121230 Vidharba Agrarian Crisis and Way Forward

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Vidharba, Maharashtra is becoming a hot bed of farmers suicides, a complete paradigm shift in the way agriculture is done and supported is needed to make change possible

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  • 121230 Vidharba Agrarian Crisis and Way Forward

    1. 1. Sustaining Farming and Farmers in Vidharba In the era of economic, ecological and climate crises Ramanjaneyulu Centre for Sustainable Agriculture
    2. 2. Intensive Agriculture• Economic Crisis – Increasing costs of cultivation and decreasing returns – Reducing public support and increasing indebtedness• Ecological Crisis – is highly LINEAR, whereas traditionally agriculture was highly CYCLICAL. – is based on maximizing the output of a narrow range of species leading to monoculture of crops and varieties – is based on capital depletion and massive additions of external inputs (e.g. energy, water, chemicals) – views the farm as a factory with “inputs” (such as pesticides, feed, fertilizer, and fuel) and “outputs” (grain, cotton, chicken, and so forth) – never cared about the externalities• Socio-political crisis – Increasing tenancy, land use shift – Increasing farmers suicides, 270,940 in 17 years – Huge migration
    3. 3. Farmers suicides in India200001800016000140001200010000 8000 6000 4000 2000 0 5 9 1 6 9 1 7 9 1 8 9 1 9 1 0 2 1 0 2 0 2 3 0 2 4 0 2 5 0 2 6 0 2 7 0 2 8 0 2 9 0 2 1 0 2 1 0 2 No. of suicides Total 270,940 in 17 years Source: NCRB 1995-2010
    4. 4. • two-thirds of the suicides are occurring in half-a- dozen States that account for just about one-third of the country’s population
    5. 5. Farmers suicides in Maharashtra500045004000350030002500200015001000 500 0 5 9 1 6 9 1 7 9 1 8 9 1 9 1 0 2 1 0 2 0 2 3 0 2 4 0 2 5 0 2 6 0 2 7 0 2 8 0 2 9 0 2 1 0 2 1 0 2 No. of suicides Total 53,818 in 17 years Source: NCRB 1995-2011
    6. 6. State Farmer Suicides Difference (2nd Avg-1st Avg) 1995-2002 2003-2010Andhra Pradesh 1590 2301 +711Assam 155 291 +135Karnataka 2259 2123 -136Kerala 1292 1071 -221MP+Chhattisgarh 2304 2829 +525Maharashtra 2508 3802 +1294Tamil Nadu 992 866 -126Uttar Pradesh 640 531 -109West Bengal 1426 990 -436The table only includes States whose annual averages have risen or fallen by over 100 farmsuicides between the to periods. It also treats Madhya Pradesh and Chhattisgarh as one unitfor data purposes.Source: NCRB Accidental Deaths & Suicides in India Reports 1995-2010
    7. 7. Deep economic crisis • Reducing incomes • Yield stagnation • Increasing costs of cultivation • Increasing small holdings • Increasing tenancy • Reducing institutional credit All the policy supports are skewed towards largefarmers, large farms, few cash crops and high external input based production systems
    8. 8. Farmers income• Increasing costs of cultivation• Increasing living expenditure• Reducing Subsidies• Fluctuating Market Prices
    9. 9. Income and Expenditure of farmers Land Category Total Expenditure Percent of holding Income (Rs/month) farmers (Rs/month) <0.01 Landless 1380 2297 36 % 0.01-0.4 Sub marginal 1633 2390 0.4-1.0 Marginal 1809 2672 31 % 1.0-2.0 Small 2493 3148 17 % 2.0-4.0 Semi-medium 3589 3685 10 % 4.0-10.0 Medium 5681 4626 6% >10.0 Large 9667 6418 Total 2115 2770 All farmersSource: Report “On Conditions Of Work And Promotion Of Livelihoods In The Unorganised Sector” Arjun SenGupta Committee, 2007
    10. 10. Unremunerative prices• MSP determination is faulty and unscientific.• Governments keep the prices low to ensure cheap labor and cheap inputs, and food security for poor• Minimum Support Prices are announced for 25 commodities but market intervention only for rice, wheat, cotton• Agricultural prices don’t account for living costs of rural families. Rising inflation has double impact on farmers with increasing living costs & decreasing incomes• Removal of quantitative restrictions and allowing cheaper imports• Restrictions on exports on certain crops depressing local market prices
    11. 11. Comparision of Costs and MSPCrop Cost/quintal Cost/quintal Recommended (CACP est.) (State govt est.) MSPPaddy 896 1270 1080Jowar 1393 1145 980Maize 935 1114 980Tur 2373 3668 3100Groundnut 3185 3324 2700Sunflower 2799 3439 2800Cotton 2579 3828 2900Moong 2974 3480 3400Source: CACP Kharif Price Report,, 2011-12
    12. 12. Prices to Farmers during 2010-11 and 2011-12Crop 2010-11 Rs/Quintal 2011-12 Rs/QuintalCotton 6500 3600Turmeric 14000 4000Chillies 12000 5500Redgram 5000 3500Blackgram 5200 3500Bajra 4000 2000Jowar 2500 1800Onion 16000 2500Sweet Orange 75000 60000
    13. 13. MSPs for 2012-13 (Rs/q)Crop Current MSP After increasePaddy (coarse) 1080 1250Paddy (A Grade) 1110 1280Blackgram 3300 4300Soybean (black) 1650 2200Soybean (yellow) 1690 2240Groundnut 2700 3700Cotton (medium staple) 2800 3600Cotton (long staple) 3300 3900Sunflower 2800 3700Sesame 3400 4200Ragi 1050 1500Valasulu 2900 3500Maize 980 1175Bajra 980 1175Jowar 1000 1520Jowar (hybrid) 980 1500
    14. 14. Monoculturing crops, varieties, genes, trees animals • Today Cotton, Maize, Paddy, Sugar Cane are the only crops whose area increasing • Within crops 80% of the production comes from few genetic backgrounds • Increasing area under hybrid crops in areas not suitable like rainfed areas, hill regions • 99 % of the cotton with bt genes to fight four major pests..several others in pipeline • Promotion of water intensive orchards in rainfed areas • Promotion of cross bred animals, buffaloes in rainfed areas
    15. 15. GM crops and foods• Key issues • Relevance of GM crops • Biosafety issues • IPRs andMarket monopoly • Conflicts of interests and scandals• Studies on NPM vs/Bt cotton• Documentary evidences on Violations of regulations in field trials,• Illegal GM food crop field trials• First reports on Bronze wilt, Tobacco Streak Virus, Mealybug• Evidences on sheep death• Studies on Environmental Risk Assessment and Socio Economic Impacts http://www.indiagminfo.org
    16. 16. Before Bt Cotton 70% increase
    17. 17. Cotton in Maharashtra Year Area (lakh ha) Production (lakh bales) Yield (kg/ha) 1996-97 30.85 33.00 182.00 1997-98 31.39 21.50 116.00 1998-99 31.99 26.50 141.00 1999-00 32.54 38.00 199.00 2000-01 30.77 18.25 101.00 2001-02 29.80 34.25 195.00 2002-03 28.00 26.00 158.00 2003-04 27.66 31.00 191.00 2004-05 28.40 52.00 311.00 2005-06 28.75 35.00 207.00 2006-07 31.07 50.00 274.00 2007-08 31.95 62.00 330.00 2008-09 31.42 62.00 335.00 2009-10 35.03 65.75 319.00 2010-11 39.32 87.75 379.00 2011-12 41.25 74.00 305.00 2012-13 41.30 80.00 329.00http://cotcorp.gov.in/statistics.aspx
    18. 18. Status of pesticide utilization in different states** Sno State 2005-06 2006-07 2007-08 2008-09 2009-10 1 Andhra Pradesh 1997 1394 1541 1381 1015 2 Gujarat 2700 2670 2660 2650 2750 3 Haryana 4560 4600 4390 4288 4070 4 Jammu & Kashmir 1433 829 1248 2679.27 1640 5 Karnataka 1638 1362 1588 1675 1647 6 Kerala 571 545 780 272.69 631 7 Madhya Pradesh 787 957 696 663 645 8 Maharashtra 3198 3193 3050 2400 4639 9 Orissa 963 778 N/A 1155.75 1588 10 Punjab 5610 5975 6080 5760 5810 11 Rajasthan 1008 3567 3804 3333 3527 12 Tamil Nadu 2211 3940 2048 2317 2335 13 Uttar Pradesh 6671 7414 7332 8968 9563 14 West Bengal 4250 3830 3945 4100 NA Total 39773 41515 43630 43860 41822**Source: http://ppqs.gov.in/IpmPesticides.htm MT of active ingredient
    19. 19. Depleting natural resources • Increasing dark zones due to groundwater depletion • 30 % of soils are reported to be saline by the recent study by ministry of environment
    20. 20. (‘000 crore)Fertilisers 2002-03 2003-04 2004-05 2005-06 2006-07 2007-08 2008-09 2009-10 2010-11 2011-12Indigenous Urea 7.79 8.52 10.24 10.65 12.65 12.95 17.97 17.58 15.08 13.31Imported Urea 0.00 0.00 0.49 1.21 3.27 6.61 10.08 4.60 6.40 6.98Sale of decontrolledfertiliser with concession tofarmers 3.23 3.33 5.14 6.60 10.30 12.93 48.56 39.08 33.50 29.71Total Fertiliser Subsidy 11.02 11.85 15.88 18.46 26.22 32.49 76.60 61.26 54.98 50.00* * Revised estimate is 90.00 th cr
    21. 21. Consumption of Fertilizer by Land Holding Source: Fertilizer Association of India, 2007 Size of Land Holding (Acres)Higher dependence on chemical fertilisers by small/marginal farmers – higher risk
    22. 22. Fertilizer issues• Fertilizer use efficiency less than 50%• Factor productivity of fertilizer coming down• Fertilizer production largely dependent on Petroleum products and prices fluctuate with them• Phosphotic and Potash reserves coming down
    23. 23. GHG emissions from India • 64% of India’s population depends on Agriculture • Contribution of Agriculture to GDP ~ 18%. • GHG Emissions from Agriculture sector – 344 million t CO2e/year • Agriculture – second largest contributor of GHGsSource: India’s first national communication to UN
    24. 24. Share of different sectors of agriculture in India to climate change Manure Rice cultivation management 23% Crop residues 5% 1% Emission from soils 12% Enteric fermentation 59% Source: India’s Initial National Communication on Climate Change, 2004
    25. 25. CH4 and N2O emissionsOne of the largest contributor of CH4 and N2O
    26. 26. Chemical Fertilizers contribution• Total greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) from the manufacturing and transport of fertiliser are estimated at 6.7 kg CO2 equivalent (CO2, nitrous oxide and methane) per kg N• 1.25 kg of N2O emitted per 100 kg of Nitrogen applied• Globally, an average 50% of the nitrogen used in farming is lost to the environment: • as N2O to the air as a potent GHG (310 x CO 2) • as nitrate polluting wells, rivers, and oceans • Volatilization loss 25-33 % • Leaching loss 20-30 %
    27. 27. Sustainable Agriculture• All agriculture takes CO2 out of the atmosphere. But, organic agriculture does it at as much as 3 times the rate of conventional agriculture. – Not only does organic agriculture take CO2 out of the atmosphere at a higher rate than conventional agriculture, but the system releases less CO2 into the air through the very nature of the process. – Industry releases CO2 to produce chemical fertilizers and herbicides that conventional agriculture requires. Since organic agriculture uses neither of these inputs, the net release of CO2 is much less.• The 23-year The Rodale Institute Farming Systems Trial® found the conventional agriculture system sequestered (stored in the soil) just 303 pounds of carbon per soil acre foot. – the organic agriculture system based on a legume cover crop and diversified rotation sequestered 594 pounds of carbon per soil acre foot. – the organic agriculture system based on a manure application and diversified rotation sequestered 1,019 pounds of carbon per soil acre foot
    28. 28. Policy Shift• economic sustainability Better prices and income security for agricultural families,• ecological sustainability to preserve the productive natural resources,• peoples control and access to agricultural resources including land, water, forest, seed and knowledge,• ensuring non-toxic, diverse, nutritious and adequate food for all Indians.
    29. 29. 29Changing to multiple cropping systems
    30. 30. Switching over to ecological farming practices 30
    31. 31. 2004 2006Commnity Managed Sustainable Agricutlure inAndhra Pradesh2004-05 started with 225 acres in one dist andreached 7 lakh acres in 2007-08 in 18 dist. todaythe prog covers 35 lakh acres in 22 distWorld Bank says this is a good tool for povertyeradicationWith 50 % development expenditure one candouble the incomes of the farmers 2009
    32. 32. Farmers and area covered under CMSA RKVY funds MKSP funds 4000000 3500000 3500000 3000000 2800000 2500000 2000000 2000000 2000000 1500000 1500000 1300000 1000000 1000000 700000600000 500000 200000 225 25000 300000 Acerage 0 80000 100 15000 Farmers Pesticide use pilot * Planned intervertion CSA handholding support NGOs technical support at field level SHG groups ind. handling…aiming to reach 100 lakh acres across crops in all districts of AP in by 2014
    33. 33. Recasting Support and better regulation• Community Managed Extension till block level using practicing farmers• Subsidies for farmers own resources and labour• Creating awareness about the problems with chemicals• Restricting all pesticides banned world over• No GM crops in crops India is Centre for Diversity• Long term biosafety tests to establish the safety
    34. 34. Ensuring better prices• Organizing farmers into groups to improve their bargaining power• Farmer groups moving up the value chain for better price realisation• Decentralized PDS, ICDS, Mid-day meals
    35. 35. Ensuring Income Security• Remunerative prices, Price stabilization fund• Price Compensation for food crops• Reduce Cost of Cultivation – promote low-cost methods• Recast Input subsidies – fertilizer, seed, labour• Institutional and Infrastructure Support Systems• Crop insurance and Disaster relief• Producer Bonus for rainfed farmers & ecological farmers• Direct Payment if net income less than minimum
    36. 36. Price Compensation• A crop-wise Target Price is declared based on C2+50% and living costs• If average Farm Harvest Price is less than Target Price, the difference should be paid to the cultivator• This provision is only for food crops which are included in the MSP regime• Payment is calculated based on district-level or taluk- level averages of the FHP and yield• Should benefit actual cultivator, including tenants and sharecroppers
    37. 37. Demand: Farmers Income Guarantee• Government should guarantee a minimum living income to each cultivator family; as an illustration, Rs.6000 per month which is indexed to inflation• Farmers Income Commission: Documents real net incomes of farmers across India. Makes specific recommendations to satisfy the income guarantee• Use basket of measures focused on farmer incomes; instead of isolated schemes, they are all geared to meet the common mandate of farmer incomes• Accountability of agriculture policy to farming incomes
    38. 38. What is Required• State Agricultural Prices Commission, which calculates correct costs of cultivation and determines MSP for all 25 crops before the season. MSP should be remunerative, considering rising living costs.• If MSP declared by Centre is less than this, State government should declare the balance as bonus• Timely efficient procurement directly from farmers. Storage facilities preferably owned by farmer groups• Price stabilization fund for market intervention in all the 25 crops
    39. 39. http://www.csa-india.orghttp://www.krishi.tvhttp://www.agrariancrisis.inhttp://www.sahajaaharam.inhttp://www.kisanswaraj.inhttp://www.indiaforsafefood.inPh. 040-27017735, mobile : 09000699702csa@csa-india.org, ramoo.csa@gmail.comFacebook: ramoo.csaCENTRE FOR SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE

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