• Share
  • Email
  • Embed
  • Like
  • Save
  • Private Content
121127 agrarian change and impact on farmers
 

121127 agrarian change and impact on farmers

on

  • 547 views

 

Statistics

Views

Total Views
547
Views on SlideShare
529
Embed Views
18

Actions

Likes
1
Downloads
27
Comments
1

1 Embed 18

http://agrariancrisis.in 18

Accessibility

Categories

Upload Details

Uploaded via as Microsoft PowerPoint

Usage Rights

© All Rights Reserved

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel

11 of 1 previous next

  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
  • This is compulsory reading for anyone concerned with the fate of the world.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
Post Comment
Edit your comment
  • pr

121127 agrarian change and impact on farmers 121127 agrarian change and impact on farmers Presentation Transcript

  • Agrarian change and impact on farmers G. V. Ramanjaneyulu
  • Agrarian Change• Changes in Agriculture Practices – High external input agriculture – Mono culturing of crops, varieties and genes – High use of chemicals – Shift to irrigated farming and neglect of rainfed crops• Changes in Economic policies – Decreasing subsidies and public support – Increasing cost of credit, inputs – Non-remunerative prices – Increasing living costs due to state with drawl from providing basic services• Changes in access to resources – Productive resources (Land, water and seeds ) getting alienated – Increasing tenant farmers – Seeds becoming proprietary technologies
  • India: home of family farms• Between 1960-61 and 2003, the total number of operational holdings increased from 50.77 million to 101.27 million.• During the same period, the total operated area declined from 133.46 million hectares to 107.65 million hectares.• Thus average operated area declined from 2.63 hectares to 1.06 hectares.(NSSO, Some Aspects of Operational Land Holdings in India,various issues)• increasing absentee landlordism• India is the home of worlds largest farm laborers and land workers
  • Shifts in cropping patterns Million haNo Crop 1970-71 1980-81 1990-91 2000-01 2010-111 Rice 37.6 40.1 42.7 44.7 42.12 Wheat 18.2 22.3 24.2 25.7 29.23 Jowar 17.4 15.8 14.4 9.9 7.14 Bajra 12.9 11.7 10.5 9.8 9.45 Maize 5.8 6 5.9 6.6 8.56 Other cereals 9.9 8.3 5.5 3.3 2.17 Gram 7.8 6.6 7.5 5.2 9.28 Tur 2.7 2.8 3.6 3.6 4.49 Cotton 7.6 7.8 7.4 8.6 11.1
  • Monoculturing crops, varieties, genes, trees & animals• Today Cotton, Maize, Paddy, Sugar Cane are the only crops whose area increasing• Within crops 80% of the production comes from few genetic backgrounds• Increasing area under hybrid crops in areas not suitable like rainfed areas, hill regions• 99 % of the cotton with bt genes to fight four major pests..several others in pipeline• Promotion of water intensive orchards in rainfed areas• Promotion of cross bred animals, buffaloes in rainfed areas
  • Bt cotton yield increase700 Before Bt Cotton After Bt cotton 140%600 70% increase only 2% increase 554 521 524 517 120% 503500 470 472 481 90% 100% 399 84% 85% 85%400 80% 308 302 62%300 278 60% 41%200 40% 18%100 20% 6% 0% 0% 0% 1% 0 0%Data for % area under BT for 2010-11 and 2011-12 are estimatesand for 2005-06 is interpolated Yield in kgs per hectare % area under BT
  • Pesticides poisoning past, present and future • Acute poisoning effects • Agriculture workers killed • Chronic poisoning effects • Children growth effected • Effect on reproductive health • Pesticides increased costs of cultivations • Rs. 1000 to 15000/acre • Ecological Disturbances • Beneficials killed, pest shifts • Pest resistances, pest resurgences • Poisoning of resources • Soils • Water • Milk • Food (NIN study found18 pesticides found in Vegetables in Hyderabad, 2012)
  • (‘000 crore)Fertilisers 2002-03 2003-04 2004-05 2005-06 2006-07 2007-08 2008-09 2009-10 2010-11 2011-12Indigenous Urea 7.79 8.52 10.24 10.65 12.65 12.95 17.97 17.58 15.08 13.31Imported Urea 0.00 0.00 0.49 1.21 3.27 6.61 10.08 4.60 6.40 6.98Sale of decontrolledfertiliser with concession tofarmers 3.23 3.33 5.14 6.60 10.30 12.93 48.56 39.08 33.50 29.71Total Fertiliser Subsidy 11.02 11.85 15.88 18.46 26.22 32.49 76.60 61.26 54.98 50.00* * Revised estimate is 90.00 th cr
  • Fertilizer issues• Fertilizer use efficiency less than 50%• Factor productivity of fertilizer coming down• Fertilizer production largely dependent on Petroleum products and prices fluctuate with them• Phosphotic and Potash reserves coming down• Increasing micronutrient deficiencies resulting in newer diseases
  • Depleting natural resources • Increasing dark zones due to groundwater depletion • 30 % of soils are reported to be saline by the recent study by ministry of environment • New water policy
  • Whose Self Sufficiency?
  • Farmers income and expenditureReducing incomes• Increasing costs of cultivation• Reducing Subsidies• Fluctuating Market Prices• Inflation has double impactIncreasing living expenditures• With drawl of public sector from providing basic services• While total development expenditure as a share of GDP was fourteen and a half per cent in 1989-90, it was 5.9 per cent by 2005.
  • Income and Expenditure of farmers Land Category Total Income Expenditure Percent of holding (Rs/month) (Rs/month) farmers <0.01 Landless 1380 2297 36 % 0.01-0.4 Sub marginal 1633 2390 0.4-1.0 Marginal 1809 2672 31 % 1.0-2.0 Small 2493 3148 17 % 2.0-4.0 Semi-medium 3589 3685 10 % 4.0-10.0 Medium 5681 4626 6% >10.0 Large 9667 6418 Total 2115 2770 All farmersSource: Report “On Conditions Of Work And Promotion Of Livelihoods In The Unorganised Sector” Arjun SenGupta Committee, 2007
  • Monthly Per Capita Consumption ExpenditureRange (in Rupees) Bottom 10% pop Rural India Urban India 10-20 % pop 20-30 % pop 30-40 % pop 40-50 % pop 50-60 % pop 60-70 % pop 70-80 % pop 80-90 % pop 90-100 % pop AllSource: National Sample Survey 66th Round, 2012
  • 66th NSSO survey: creating employment or unemployment?• UPA government generated only 2 million jobs between 2004 and 2009 against Planning Commission’s target of 58 million jobs between 2007-12.• the employment rate has actually declined in the five year period ended 2009-10 to 39.2 per cent from 42 per cent in 2004-05. during this 5 year period, only 2 million jobs were added compared with 55 million who joined the workforce aged between 15-59 years.• 25.1 million people lost their self-employment• The report by NSSO also shows an increase in the number of casual workers by 21.9 million, while growth in the number of regular workers nearly halved between 2004-05 and 2009-10, compared with the previous 5 year period. .
  • Unremunerative prices• MSP determination is faulty and unscientific.• Governments keep the prices low to ensure cheap labor and cheap inputs, and food security for poor• Minimum Support Prices are announced for 25 commodities but market intervention only for rice, wheat, cotton• Agricultural prices don’t account for living costs of rural families. Rising inflation has double impact on farmers with increasing living costs & decreasing incomes• Removal of quantitative restrictions and allowing cheaper imports• Restrictions on exports on certain crops depressing local market prices
  • Paddy: Cost of Cultivation and MSP (Rs/q) in AP18001600140012001000 800 600 400 200 0 1999-00 2000-01 2001-02 2002-03 2003-04 2004-05 2005-06 2006-07 2007-08 2008-09 2009-10 2010-11 2011-12 Cost of cultivation rs/q Msp rs/q
  • Comparision of Costs and MSPCrop Cost/quintal Cost/quintal Recommended (CACP est.) (State govt est.) MSPPaddy 896 1270 1080Jowar 1393 1145 980Maize 935 1114 980Tur 2373 3668 3100Groundnut 3185 3324 2700Sunflower 2799 3439 2800Cotton 2579 3828 2900Moong 2974 3480 3400Source: CACP Kharif Price Report,, 2011-12
  • Real Prices lower than MSP (2010-11)Crop MSP M.P. Maha - Gujarat Rajasthan rashtraPaddy 1000 850 785 853Jowar 880 500, 851 601Maize 880 860 793Bajra 880 620 700Source: CACP Kharif Price Report,, 2011-12
  • Prices to Farmers during 2010-11 and 2011-12Crop 2010-11 Rs/Quintal 2011-12 Rs/QuintalCotton 6500 3600Turmeric 14000 4000Chillies 12000 5500Redgram 5000 3500Blackgram 5200 3500Bajra 4000 2000Jowar 2500 1800Onion 16000 2500Sweet Orange 75000 60000
  • Reducing institutional credit• The share of agricultural credit in total bank lending nearly doubled from around 10% in the mid-1970s to about 18% in the late 1980s.• The share of agricultural credit in total bank lending declined from the peak of 18% in the late 1980s to about 11% in 2005, the decline has continued since then.• Rural branches of commercial banks has declined from 51.2% in March 1996 to 45.7% in March 2005.• Data also shows that the share of agricultural credit cornered by farm sizes of more than 5 acres has increased• Tenancy is informal and tenant farmers do not get access to credit(GOI, 2007).• The NSSO’s 59th round tells us that while 26 per cent of farm households were in debt in 1991, that figure went up to over 48 per cent – almost double by 2003• In states like AP the indebtedness is 82%, Kerala has 64% , Karnataka has 62%
  • Total 270,940 in 17 years Source: NCRB 1995-2010
  • • two-thirds of the suicides are occurring in half-a-dozen States that account for just about one-third of the country’s population
  • Farmers ‘ Suicides in India: Gender distributionYear Male Female Total1995 8295 2425 107201996 10897 2832 137291997 11229 2393 136221998 12986 3029 16015 • 19 per cent or nearly one-1999 13278 2804 16082 fifth households in this2000 13501 3102 16603 country are women-headed2001 13829 2586 164152002 15308 2663 179712003 14701 2463 171642004 15929 2312 182412005 14973 2158 171312006 14664 2396 170602007 14509 2123 166322008 14145 2051 161962009 14951 2417 173682010 13592 2372 159642011 12071 1956 14027Total 228858 42082 270940
  • Farmers Suicides Distribution, 2010 Female Male Total % upto 14 years 12 4 16 0.63 15-29 years 165 563 728 28.83 30-44 years 137 824 961 38.06 45-59 years 40 573 613 24.28 60 years & above 41 166 207 8.20 Total 395 2130 2525
  • State Farmer Suicides Difference (2nd Avg-1st Avg) 1995-2002 2003-2010Andhra Pradesh 1590 2301 +711Assam 155 291 +135Karnataka 2259 2123 -136Kerala 1292 1071 -221MP+Chhattisgarh 2304 2829 +525Maharashtra 2508 3802 +1294Tamil Nadu 992 866 -126Uttar Pradesh 640 531 -109West Bengal 1426 990 -436The table only includes States whose annual averages have risen or fallen by over 100 farmsuicides between the to periods. It also treats Madhya Pradesh and Chhattisgarh as one unitfor data purposes.Source: NCRB Accidental Deaths & Suicides in India Reports 1995-2010
  • Further worsening….• GM technologies in all crops and animals• Increasing public sector with drawl from research, extension, marketing• Reducing subsidies• Futures trading has become mantra …including FCI planning to enter• FDI in retail• Banking correspondents system to disburse loans and subsidies• Increasing weather vagaries
  • http://www.csa-india.orghttp://www.krishi.tvhttp://www.agrariancrisis.inhttp://www.sahajaaharam.inhttp://www.indiaforsafefood.inPh. 040-27017735, mobile : 09000699702csa@csa-india.org, ramoo.csa@gmail.comFacebook: ramoo.csaCENTRE FOR SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE