly Reviewing at Block, District and State level  Continuous technical support in the village  Best practicing farmer in the village identified as village activist  Weekly group meetings (FFS) in the fields for reviewing, researching, trouble shooting and capacity building  Paid cluster activist for 5 villages  Technical support by experienced N.G.Os, C.R.Ps and Govt staff  Variety of resource material prepared
  • 32. …aiming to reach 100 lakh acres across crops in all districts of AP in by 2014 225 25000 200000 700000 1300000 2000000 100 15000 80000 300000 600000 1000000 0 500000 1000000 1500000 2000000 2500000 2004-05 2005-06 2006-07 2007-08 2008-09 2009-10 Acerag e Farmers and area covered under CMSA pilot CSA handholding support NGOs technical support at field level SHG groups ind. handling RKVY funds Rs. 167 Cr. for 5 yr
  • 33. Area under different crops (2007-08) 60000 250000 12000 200000 50000 5000 15000 3000 6000 5000 3000 5000 70000 16000 Crops (acres) cotton paddy chillies groundnut redgram vegetables castor sesame other pulses chickpea millets sunflower maize others
  • 34. Distinguished visitors Dr. V L Chopra, Member Planning Commission Jairam Ramesh, Honble Minister for Commerce T. Nandakumar Secretary Agriculture GOI
  • 35. More information Visit us at http://www.csa-india.org http://www.takingroots.in http://www.sahajaaharam.in http://www.indiagminfo.org http://www.agrariancrisis.in Ph. 09000699702 ramoo@csa-india.org

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