Teachers kit lowres

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Teachers kit lowres

  1. 1. CMYCMMYCYCMYK TowerBridgeExhibitionisprovidedbytheCityofLondonCorporationaspartofitscontribution totheculturallifeofLondonandtheNation.www.towerbridge.org.uk BEFOREYOURVISIT: TowerBridgeExhibition:VitalInformation.................................................Item#1 PlanningYourVisit........................................................................................Item#2 RiskAssessmentTemplate............................................................................Item#3 DURINGYOURVISIT: TeachersInformationSheet&LocalMap.................................................Item#4 PupilsWorksheet(2pagesforduplication)..............................................Item#5 AFTERYOURVISIT: ClassroomActivities......................................................................................Item#6 ClassroomActivitiesCurriculumLinksIndex............................................Item#6A RESOURCES: TowerBridge:Facts&Figures.....................................................................Item#7 AnArticlefromtheIllustratedLondonNews............................................Item#8 TypesofBridgesInformationSheet.............................................................Item#9 BridgesoftheWorldInformationSheet....................................................Item#10 TowerBridge:DiagramofForces.................................................................Item#11 HowtheBasculesWERERaised(Step-by-Step).....................................Item#12 HowtheBasculesARERaised(Step-by-Step).........................................Item#13 VictorianMapofLondon..............................................................................Item#14 WorldMapWorksheet.................................................................................Item#15 ImageLibrary.................................................................................................Item#16 TowerBridgeExhibition EducationalActivities&ResourcesKit
  2. 2. CMYCMMYCYCMYK TOWERBRIDGEEXHIBITION:EducationalActivities&ResourcesKit TOWERBRIDGE:VITALINFORMATION Introduction:Completedin1894,TowerBridgewasinstantlyhailedasaLondoniconandoneof thegreatengineeringmarvelsofitsage.Comeinsidetoexploreitshistory,uncover itssecretsandtoenjoystunningviewsfromitsHigh-LevelWalkways,situated42 metresabovetheRiverThames. Location:TowerBridgeRoad,LondonSE12UP Contact:GroupBookingsTelephone:02074079191 Website:www.towerbridge.org.uk OpeningHours:ApriltoSeptember:10:00AMto5:30PM (LastAdmissionforGroups:4:45PM) OctobertoMarch:9:30AMto5:00PM (LastAdmissionforGroups:4:15PM) GroupBookings:Groupsarenotrequiredtobookinadvance,butwerecommendbookingin yourgrouptoavoidlongqueues.Bookingscanbemadebytelephoneorby email: ByTelephone:02074079191 ByEmail:enquiries@towerbridge.org.uk Cost:Standardprice:AdultTicket=£7ChildTicket=£3 Grouprate(*10ormore):AdultTicket=£6.00ChildTicket=£2.70 *1adultfreeforevery10primaryschoolchildren Canbepaidinadvanceoronarrival.TowerBridgeExhibitionacceptspaymentby cash,chequeormajorcreditcard. PublicTransport:ByTube:TowerHill(servedbyDistrictLineand CircleLine)orLondonBridge(servedbyNorthernLine) ByRail:LondonBridgeStation,TowerGatewayDLRorFenchurchStreet Station ByBus:15,42,78,100,RV1andonSaturdayandSunday25. ByBoat:AlightatLondonBridgeCityorSt.KatharineDocks. CoachParking:Therearecoachparksnearby.Seetheenclosedmapforlocations. PracticalInfo:Werecommendbringingaslittleaspossiblewithyouduringyourvisit. PottersFieldsParkislocatedjustwestoftheEngineRooms,whichisidealforapicnic onasunnyday.Additionally,thereispublicspacealongtheriveradjacenttothe DesignMuseum.Pleaseseetheenclosedmapforlocation. BEFORE Printedfrom“TowerBridgeExhibition:EducationalActivities&ResourcesKit,”aFREETeachersResourcedesignedbyGuyFoxLimited. GuyFoxLimitedispartofGuyFoxHistoryProject,aneducationalcharitywhichcreatesinnovativepublicationsforchildren.Tolearnabout ourwork,visitwww.guyfox.org.uk.Copyright©2010,GuyFoxLimited.Allrightsreserved.Duplicationispermittedforeducationaluseonly.
  3. 3. CMYCMMYCYCMYK TOWERBRIDGEEXHIBITION:EducationalActivities&ResourcesKit PLANNINGYOURVISIT ToBookYourVisit: Pleasetelephone02074079191(TowerBridgeExhibitionGroupBookings)oremail enquiries@towerbridge.org.uk RecommendationsforYourVisit: •Allowaratioof1adultto10children. •Allow90minutesforyourvisit. •Minimumageforvisitors:5yearsold. •Thereisnostorageonsite;werecommendbringingaslittleaspossiblewithyou. •DownloadtheGuyFox‘ExploreKit’formoreresourcesandmapsofthearea. Health&SafetyInformation: ThestairsatTowerBridgeExhibitionareverysteepandchildrenshouldbereminded nottorun,toholdthehandrails,andtotaketheirtime. VisitChecklist: Onthedayofyourvisit,youmaywanttobring: Clipboardsandpencils Photocopiesof‘MyVisittoTowerBridgeExhibition’(Item#5inthisKit) Camera(s) Drawingmaterials ImageLibraryfromthisKit MapofLondon(checkwww.guyfox.org.ukforourcurrentselectionofmaps) YourNotes: BEFORE Printedfrom“TowerBridgeExhibition:EducationalActivities&ResourcesKit,”aFREETeachersResourcedesignedbyGuyFoxLimited. GuyFoxLimitedispartofGuyFoxHistoryProject,aneducationalcharitywhichcreatesinnovativepublicationsforchildren.Tolearnabout ourwork,visitwww.guyfox.org.uk.Copyright©2010,GuyFoxLimited.Allrightsreserved.Duplicationispermittedforeducationaluseonly.
  4. 4. CMYCMMYCYCMYK TOWERBRIDGEEXHIBITION:EducationalActivities&ResourcesKit RISKASSESSMENTTEMPLATE SchoolName:________________________________________________ TeachersName(s)_____________________________________________ ClassName:____________________DateofVisit:____________________ LocationPotentialHazardActiontoReduceRisk BEFORE Printedfrom“TowerBridgeExhibition:EducationalActivities&ResourcesKit,”aFREETeachersResourcedesignedbyGuyFoxLimited. GuyFoxLimitedispartofGuyFoxHistoryProject,aneducationalcharitywhichcreatesinnovativepublicationsforchildren.Tolearnabout ourwork,visitwww.guyfox.org.uk.Copyright©2010,GuyFoxLimited.Allrightsreserved.Duplicationispermittedforeducationaluseonly.
  5. 5. C M Y CM MY CY CMY K LondonBridge Lower Thames Street Tower Hill Lower Tham esStreet Eas t Smithfield StKatharinesWay St Katharines Way Eastcheap FishStreetHill BotolphLane PuddingLane PhilpotLane RoodLane MincingLane MarkLane Pepys Street SeethingLane Muscovy Street TrinitySquar e SavageGardens CoopersRow Minories BermondseyStreet StMaryatHill StDunstansHill Monument Stree t Arthur Street Duke Street Hill Tooley Street Tooley Street Tooley Street Queen Elizabeth Street ShandStreet Queen Elizabeth Street LafoneStreet HorselydownLane Gainsford Street CurlewStreet Gainsford Street MaguireStreet LafoneStreet BattleBridgeLane HaysLane CottonsLane Tooley Street H H Tower of London Tower Bridge Exhibition All Hallows by the Tower Church Old Billingsgate Market HMS Belfast The Monument City Hall London Bridge Station Hays Galleria Tower Hill Station River Thames River Thames St. Katharine Docks Pool of London Great Tower Street Potters Fields Park DURING TOWER BRIDGE EXHIBITION: Educational Activities & Resources Kit NEIGHBOURHOOD MAP
  6. 6. CMYCMMYCYCMYK DURINGPUPILsWORKSHEET-Page1of2 TowerBridgeisafamouslandmarkin______________.Itwasbuilt duringthereignof______________.Itfirstopenedon______________ aftereightyearsofconstruction. TowerBridgesolvedabigproblem:Londonneededarivercrossingfor ______________whichwouldalsoallow______________tojourney upanddowntheRiverThames.Sothere wasacompetition.Allsortsofdesigns weresubmitted.Intheend,__________ ___________hadthebestidea.His bridgeincluded______________which couldberaisedtoletshipsthroughand ________________________so thatpedestrianscouldwalkacrossthe bridgewhilethebasculeswereopen. TowerBridgeisamarvelofVictorian engineering.Massive__________ ___________generatedenergytoraise thebascules.VisittheEngineRooms toseehowtheyworked. Printedfrom“TowerBridgeExhibition:EducationalActivities&ResourcesKit,”aFREETeachersResource designedbyGuyFoxLimited.GuyFoxLimitedispartofGuyFoxHistoryProject,aneducationalcharity whichcreatesinnovativepublicationsforchildren.Tolearnaboutourwork,visitwww.guyfox.org.uk. Copyright2010,GuyFoxLimited.Allrightsreserved.Duplicationispermittedforeducationaluseonly. MyVisittoTowerBridgeExhibition (Hint:YoullfindtheanswersintheHighLevelWalkways.) TowerHighLevel Walkways Bascule Pier Chain Abutment Tower Roadway ModernOperator Cabin(BehindPier) theSuspensionChains theAbutmentTowers theOperatorCabin VISITCHECKLIST: ExterioroftheBridge: thePiers theTowers theBascules FromtheHighLevelWalkways: HMSBelfast CityHall TheMonument TheGherkin TowerofLondon LondonEye IntheEngineRooms: theBoiler theCoalStore theSteamEngines theAccumulators CanaryWharf St.KatharineDocks St.PaulsCathedral OldBillingsgateMarket LondonBridge BridgeLiftVideo theMotorcyclewhich jumpedacrossTower BridgeinJuly2009! TowerBridgeExhibitionisprovidedbytheCityofLondonCorporationaspartofitscontributiontotheculturallifeofLondonandtheNation.
  7. 7. CMYCMMYCYCMYK MyVisittoTowerBridgeExhibition PUPILsWORKSHEET-Page2of2 Copyright©2010,GuyFoxLimited.Allrightsreserved.GuyFoxLimitedispartofGuyFoxHistoryProject,aneducational charitywhichcreatesinnovativepublicationsforchildren.Tolearnaboutourwork,visitwww.guyfox.org.uk. DURING 5 MakeaDiagramofYourVisit: Step1:LabelallthepartsofTowerBridgeonthediagramabove. Step2:ColourinREDthepartsofTowerBridgeExhibitionwhichare openforvisitors. Step3:MakesureyouvisitALLthepartsofTowerBridgeExhibition! IntheEngineRooms: EachofthesemachineswereusedtocreateenergytoliftthebasculesofTowerBridge. Step1:FindeachoneintheEngineRooms. Step2:Writeitsnameonthelabelnexttothedrawing. Step3:Describewhatitdidtohelpliftthebascules. Whatisitcalled? _______________________ Whatdiditdo? _______________________ Whatisitcalled? _______________________ Whatdiditdo? _______________________ Whatisitcalled? _______________________ Whatdiditdo? _______________________ Whatisitcalled? __________________ Whatdiditdo? __________________
  8. 8. CMYCMMYCYCMYK Printedfrom“TowerBridgeExhibition:EducationalActivities&Resources,”aFREETeachersKitdesignedbyGuyFoxLimited.GuyFox LimitedispartofGuyFoxHistoryProject,aneducationalcharitywhichcreatesinnovativepublicationsforchildren.Tolearnaboutour work,visitwww.guyfox.org.uk.Copyright2010,GuyFoxLimited.Allrightsreserved.Duplicationispermittedforeducationaluseonly. TOWERBRIDGEEXHIBITION:ClassroomActivities AFTER ACTIVITY1A:TOWERBRIDGEFACTS&FIGURES Objectives: •ToreflectonyourvisittoTowerBridgeExhibition •ToconsiderkeyfactsaboutTowerBridgeincludingitsdimensionsandscale   RequiredResources: •‘MyVisittoTowerBridgeExhibition’Worksheet •TowerBridgeFactsSheet(Item#7inthisKit) •Photographsfromyourvisit   Instructions: Splityourpupilsintosmallgroupsof4or5.Askyourpupilstoreviewthe‘MyVisittoTowerBridgeExhibition’ Worksheetthattheycompletedduringtheirvisit.   DiscussyourexperienceatTowerBridgeExhibition: •Whatdoyouremember? •Whatdidyouwritedownabouttheexperience? •Whichmarketingmaterials(e.g.pamphlets)didyoupickupduringyourvisit? •WhatdidyounoticeintheneighbourhoodnearTowerBridgeExhibition? •Whatdidyoudraw? Question:HowmanyofthespecialfeaturesofTowerBridgecanyouname? Answers:Bascules,Piers,Chains,HighLevelWalkways,Towers,Road,SteamEngineRooms. Question:Whatisthepurposeofeachfeature: TheBascules? Answer:TheBasculesareraisedtoletshipspassthroughTowerBridge. ThePiers? Answer:ThePiersprovidesupporttothebridge;theyareembeddeddeepintheriverbed. TheChains? Answer:TheChainsprovidesupporttotheTowersandHighLevelWalkways;withoutthemthetowers wouldcollapseundertheweightoftheHighLevelWalkways. TheHighLevelWalkways? Answer:TheHighLevelWalkwaysallowedpeopletocrosstheRiverThamesonfoot,evenwhenthe Basculeswereraised. TheTowers? Answer:TheTowersenclosethestairs(andlifts)whichpeopleascendtocrosstheriverviatheHigh LevelWalkways. TheRoad? Answer:TheRoadallowsvehicletraffictocrossTowerBridge. TheEngineRooms? Answer:TheEngineRoomshousedthesteamengineswhichprovidedthepowertolifttheBascules. continues... NationalCurriculumLinks: KeyStage2 English:En1.3,En1.9c,En1.10c DesignandTechnology:4a,4c,4d Geography:1a,3a,3d,3e,6a,6d,7c History:2c,2d,4b,5a,6,7,8b,11a Science:Sc1.2b,Sc4.2e 6.1
  9. 9. CMYCMMYCYCMYK Printedfrom“TowerBridgeExhibition:EducationalActivities&Resources,”aFREETeachersKitdesignedbyGuyFoxLimited.GuyFox LimitedispartofGuyFoxHistoryProject,aneducationalcharitywhichcreatesinnovativepublicationsforchildren.Tolearnaboutour work,visitwww.guyfox.org.uk.Copyright2010,GuyFoxLimited.Allrightsreserved.Duplicationispermittedforeducationaluseonly. TOWERBRIDGEEXHIBITION:ClassroomActivities AFTER   ThinkaboutyourvisittotheHighLevelWalkways: •HowdidyoufeelwhenyoulookedoutfromtheHighLevelWalkways? •WhichwordswouldyouusetodescribetheexperienceoflookingoutoverLondon? •WhatwasthemostexcitingthingyousawfromtheHighLevelWalkways? •WhatelsedidyouseefromtheHighLevelWalkways? •DoesLondonlookdifferentfromthere?How? •CanyouseethingsfromtheHighLevelWalkwaysthatyounormallycan’tsee? •Whichbuildings(thatyousawfromtheHighLevelWalkways)doyouthinkweretherewhenTower Bridgewasfinishedin1894? •Whichbuildings(thatyousawfromtheHighLevelWalkways)havebeenbuiltsincethen?Whydoyou thinkso? •Whatdifferencesdidyounoticeinthedesignbetweentheoldandnewerbuildings? Considerbuildingmaterials,style,features,andarchitecture. ThinkaboutyourvisittotheEngineRooms: Question:WhatdidyouseeintheEngineRooms? Answers:Coalstore,boilers,steamengines,accumulators,videoshowingTowerBridgelifting,interactive displaysaboutwindresistance,RobbieMaddison’smotorcycle,andTowerBridgegiftshop. Question:Whichmachinerywasusedtoraisethebasculesfrom1894to1972? Answer:Coalboiler,steamengine,accumulators,hydraulicsandbasculeengines. Question:Howarethebasculesraisednow? Answer:Byelectricity. Question:Whatdideachofthesethingsdotoraisethebascules: Coal?Answer:Itwasusedasfueltoheatthewaterintheboiler. Boiler?Answer:Itproducedsteamtopowerthesteamengine. SteamEngine?Answer:Itcreatedenergy. Accumulator?Answer:Itstoredtheenergyuntilitwasneededtooperatethehydraulics. Hydraulics?Answer:Theycarriedtheenergyfromtheaccumulatortothebasculeengine. Basculeengine?Answer:Itturnedthegearstoliftthebascules.   ACTIVITY1A:Continued 6.2
  10. 10. CMYCMMYCYCMYK Printedfrom“TowerBridgeExhibition:EducationalActivities&Resources,”aFREETeachersKitdesignedbyGuyFoxLimited.GuyFox LimitedispartofGuyFoxHistoryProject,aneducationalcharitywhichcreatesinnovativepublicationsforchildren.Tolearnaboutour work,visitwww.guyfox.org.uk.Copyright2010,GuyFoxLimited.Allrightsreserved.Duplicationispermittedforeducationaluseonly. TOWERBRIDGEEXHIBITION:ClassroomActivities AFTER ACTIVITY1B:TOWERBRIDGE&ME! Objectives: •ToexplorethedimensionsofTowerBridgeanddevelopanunderstandingofscale •TorelatethescaleofTowerBridgetoeverydayobjects   RequiredResources: •TowerBridgeFactsSheet(Item#7inthisKit) •Metricruler,tapemeasureandgraphpaper   Askyourpupilstoresearch,measureandcompare: •HEIGHTofthePierstoyourheight(Eachpieris60metreshigh). •HEIGHToftheTowerstoyourheight(Eachtoweris65metreshigh). •LENGTHofthewalkwaystothelengthofyourclassroom.(Walkways=61metreslong). •DISTANCEofthebridgespantothedistancefromyourclassroomtotheplayground. (Bridgespanis225metreslong). •WEIGHTofthebasculestoyourweight(Eachbasculeweighs1millionkilogrammes).   AskyourpupilstofigureoutthefollowingTowerBridgeMathsPuzzles: •Thereare2millionrivetsinTowerBridge.(Arivetisametalbolt,whichholdstwo piecesofmetaltogether.)Ifeachrivetis3centimetresindiameter,howfarinkilometres wouldtherivetsstretchiftheywerelaidsidebyside? •40,000vehiclescrossTowerBridgeeveryday.Howmanyvehiclescrossinayear? •Thereare31,000,000(31million)bricksinthebridge.Ifeachbrickhasthedimensions of8centimetres(height)by20centimetres(length)by12centimetres(depth)canyou figureoutthefollowing: -Howhighwouldastackofallthebricksbe? -Howmanybrickswouldyouneedtobuildawall2metres(length)by2metres(height)?      D.I.Y.MathsPuzzles AskpupilstoreviewtheTowerBridgeFactsSheetandcreateaquestionliketheonesabove,whichwilltest theirfriends’mathsskills.   ExtensionActivity Askyourpupilstoillustratethecomparisonsandthemathspuzzles.         6.3 NationalCurriculumLinks: KeyStage2 Mathematics:Ma2.1b,c,i,j,Ma2.3h, I,k,Ma2.4a+b,Ma3.4a,Ma3.4b Ma4.1c,d,e,g,h,Ma4.2a BreadthofStudy:1d,1e,1f,1g,1h Science:Sc1.2i,Sc1.2j
  11. 11. CMYCMMYCYCMYK Printedfrom“TowerBridgeExhibition:EducationalActivities&Resources,”aFREETeachersKitdesignedbyGuyFoxLimited.GuyFox LimitedispartofGuyFoxHistoryProject,aneducationalcharitywhichcreatesinnovativepublicationsforchildren.Tolearnaboutour work,visitwww.guyfox.org.uk.Copyright2010,GuyFoxLimited.Allrightsreserved.Duplicationispermittedforeducationaluseonly. TOWERBRIDGEEXHIBITION:ClassroomActivities AFTER ACTIVITY2A:WHYDIDTHEYBUILD TOWERBRIDGE? Objectives: •TounderstandtheexpansionofVictorianLondon •TounderstandchangesinVictoriantransportandsociety •Toresearchanddebateissues,problemsandevents   RequiredResources: •VictorianMapofLondon(Item#14inthisKit) •BridgesoftheWorld(Item#10inthisKit)   Readthistoyourpupils:   LONDONINTHEINDUSTRIALREVOLUTION Inthe19thcentury,theIndustrialRevolutionchangedtheworkpatternsandthelivesofpeoplein Britain.Peoplelefttheirworkasfarmersforthecities,wheretheycouldfindemploymentinfactories. InLondon,manypeoplelivedsouthoftheRiverThames,wherehousingwascheaper;theirjobs, however,weremostlylocatedonthenorthsideoftheRiverThames. TogetacrosstheRiverThames,workerstookaferryorwalkedoverLondonBridge.Mostoftheother bridgeswerewestofLondonBridge,andmanyofthemrequiredatolltocross.LondonBridgewasfree tocross,plusitwasthemostdirectrouteintotheCityofLondon,soitwasthemostcongestedone. Upto100,000peoplewalkedacrossLondonBridgeeveryday–apedestriantrafficjam! Therewasnodoubtthatanewrivercrossingwasneeded,butnobodycoulddecidewheretobuild it,whoshouldbuildit,andwhatitsdesignshouldbe.Manypublicagencieswereinvolvedinthe debate. Londonhadnocity-widegovernment.TheCorporationofLondon(theoldestmunicipalbodyin thecity),theMetropolitanBoardofWorks(thecity’spublicworksagency)andParliament(the UnitedKingdom’snationalelectedbody)eachhaditsownopinion,andthismadedecision-making verydifficult. TheCorporationofLondonstudiedwherepeoplelived,wherepeopleworked,andhowfarpeople hadtowalktowork;basedontheirfindings,theychoseasiteclosetotheTowerofLondonfor thenewrivercrossing. SoitwasresolvedthatLondonwouldhaveanewrivercrossingeastofLondonBridge,butwith thatdecisioncameevenmorequestionsanddebate:Whatwoulditlooklike?Woulditbeabridge? Oratunnel?Orasteamferry?Orsomeothertypeofrivercrossing? TheRiverThameswasavitaltransportlinkforshipsbringinggoodsintoLondon.ThePoolofLondon (thestretchofriverbetweenTowerHillandLondonBridge)haddocksforcargoshipscarrying grain,wool,cotton,ivory,silver,teaandothergoodsfromallovertheworld.Bargestransported coalinthewinter.Smallboatscarriedpassengersandlightgoods.TheThameswasaveryhectic river! Whetheritwasabridge,atunnelorsomethingentirelydifferent,therivercrossingneededtoallow rivertraffictocontinue.Ifitwereabridge,itmustbedesignedtopermittheshipstopassunder it,orelsethedocksinthePoolofLondonwouldbeforcedtoclose.However,ifabridgeweretall enoughtoallowshipstopassunderit,pedestriansandhorse-drawnvehiclesmightnotbeableto climbthesteepstructure. 6.4 NationalCurriculumLinks: KeyStage2 Citizenship:1a,2a,2e,2f,4b, English:En.1a-f,En1.2a-e, En1.3a-f,En1.8b+c,En1.9c, En1.10c Geography:1d,3d,3e History:2b,4b,6,7,8a,8b,11a continues...
  12. 12. CMYCMMYCYCMYK Printedfrom“TowerBridgeExhibition:EducationalActivities&Resources,”aFREETeachersKitdesignedbyGuyFoxLimited.GuyFox LimitedispartofGuyFoxHistoryProject,aneducationalcharitywhichcreatesinnovativepublicationsforchildren.Tolearnaboutour work,visitwww.guyfox.org.uk.Copyright2010,GuyFoxLimited.Allrightsreserved.Duplicationispermittedforeducationaluseonly. TOWERBRIDGEEXHIBITION:ClassroomActivities AFTER Manydifferentsolutionswereconsidered:bridges,tunnels,river-goingvessels,andalternatecrossings. Differentdesignerssubmittedtheirideas.In1884,aselectcommitteeoftheHouseofCommonsmet toconsiderthebridgedesign.Manydifferentideaswerepresentedtothecommittee. Showyourpupilstheimagesofthedifferentideasfortherivercrossing.     ConsiderVictorianLondoners.Askyourpupilsto: •ThinkaboutpeoplewhoworkedorlivednearTowerHillbeforeTowerBridgewasbuilt. •Whatkindofwork(jobs)doyouthinkthesepeoplemayhavedone? •ExaminethestreetmapofVictorianLondonandidentifyplacesofwork. •Considerdifferentroutespeopleusedtogettoandfromwork. •PretendyouliveinVictorianLondon,onthesouthsideoftheThames,andyouworkon thenorthsideoftheThames. •WhointheclasswouldbeINFAVOURofbuildingarivercrossingatTowerHill?Why? •WhointheclasswouldbeAGAINSTbuildingarivercrossingatTowerHill?Why? •ForthosepupilswhoareINFAVOURofbuildinganewrivercrossing,discusswhichsortof rivercrossingtheywouldprefer(Bridge?Tunnel?Steamferry?Otherideas?) •Makeacaseinfrontoftheclassforyourproposedrivercrossing,orifyouareAGAINSTtheriver crossing,makeacaseforanalternativesolution.   DebatetheIssue! Discusswithyourpupils: Whydoesabigbuildingprojectrequiredebateanddiscussion? Encourageyourclasstoconsidertherangeofinterests,economicandpersonal,ofvariousindividualsandgroups andthefeelingsattachedtotheseinterests. Question:Whydopeoplehavestrongfeelingsaboutthedevelopmentofnewbuildings? Question:Whatarethedifferentwayspeopletrytomaketheirviewsordisagreementspublic? Answer:Discussthevariousways(includingwordofmouth,media,etal)thatpeoplecanusetomake theirviewsknownandtodebatewithotherpeople(bothnowandinVictoriantimes). Question:Whatisadebate? Answer:Discusstheideaofadebateasastagingofatleasttwoarguments,withrulesandwiththe aimofpersuadingotherstoshareyourpointofviewandwithachairpersonas‘referee’. continues... 6.5 ACTIVITY2A:Continued
  13. 13. CMYCMMYCYCMYK Printedfrom“TowerBridgeExhibition:EducationalActivities&Resources,”aFREETeachersKitdesignedbyGuyFoxLimited.GuyFox LimitedispartofGuyFoxHistoryProject,aneducationalcharitywhichcreatesinnovativepublicationsforchildren.Tolearnaboutour work,visitwww.guyfox.org.uk.Copyright2010,GuyFoxLimited.Allrightsreserved.Duplicationispermittedforeducationaluseonly. TOWERBRIDGEEXHIBITION:ClassroomActivities AFTER  Askyourpupilsto: 1)Imaginethattheyaremembersofthecommitteedebatingthedevelopment ofthebridge. 2)Decideontherulesforthedebate. 3)Decidewhoisgoingtoserveaschairpersonofthecommittee.Thechairperson isresponsibleformakingsureeveryonefollowstherules. 4)Decidewhichpupilswilldebate‘for’thebridgeandwhichpupilswilldebate ‘against’thebridge. 5)Stageadebate!   ACTIVITY2B:CROSSINGTHERIVER Objectives: •TocompareandcontrasttheneighbourhoodaroundTowerBridgein1850andnow •ToconsiderwhathaschangedinLondonneighbourhoodsandwhythesechanges haveoccurred   RequiredResources: •VictorianMapofLondon(Item#14inthisKit) •ContemporaryLondonMap(notincludedinthisKit)   LookingattheVictorianLondonMap,DiscussasaClass: Question:WhichgeographicalfeaturescanyouidentifyontheMapofVictorianLondon? Encouragepupilstofindrivers,bodiesofwater,transportlinksincludingroadsandtrainstations,road names,neighbourhoodnames,landmarks,etcetera. RefertotheContemporaryLondonMap: Question:WhichgeographicalfeaturescanyouidentifyonaContemporaryLondonMap? Encouragepupilstofindrivers,bodiesofwater,transportlinksincludingroadsandtrainstations,road names,neighbourhoodnames,landmarks,etcetera. Geography: Considerwhichgeographicalfeaturesaredifferentandwhichgeographicalfeaturesarethesame. Question:WhatarethemainchangesthathaveoccurredintheneighbourhoodseastofTowerBridge since1850(inlanduse,roads,rivercrossings,etcetera)?   Transport: Encouragetheclasstothinkaboutmodernformsoftransport.Makealistofvariousmodesoftransportwhich areusedinLondontoday. Question:HowhasLondonchangedthroughdevelopmentsintransportandsociety? Question:IfyouwanttocrosstheRiverThamestoday,whichnewroutesaretherethat didnotexistin1850? Question:HowdidmoderntransportchangethelandscapesandneighbourhoodsofLondon? ACTIVITY2A:Continued 6.6 NationalCurriculumLinks: KeyStage2 ArtandDesign:1a,1b,2c,5a Citizenship:1a,1e,2a,2e,2j Geography:1a,2a,2e,3a,3d,3e,3g, 4a,4b,5a,6a,6c,6d,6e History:2c,2d,4b,5a,5b,5c,6,7,11a continues...
  14. 14. CMYCMMYCYCMYK Printedfrom“TowerBridgeExhibition:EducationalActivities&Resources,”aFREETeachersKitdesignedbyGuyFoxLimited.GuyFox LimitedispartofGuyFoxHistoryProject,aneducationalcharitywhichcreatesinnovativepublicationsforchildren.Tolearnaboutour work,visitwww.guyfox.org.uk.Copyright2010,GuyFoxLimited.Allrightsreserved.Duplicationispermittedforeducationaluseonly. TOWERBRIDGEEXHIBITION:ClassroomActivities AFTER  Society/Population: ComparethepopulationandsocietyofLondoninVictoriantimestonow. Question:HowdidLondonchangeasaresultofalargeriseinpopulation? Question:HowhasLondonchangedinrelationtopopulation(throughlanduseandbuilding,forexample)?   AskpupilstosumuphowchangesinsocietyandtransporthavechangedthemapofLondonandcreatednew rivercrossings.   WhatDoestheFutureHold? AskpupilstobrainstormandimaginewhatLondonwillbelikeinthefuture: •WhatwillhappentothepopulationofLondon(willitgroworshrink)? •WherewillLondonersliveandwork? •WhatsortofservicesandfacilitieswillLondonersneed? •WhatwillLondonersdoforjobs? •Whatdifferentmodesoftransportwilltherebe? •HowwillLondonersofthefuturecrosstheRiverThames?   Oncepupilshavediscussedtheirideas,askthemtodrawamapofLondon100yearsfromnow,or1,000years fromnow.Theycanpresenttheirideastotheclass.Alternatively,askpupilstodrawanillustrationofaLondoner ofthefuture,ontheirwaytowork.   ACTIVITY2C:BUILDINGANEWRIVERCROSSING (forthe21stCentury) Objectives: •Tounderstandthetransportation&infrastructureneedsof21stcenturyLondon •Tointerpretmodernplansforrivercrossings •Toresearchanddebateissues,problemsandconsiderationsrelatedto anewrivercrossing   DiscussasaClass: ThereisstillnobridgeacrosstheRiverThamesinLondoneastofTowerBridge.Readnewplans forrivercrossingsinEastLondoninthenewspaperarticlesonthefollowingpages. Haveaclassvote:whois‘for’thebridgesandwhois‘against’? Questionforthe“Fors”:WhatareyourargumentsFORconstructingthesebridges? Questionforthe“Againsts”:WhatareyourargumentsAGAINSTconstructingthesebridges? Questionforeverybody:Wherewouldyouputanewbridge?Why?   Debate: Haveaclassdebateaboutthebridgedevelopment.(RefertoActivity2Aforideasabouthowtostagethedebate.) Afterthedebate,haveanotherclassvoteandseeifanyonehaschangedhisorheropinion.   ExtensionActivity: TheEveningStandardArticledescribesa‘livingbridge.’Askpupilstodrawadiagramofa‘livingbridge’and presenttheirideastotheclass. Question:Whatwoulda‘livingbridge’looklike? Question:Whatwoulda‘livingbridge’include?   NationalCurriculumLinks: KeyStage2 ArtandDesign:1a,1b,2c,5a Citizenship:1a,2a,2e,2j,2k English:En1.1a-f,En1.2a-e,En1.3a-f, En1.8b+c,En1.9c,En1.10c Geography:1a,1d,2a,2d,2g,3g,4b, 5a,6a 6.7 ACTIVITY2B:Continued
  15. 15. CMYCMMYCYCMYK Printedfrom“TowerBridgeExhibition:EducationalActivities&Resources,”aFREETeachersKitdesignedbyGuyFoxLimited.GuyFox LimitedispartofGuyFoxHistoryProject,aneducationalcharitywhichcreatesinnovativepublicationsforchildren.Tolearnaboutour work,visitwww.guyfox.org.uk.Copyright2010,GuyFoxLimited.Allrightsreserved.Duplicationispermittedforeducationaluseonly. TOWERBRIDGEEXHIBITION:ClassroomActivities AFTER NEWSARTICLE#1 ApplicationforNewThamesBridge BBCNewsArticle 22ndJuly2004 TransportforLondon(TfL)willhandinaplanningapplicationonThursdayforanewcrossingover theThames. The£385mThamesGatewayBridgewilllinkNewhamandGreenwichineastLondon.Afterapublic consultationtheplanshavechangedtoincludepriorityforlocaltraffic,a40mphspeedlimitanda separatepublictransportlane. TheapplicationwillbesubmittedtobothNewhamandGreenwichcouncils,withadecisionexpected inNovember.Ifthecouncilsapprovetheapplication,thenthebridgecouldbecompletedin2012- ayearaheadoftheprojectedopening. ThebridgeisanimportantpartofMayorofLondonKenLivingstone'splanstoregeneratetheThames Gateway,a40-mile-wideareafromeastandsouth-eastLondontoKentandEssex.Thereareonly threecrossingsfortraffictotheeastofTowerBridge,whilecentralLondonhaseightbridgesand thereare16tothewestbetweenChelseaBridgeandtheM25. TheinitialcostsoftheThamesGatewayBridgewillbeputupbyaprivatecompany.Itwillrecoup thefundsthroughtollsand£200mofgovernmentfundingconfirmedinChancellorGordonBrown's spendingreviewearlierthismonth. ThamesGatewayBridgeprojectdirectorMikeClarketoldBBCNewsOnlinethatthethreeyear constructionprojectwouldcreateupto3,000localjobs.Buthesaidtheeffectofthebridgeonjobs intheareawillbe"evengreater". "Thelackofacrossingintheareahasbeentoitsdetrimentandthisbridgewillbringhugebenefit totheThamesGateway,"hesaid. "Weareverypositivethatthecouncilswillgivetheirapproval. "Weknowlocalresidentsarebehindusbecauseduringthepublicconsultation,85%ofthosethat tookpart,includinglocalbusinesses,backedtheplans." Butenvironmentalistshavecriticisedtheschemeclaimingitwillbeusedbybusinessestotransport moreroadfreight,creatingmorepollution.   BRIDGEPLANS ThebridgewilllinkBecktonwithThamesmeadatGallionsReach. Thecrossingisdesignedtohavetwolanesineitherdirectionforcarsandcommercialvehicles. Itwillalsohaveseparatelanes,locatedonthewesternsideofthebridge,forpublictransport, pedestriansandcyclists. Theproposedtollis£1forlocalcarusersand£2forothers.ExemptionssimilartotheCongestion Chargewillapply. ThebridgecouldbeupgradedtoaccommodateDocklandLightRailwayortramsinthefuture. continues... 6.8 ACTIVITY2C:Continued
  16. 16. CMYCMMYCYCMYK Printedfrom“TowerBridgeExhibition:EducationalActivities&Resources,”aFREETeachersKitdesignedbyGuyFoxLimited.GuyFox LimitedispartofGuyFoxHistoryProject,aneducationalcharitywhichcreatesinnovativepublicationsforchildren.Tolearnaboutour work,visitwww.guyfox.org.uk.Copyright2010,GuyFoxLimited.Allrightsreserved.Duplicationispermittedforeducationaluseonly. TOWERBRIDGEEXHIBITION:ClassroomActivities AFTER NEWSARTICLE#2 £80m‘LivingBridge’PlannedforThames ExcerptfromEveningStandard 5thMay2009 AuthorKatherineBarney PlansforanewbridgeacrosstheThameslinedwithshopsandhomes-similartothePonteVecchio inFlorence-arebeingdrawnupbyBorisJohnson.TheMayorhasrevivedproposalsoriginallyput forwardintheNineties.TheoriginalplanswerebyFrencharchitectAntoineGrumbach,whowona competitionbytheRoyalAcademytodesignahabitablebridgeandproposedbuildingitbetween WaterlooandBlackfriars. HoweverwhenLabourcameintopowerin1997theplansweredropped,althoughsomeofthedetails weretakenintoaccountwhentheMillenniumBridgewasconstructed.Itislikelyadifferentlocation willbesought.MrJohnsonhasregularlyspokenoftheneedforanewcrossingeastofTowerBridge andhasaskedadviserstoinvestigatethepossibilityofbuildingbetweenGreenwichandSilvertown intheRoyalDocks. ThisisdespitescrappingplansforaThamesgatewaybridgewhichheclaimedwereunfundedand wouldbyenvironmentallyunfriendly.MrJohnsonhassaidthe£80millioncostofbuildinga"living bridge"couldbefoundfromthesaleofpropertiesonit. AspokesmanfortheMayorsaid:"AsshownintheMayor'sreviewoftheLondonPlanthisweek,he hashighambitionstoimprovetheurbanrealmandqualityoflifebycreatingamoreiconicandbeautiful capitalcitywithvisionaryarchitecture20yearsfromnow. "Hispolicydirectorisexploringhowabridgewitharesidentialandcommercialelement,anideathat wasputforwardintheNineties,couldbepartofthatvision." TheideawouldfacetoughscrutinyfrominterestedpartiesincludingtheGovernment,EnglishHeritage andlocalauthorities.TheoriginalplanswerebackedbybusinesslobbygroupLondonFirstbuta spokesmansaidtheyhadnotbeenconsultedoverthedusting-offoftheolddesign. Aspokesmansaid:"Atthetimeourpositionwasverymuchinfavourandintheorythathasnot changed.HoweversincethebuildingoftheMillenniumBridgewewouldmuchprefertoseeoneeast ofTowerBridge." MrGrumbach'sdesignshadthebridgesuspendedfromtwin35-storeytowersonthenorthsideof theriver,containingflatswithviewsoverthecity.ItwouldbethefirsttimeLondonhadabridgewith residentialandcommercialpropertiesin178years-sincethebuildingsonLondonBridgeweretorn down. ThemedievalLondonBridge,completedin1209inthereignofKingJohn,containeddozensofpacked- inhousesandshopsbutasthebridgebecamefurtherdevelopedcongestionmeantcrossingscould takemorethananhour. MrGrumbach'splansfeaturedlifts,staircasesandescalatorstogainaccesstothebridge,including fromwaterlevel.CalledGardenBridge,italsoincludedproposalsforhedge,treesandgreenhouses, alongsidespacesforliveconcertsanda"topiarycafé". ACTIVITY2C:Continued 6.9
  17. 17. CMYCMMYCYCMYK Printedfrom“TowerBridgeExhibition:EducationalActivities&Resources,”aFREETeachersKitdesignedbyGuyFoxLimited.GuyFox LimitedispartofGuyFoxHistoryProject,aneducationalcharitywhichcreatesinnovativepublicationsforchildren.Tolearnaboutour work,visitwww.guyfox.org.uk.Copyright2010,GuyFoxLimited.Allrightsreserved.Duplicationispermittedforeducationaluseonly. TOWERBRIDGEEXHIBITION:ClassroomActivities AFTER ACTIVITY3A:HOWDIDTHEYBUILD TOWERBRIDGE? Objectives: •Toidentifyandconsiderdifferentphasesofbridgeconstruction •Toconsiderchallengesthatbridge-buildersmustaddress RequiredResources: •SequenceofimagesofTowerBridgeunderconstruction(Item#16inthisKit) •TowerBridgeFacts&Figures(Item#7inthisKit) •Artmaterials AsaClass: Makealistofallthekeymomentsintheeight-yearconstructionofTowerBridge,including: 1876to1883........................ASpecialCommitteeoftheBridgeHouseCommitteestudies theneedforanewrivercrossingeastofLondonBridge 1883.........................................BridgeHouseCommitteedecidestobuildabridge 1884..........................................SelectCommitteeoftheHouseofCommonsmeetstodecide onbridgedesign 14thAug1885...................ParliamentgivesRoyalAssenttobuildTowerBridge Aug1885toApr1886...HoraceJones(Architect)andJohnWolfe-Barry(Engineer)makeplansfor constructionlogistics 22ndApr1886....................Constructionbegins 21stJune1886....................HRHthePrinceofWaleslaysthememorialstone July1886.................................HoraceJonesreceivesaknighthood 30thJune1894...................Bridgeopenstothepublic Whathappenedbetween22ndApril1886and30thJune1894? ReadthefollowingwithyourpupilsandthendiscusstheconstructionofTowerBridgewithyourpupils. HOWdidtheybuildTowerBridge? Phase1-PREPAREAPLAN: JohnWolfe-Barry(theengineer)andHoraceJones(thearchitect)plannedtheconstruction. Theythoughtthrougheveryaspectoftheconstruction:howthematerialswouldbebroughtupthe RiverThames,whichworkerswouldbeneededandwhen,andhowtoallowtrafficontheriverto continuethroughouttheconstruction(whichwouldtake8years). Duetospacelimitations,theycouldnotstorematerialsorequipmentattheconstructionsite.So theyhadtofigureouthowtotransportthematerialsuptheriveratthecorrecttime. Phase2-MAKESPACEFORRIVERTRAFFIC: AshippingchannelwasdefinedintheRiverThamesundertheconstructionsite.Itwas49metres wide,anditallowedtrafficontherivertocontinue. Phase3-CONSTRUCTTWOPIERS: Theyconstructedeachpier,oneaftertheother.Theycouldnotbuildthepiersatthesametimeas thatwouldhaveblockedshippingtrafficontheriver. 6.10 continues... NationalCurriculumLinks KeyStage2 ArtandDesign:1a,1b,2c,4c,5a DesignandTechnology:4a,4b English:En3.9b History:1a,1b,5c,6,11a
  18. 18. CMYCMMYCYCMYK Printedfrom“TowerBridgeExhibition:EducationalActivities&Resources,”aFREETeachersKitdesignedbyGuyFoxLimited.GuyFox LimitedispartofGuyFoxHistoryProject,aneducationalcharitywhichcreatesinnovativepublicationsforchildren.Tolearnaboutour work,visitwww.guyfox.org.uk.Copyright2010,GuyFoxLimited.Allrightsreserved.Duplicationispermittedforeducationaluseonly. TOWERBRIDGEEXHIBITION:ClassroomActivities AFTER Tobuildeachpiertheystarteddeepunderwater,ontheriverbed.First,thediversmadetheriverbed levelandthen*caissonswerelowereddownfromthesurfaceuntiltheypressedintothesoil.As eachcaissonwaslowered,rivetersattachedanotheroneontothetopofit,formingatowerof caissonsthatstretchedfromtheriverbedtotheriversurface. (*Acaissonisanopensteelbox,withfoursides.Asitispressedintotheriverbed,itssteeledges‘dig’into thesoilandareembeddedentirely.Whenthebottomcaissonisembeddedinthesoil,anothercaissonis rivetedontop,andthatcaissonispressedintotheriverbed.) Thediversworkedinsidethecaissonsatthebottomoftheriver,excavatingtheriverbedgraveland buryingthecaissonsdeeperanddeeperuntiltheyweredeepintotheLondonclay(7metresbelow theriverbed).AsLondonclayiswatertight,theconstructionworkersthenpumpedoutallthe waterandcouldworkindryconditions. TheconstructionworkersthenextendedtheirexcavationintotheLondonclaybeneaththe caissonsandpouredconcreteintothespacetoformfoundationsforthepier. Masonslinedthecavitywithmasonrymadeofbrick,graniteandconcrete,leavingroomforthe steelpillars. Phase4-MAKETHESTEELSKELETON: ThesteelforTowerBridgewasmanufacturedinScotlandatArrol’sDalmarnockIronWorks;itwas shippedtoLondonandbroughtuptheThamesRiveronbarges. ThesteelworkersinScotlandmadeeachsegmentofsteelaccordingtoJohnWolfe-Barry’s plan,andtheytestedallthesegmentstomakesuretheyfittogetherbeforetheysentthemtoLondon. Whenthesteelsegmentsarrivedattheconstructionsite,craneoperatorsmovedtheminto place.Rivetersrivetedthemtogethertomakesteelpillars,whichgrewoutofeachpier.Theybuilt fourpillarsineachpierandsetthemintograniteslabsatthefoundation. Phase5-BUILDTHEHIGHLEVELWALKWAYS: Constructionworkersbuiltwoodenscaffoldstoholdthehorizontalsegmentsinplace.Barge operatorsbroughtthesteelsegmentsuptheriver,andthencraneoperatorsmovedthe segmentsintoplace.Rivetersthenrivetedthewalkwaysegmentsintoplace. Theconstructionworkersandrivetersworkedhighabovetheriverwithoutanysafetynets, hardhatsorprotectivefootwear! Phase6-BUILDTHECHAINS: Constructionworkersbuiltsuperstrongwoodentrestlestosupporttheheavysteelchainsand tokeepthemfromswinginginthewind.Thechainswerealsobroughtuptheriveronbarges,lifted intoplacebycranesandrivetedtogetherinsegments.Allinall,TowerBridgehasover2millionrivets! Phase7-BUILD&INSTALLTHEBASCULES: Eachbasculewasmadefromfourlonggirders,severalcrossgirdersandsteelplates.Thelonggirders andtheroadwayplateswouldsupporttheroad,andthecrossgirderswouldholdthebascules together. Constructionworkersbuiltlonggirders,addingthecrossgirdersandroadwayplatesuntilthey stretchedoutfortyfeetovertheriver.Oncethosewereinplace,theythreadedapinintothepivot sothebasculecouldrotate.Theybuiltacounterbalanceontheland-sideofeachbascule. ACTIVITY3A:Continued 6.11 continues...
  19. 19. CMYCMMYCYCMYK Printedfrom“TowerBridgeExhibition:EducationalActivities&Resources,”aFREETeachersKitdesignedbyGuyFoxLimited.GuyFox LimitedispartofGuyFoxHistoryProject,aneducationalcharitywhichcreatesinnovativepublicationsforchildren.Tolearnaboutour work,visitwww.guyfox.org.uk.Copyright2010,GuyFoxLimited.Allrightsreserved.Duplicationispermittedforeducationaluseonly. TOWERBRIDGEEXHIBITION:ClassroomActivities AFTER Phase8-INSTALLTHESTEAMENGINES: Constructionworkersinstalledthesteamenginesandthehydraulicpipesinthebridge. Phase9-OPENTHEBRIDGE! Openthebridgefortrafficandmaintainit.Evennow,maintenanceworkersandbridge operatorsareonsiteatTowerBridgetwenty-fourhoursaday! Askyourpupilsto: ConsidertheworkerswhobuiltTowerBridge.Whichoftheseroleswereneededatwhichtimes? Architect(s):..............................Designedabridgewithturretsandparapetswithsteeltowerstosupport suspensionchainsandbasculesthatcouldswinguptoallowshipsthrough. Workedwiththeengineertoplantheconstructionofthebridge. Engineer(s):...............................Ensuredthearchitect’sdesignwouldfunction. Workedwiththearchitecttoplantheconstructionofthebridge. Underwaterdivers:.................Excavateddeepbelowtheriverbedsothatcaissonscouldbeloweredand filledwithconcretesothatpiersforthebridgescouldbebuiltontop. Factoryworkers:.....................MadethesteelsegmentsforthebridgeinScotlandbyloadingironoreinto theblastfurnace,alongwithcoke(purecarbonderivedfromcoal)and limestone(asubstancethatremovesimpurities). Craneoperators:......................Movedthesteelsegmentsfrombargesintothecorrectplaceonthebridge. Bargeoperators:.......................TransportedthematerialsforthebridgeuptheRiverThameswhenthey wereneededbytheconstructionworkers. Constructionworkers:...........Wereinvolvedineveryphaseofbridgeconstruction. Riveters:......................................Connectedallthesteelsegmentstogetherusingrivets.Theyplacedeachrivet byhand;thereare2millionrivetsinTowerBridge. Masons:.......................................Enclosedthesteelstructureinbrickandgreystone. Painters:......................................Paintedthesteelworkchocolatebrown. Discuss: Considerwhateachworkerdidandwhatthepurposeoftheirworkwas.Thinkaboutwhichwerethemost difficultordangerouspartsoftheirjobs.Youmaywanttodoaroleplaywithyourstudents,askingeachstudent tochooseajobandhelpbuildthebridge. Askyourpupilsto: LookatthepicturesofTowerBridgeunderconstructionandmatchthemtoeachphaseoftheconstruction process.Drawpicturesillustratingthephaseswhichdon’thavereferenceimages.Drawpicturesoftheworkers whobuiltthebridge. Createastoryboardwithcaptionsshowingtheconstructionfromstarttofinish.Youmaywanttoaddsomeof yourphotosfromyourvisittoTowerBridgeExhibition.Whenyourstoryboardisfinished,postitonthewall orbulletinboardofyourclassroom. 6.12 Activity3A:Continued
  20. 20. CMYCMMYCYCMYK Printedfrom“TowerBridgeExhibition:EducationalActivities&Resources,”aFREETeachersKitdesignedbyGuyFoxLimited.GuyFox LimitedispartofGuyFoxHistoryProject,aneducationalcharitywhichcreatesinnovativepublicationsforchildren.Tolearnaboutour work,visitwww.guyfox.org.uk.Copyright2010,GuyFoxLimited.Allrightsreserved.Duplicationispermittedforeducationaluseonly. TOWERBRIDGEEXHIBITION:ClassroomActivities AFTER6.13 continues... ACTIVITY3B:THESTORYOFTOWERBRIDGE: IllustratedLondonNews Objectives: •ToinvestigatetheroleofVictoriannewspapers •TointerpretanewsarticlefromtheIllustratedLondonNews •TocompareVictoriannewspaperstomodernmedia RequiredResources: •FacsimileoftheIllustratedLondonNews(Item#8inthisKit) AsaClass: ReadthefollowinginformationabouttheIllustratedLondonNews: AbouttheIllustratedLondonNews TheIllustratedLondonNewswasstartedbyHerbertIngramin1842;hehadnoticedthatnewspapers soldmorecopieswhentheyincludedimages,sohedecidedtopublishanewspaperwithimagesin everyedition.ThefirsteditionoftheIllustratedLondonNewsappearedon14thMay1842.Ithad16 pageswith32images.Eachimagewasfirstdrawnbyanartistandthenengravedintowoodforprinting. Topreparethenewspaperforprinting,eachletterhadtobeindividuallyplacedintoapress-plateto spelleachword.Typesettersworkedline-by-linethroughanarticle,settingthelettersonebyone. Becausetheyweremakingaplatewhichwouldbeinkedandpressedontothepaper,theletterswere inreverse(mirror-image).ImaginespellingeverywordBACKWARDS!Itmusthavebeenatime- consumingjob! PublishingapaperintheVictorianeratookalotoftimeandlabour,andtheIllustratedLondonNews onlycameouttwiceaweek.Itcostsixpence,andthefirsteditionsoldmorethan25,000copies.By theendof1842,theIllustratedLondonNewswasselling60,000copiesperedition. In1852,theIllustratedLondonNewspublishedaspecialeditionaboutthefuneraloftheDukeof Wellington,anditssalesroseto150,000.By1855,itsold200,000copiesperweek.Thesalescontinued toriseuntilthe1860s,whenitwasselling300,000copiesperweek.ThisfigurewasAMAZING comparedtoothernewspapersoftheday. Ifyoucomparethesefigurestothemodern-dayBBCwebsite,whichgets13millionwebsitevisits perday,youcanseehowmuchthedistributionofnewshaschangedsinceVictoriantimes! AsaClass: ReadanddiscussthearticleaboutTowerBridgefromtheIllustratedLondonNews.Teacher’sNote:Youmaywish todividethearticleintopartsandassigneachparttoagroupofpupils. Askyourpupilsto: •Readthearticleagain. •Identifywordsandphrasesthattheydon’tunderstand,orthatseemfunnyorunusual. •Identifypowerfulimagesorphrasesthat‘standout’orthathelpthem‘paintapicture’intheirheads. •Discusshowthearticlemightmakethereaderfeel. NationalCurriculumLinks KeyStage2 Citizenship:2k English:En2.3d,En2.5a,En2.5b, En2.7c,En3.1c,En3.1d,En3.9b, En3.11,En3.12 History:4a,5a,5c,6,8a,11a
  21. 21. CMYCMMYCYCMYK Printedfrom“TowerBridgeExhibition:EducationalActivities&Resources,”aFREETeachersKitdesignedbyGuyFoxLimited.GuyFox LimitedispartofGuyFoxHistoryProject,aneducationalcharitywhichcreatesinnovativepublicationsforchildren.Tolearnaboutour work,visitwww.guyfox.org.uk.Copyright2010,GuyFoxLimited.Allrightsreserved.Duplicationispermittedforeducationaluseonly. TOWERBRIDGEEXHIBITION:ClassroomActivities AFTER6.14 ACTIVITY3B:Continued Askyourpupilsto: •ImaginetheyhadtotellthestoryofTowerBridgetoanotherchild. •Writeashorterversionofthestory. Whichphrases,ifany,wouldtheykeep? •Howwouldtheymakethestoryinteresting? SuggestionforExtendingtheActivity: IdentifyanewsarticleaboutaconstructionprojectinLondon(perhapsHeathrowTerminal5ortheconstruction forthe2012Olympics).Youmightfindthearticleinanewspaper,oronawebsite,orevenontelevision. AskyourpupilstocompareandcontrastthearticlefromtheIllustratedLondonNewswiththearticleyouhave found.Includethefollowinginyourdiscussion: -Howistheinformationpresentedtothereader(words)? -Howaretheimagespresentedtothereader(pictures/movingimages/diagrams)? -Whoistheauthoroftheinformation(journalist/blogger)? -Howdid/doestheinformationgettothereader?(distribution)?
  22. 22. CMYCMMYCYCMYK Printedfrom“TowerBridgeExhibition:EducationalActivities&Resources,”aFREETeachersKitdesignedbyGuyFoxLimited.GuyFox LimitedispartofGuyFoxHistoryProject,aneducationalcharitywhichcreatesinnovativepublicationsforchildren.Tolearnaboutour work,visitwww.guyfox.org.uk.Copyright2010,GuyFoxLimited.Allrightsreserved.Duplicationispermittedforeducationaluseonly. TOWERBRIDGEEXHIBITION:ClassroomActivities AFTER6.15 ACTIVITY4:THEPHYSICSOFTOWERBRIDGE- ANEXPERIMENT Objectives: •Toinvestigatedifferenttypesofbridges •Toexplorehowforcesaffectbridgedesignandconstruction RequiredResources: •‘Bridge-building’materials:oldnewspapers,string,drinkingstraws,uncookedspaghetti,cellotape,maskingtape,etc •‘TypesofBridges’Worksheet •Imagesofdifferentbridgetypes:Archbridge,Suspensionbridge,Beambridge •DiagramofTowerBridgeshowingforces(compression/tension)withinthebridge Askyourpupilsto: Reviewandconsiderthe‘TypesofBridge’Worksheet.Thinkaboutdifferentshapesofbridges,and(ifappropriate) toconsiderbridgestheyencountereveryday.Introducetoyourpupilsthethreemaintypesofbridge:‘arch’, ‘suspension’and‘beam’(Referto‘TypesofBridges’Worksheet). Introducetheconcepts:‘span’,‘compression’and‘tension’: Span...........................Thedistancebetweentwobridgesupports,whethertheyarecolumns,towersorthe wallofacanyon. Lode...........................Theweightthatabridgespancanbear;forexample,carsorpedestrians. Compression...........Whentwoforcespushinonanobjectfromoppositesides(shortening);forexample, crushinganemptysodacanbetweenyourhands. Tension......................Whentwoforcespullonanobjectfromoppositesides(stretching/lengthening);for example,stretchingarubberbandbetweenyourhands. DesignaBridgeandUnderstanditsForces Askpupilsto: •Chooseonetypeofbridgeanddrawanexampleofthatbridgetype. •Identifyontheirdrawingwitharrowsthedirectionofeachforce.RefertodiagramofTowerBridgeifneeded. BuildaBridgeandExplainItsFailure Putpupilsintosmallgroups,andaskthemtochooseabridgetype.Askpupilstoconstructabridgefromthe materialsprovided.Thebridgeshouldbeatleast30centimetres(12inches)inlength.Itcanbeanytypeof bridge. Encouragepupilstoexperimentandexploreeachofthetypesofbridge.Whichbridgetypeisbestforbearing thelode?Explaintopupilsthateffectivebridgedesignsutilisenaturalforcestotransfertheweightofthelode anddistributeitacrossthestructure,sothatthebridgecanaccommodatelargelodesandspanlongerlengths. TestYourBridges Whenthestudentshavefinishedtheirbridges,testeachonewithincreasingweights(the‘lode’)untilitfails.The bridgewhichbearsthegreatestlodewins! ExplaintheFailure Tellpupilsthattheaimisnottowin–buttomakeathoroughexplanationofhowabridgeworks.Failureis GOODifyoucanexplainit!Eachgrouphastoreportwhattheyhavelearntaboutbridgedesign,bridgebuilding, NationalCurriculumLinks: KeyStage2 ArtandDesign:1a,2a,4b,5a,5b,5c DesignandTechnology:1b,1c,2a,2b,2c,2d, 3a,3b,3c,4a,4b,5b,5c Science:Sc1.1a+b,Sc1.2j,l,mSc3.1a,Sc4.2d+e
  23. 23. CMYCMMYCYCMYK Printedfrom“TowerBridgeExhibition:EducationalActivities&Resources,”aFREETeachersKitdesignedbyGuyFoxLimited.GuyFox LimitedispartofGuyFoxHistoryProject,aneducationalcharitywhichcreatesinnovativepublicationsforchildren.Tolearnaboutour work,visitwww.guyfox.org.uk.Copyright2010,GuyFoxLimited.Allrightsreserved.Duplicationispermittedforeducationaluseonly. TOWERBRIDGEEXHIBITION:ClassroomActivities AFTER6.16 continues... ACTIVITY5:HOWSTEAMENGINESLIFTED THEBASCULESOFTOWERBRIDGE Objectives: •ToexplorethedifferentstagesofenergyproductionwhichraisetheTowerBridgebascules •Toconsidernewformsofenergyproductionandthedifferencetheymaketomechanics andpatternsofwork RequiredResources: •‘HowtheBasculesWereRaised’Cards(1894to1976)-Item#12inthisKit (Now)-Item#13inthisKit •‘MyVisittoTowerBridge’Worksheet Instructions: Asaclass,refertoyour‘MyVisittoTowerBridge’WorksheetsanddiscussthethingsyousawintheSteam EngineRoomsatTowerBridgeExhibition.Discusseachstepintheprocessthatwasusedwhenthebascules wereraisedbysteam-generatedenergy. PartOne:LiftingtheBasculesWithSteamPower Askpupilstolookatthe‘HowtheBasculesWereRaised’cards(1894to1976)whichshoweachstepofthe process.Asaclass,putthe‘HowtheBasculesWereRaised’cardsinthecorrectorder. CorrectOrder:COALBOILERSTEAMPRESSUREHYDRAULICENERGY BRIDGEOPERATORBASCULEENGINEBRIDGEOPENS Optional:Drawadiagramshowingthejourneyofapieceofcoalandhowitistransformedinto energytopowerthesteamengines. Consideranddiscussasaclass: Howmanystaffwouldbenecessarytooperatethemachineryforthisprocess? Teacher’sNote:Therearenocorrectanswersinthisexercise!Wewantpupilstoconsiderthelabour andstaffthatwererequiredforthesteamenginesandhydraulicsequipment,andtocomparethe labourrequirementsaftertheconversiontoelectricpower. Whatwouldtheirroleshavebeen? Inyourestimation,howmanypeoplewereneededto: -Haulthecoaltotheboiler?______________ -Stoketheboiler?+______________ -Fixtheboilerifitbroke?+______________ -Operatethesteamengines?+______________ -Maintain/fixthesteamengines?+______________ -Lookafterthehydraulicstoragetanks?+______________ -Operatetheleversinthecabinonthebridge?+______________ -Maintain/fixthebasculeengines?+______________ -Maintainthehydraulicpipes?+______________ -Manage/overseetheprocess?+______________ TOTAL=______________ NationalCurriculumLinks: KeyStage2 Citizenship:1e,2a,2e DesignandTechnology:4c,4d Geography:2a,3d,3e,3g,4b History:2a,2c,2d,4b,6,7,8a,11a
  24. 24. CMYCMMYCYCMYK Printedfrom“TowerBridgeExhibition:EducationalActivities&Resources,”aFREETeachersKitdesignedbyGuyFoxLimited.GuyFox LimitedispartofGuyFoxHistoryProject,aneducationalcharitywhichcreatesinnovativepublicationsforchildren.Tolearnaboutour work,visitwww.guyfox.org.uk.Copyright2010,GuyFoxLimited.Allrightsreserved.Duplicationispermittedforeducationaluseonly. TOWERBRIDGEEXHIBITION:ClassroomActivities AFTER6.17 Inyourestimation,howmanyhoursperdaywouldstaffberequiredtooperatethissystem? Answer:24 Teacher’sNote:Before1976,ashipcould‘turnup’atthebridgeatanytimeandraiseasignalflagto requestabridgelift.That,andtheongoingdemandsofthehydraulicsystem,meantthat staffwererequired24hoursaday,sevendaysaweek. PartTwo:LiftingtheBasculeswithElectricity In1976,TowerBridgeswitchedfromhydraulictoelectricpower.Thehydraulicmachinerystillfunctioned(and stillwouldfunctiontoday),butthemanpowerrequiredprovedtooexpensive.Additionally,therewasnolonger acompanyinLondonwhocouldsupplyhydraulicpowerintheeventthatTowerBridge’ssteamenginesfailed. LiftingtheBasculesNOW Askpupilstolookatthe‘HowtheBasculesAreRaised(Now)’cardswhichshoweachstepoftheprocess. Asaclass,putthe‘HowtheBasculesAreRaised’cardsinthecorrectorder. CorrectOrder:ELECTRICENERGYBRIDGEOPERATORBASCULEENGINEBRIDGEOPENS Consideranddiscussasaclass: Thestaffwhicharenecessarytooperatethemachineryforthisprocess.Usethequestionsbelow. Inyourestimation,howmanypeopleareneededto: -Maintaintheoperatingsystem?_______________ -Operatetheleversinthecabinonthebridge?+______________ -Maintain/fixthebasculeengines?+______________ TOTAL=______________ Howmanypeopleareneededtomanagetheprocess(makingsureeverybodydoeshisorherjob)? Answer:6 Inyourestimation,howmanyhoursperdaywouldstaffberequiredtooperatethissystem? Answer:12 AsaClass: Considerthenewmethodofraisingthebascules;discusswhathaschanged,intermsofenergyandlabour. Questions: Istheprocesssimplernow? Howmanystepshavebeeneliminated?Whichstepsarethey? Whataretheimplicationsofsimplifyingaprocess? Answer:Fewerstepsintheprocessmeanfewerthingscangowrong! Askyourpupilsto: Consideranddiscusseverydaythingswhichreducetheneedforlabour(egdishwasher,washingmachine,etc). Consideranddiscusshowtechnologymakeslifeeasier,butalsohowitchangesthelabourmarketforthepeople involved. PupilsshouldbeencouragedtomakelinksbetweentheIndustrialRevolutionandthecurrentInformation Revolution. ACTIVITY5:Continued
  25. 25. CMYCMMYCYCMYK Printedfrom“TowerBridgeExhibition:EducationalActivities&Resources,”aFREETeachersKitdesignedbyGuyFoxLimited.GuyFox LimitedispartofGuyFoxHistoryProject,aneducationalcharitywhichcreatesinnovativepublicationsforchildren.Tolearnaboutour work,visitwww.guyfox.org.uk.Copyright2010,GuyFoxLimited.Allrightsreserved.Duplicationispermittedforeducationaluseonly. TOWERBRIDGEEXHIBITION:ClassroomActivities AFTER6.18 ACTIVITY6:DESIGNYOUROWNRIVERCROSSING Objectives: •Toconsiderprocessesofdesignandconsultation •Tounderstandhowdecisionsaremade RequiredResources: •ImagesoftheoriginalThamesRivercrossingdesigns(Item#16inthisKit) Askyourpupilsto: Teacher’sNote:Pupilscouldworkingroupstomaketheirpresentations. Lookatthevariousproposeddesignsfortherivercrossing. Chooseonedesigntoproposetothecommittee.Presentyourdesign,explainingwhyyouthinkthatideawould haveworkedbetter. HaveaclassdebateaboutHoraceJones’designforTowerBridge. IsittheBESTsolutiontotheproblem?(RefertoActivity2Aforadviceforsettingupadebate.) ExtensionActivity ImaginethattheSpecialCommitteeoftheBridgehouseCommitteeweremeetingtodaytodesignarivercrossing. IdentifythechangesintheareasurroundingTowerHillthatwouldaffectanewdesign. OptionalArtActivity Askpupilstodesignanalternativerivercrossingthataccommodatesbothrivertrafficandroadtraffic.Draw orbuildamodelofthedesignandpresentittotheclassfordebate. NationalCurriculumLinks: KeyStage2 ArtandDesign:1a,1b,2a,2b,5a Citizenship:1a,2a,2e,2f,2j DesignandTechnology:1a,2a,2c,2d, 3c,4a,4b,5a,5b,5c English:En1.1a-f,En1.2a-e,En.3a-f,En1.7, En1.8b+c,En1.9c,En1.10c Geography:1d,2a,2g,4b,6a,6d,6e,7a History:2a,4b,6,7,8a,11a
  26. 26. CMYCMMYCYCMYK Printedfrom“TowerBridgeExhibition:EducationalActivities&Resources,”aFREETeachersKitdesignedbyGuyFoxLimited.GuyFox LimitedispartofGuyFoxHistoryProject,aneducationalcharitywhichcreatesinnovativepublicationsforchildren.Tolearnaboutour work,visitwww.guyfox.org.uk.Copyright2010,GuyFoxLimited.Allrightsreserved.Duplicationispermittedforeducationaluseonly. TOWERBRIDGEEXHIBITION:ClassroomActivities AFTER ACTIVITY7A:TOWERBRIDGEEXHIBITION ASALANDMARK Objective: •Toexploretheideaofalandmarkanditsimportancetoacityornation RequiredResources: •ImagesofTowerBridge(Item#16inthisKit,plusimagesfromyourvisit!) •CurrentmarketingmaterialfromTowerBridge (NOTE:BesuretocollectbrochuresandpamphletswhenyouvisitTowerBridgeExhibition!) Asaclass,discuss: TowerBridgeisknownallovertheworldasalandmarkofLondon.Whatotherlandmarkscanyouthinkof whichsymboliseLondon?Haveyouvisitedanyofthem?Whatdidyouthinkofthem? MakealistofotherlandmarksinLondon. Question:CanyouthinkofotherlandmarksinothercitiesintheUK? Question:Canyouthinkofotherlandmarksinothercitiesaroundtheworld? Reviewthelistoflandmarks.Discusswhichcharacteristicsmakessomethingalandmark. Question:Whatdolandmarkshaveincommon:Theirshape?Theirsize?Theirlocation?Theirfunction? Theirhistory?Theirrelationshiptothepeopleintheplace? Question:Whatisthepurposeofalandmark? Question:Whatdolandmarksmakeusfeelaboutaplace?Whyaretheyimportant? Question:Whatkindoffunctionsdolandmarkshave?Whatdotheycelebrate? Question:Whatsortofjobsdolandmarkscreateinacity? Placeyourpupilsintosmallgroupsandaskeachgroupto: ImagineyouhavetodesignanewlandmarkforLondon,andyouhaveto‘pitch’yourdesignto anofficialcommitteeforconsideration. Question:Whatarethemostimportantthingstothinkaboutwhenmakingplansforalandmark? 1)Makealistoftheconsiderationsforyourlandmark.Includepurposeand meaning,location,size,design,materials,andrelationshiptolocalresidents orvisitorstoLondon. 2)Preparea‘pitch’forthecommittee(therestoftheclass),outliningwhyyou thinkyourlandmarkisthebestdesignforLondon. 3)Preparedesignsforthelandmark(togowithyour‘pitch’),includingdrawings andotherimagesofyourlandmark. 4)Makeyourpitchtothecommittee! ExtensionArtActivity •ConsideryourlistoflandmarksintheUKandaroundtheworld(above). •MakeagiantillustratedUKand/orWorldMapforyourclassroom. •Choosealandmarkanddrawapictureofit.Cutouteachillustrationandstickitonthemap. 6.19 NationalCurriculumLinks: KeyStage2 ArtandDesign:1a Citizenship:1a DesignandTechnology:1a,1b,5b English:En1.1a-f,En1.2a-e,En1.7,En1.8b+c, En1.9c,En1.10c Geography:1a,1d,2a,3a,3b,3c,3g,6a,7a
  27. 27. CMYCMMYCYCMYK Printedfrom“TowerBridgeExhibition:EducationalActivities&Resources,”aFREETeachersKitdesignedbyGuyFoxLimited.GuyFox LimitedispartofGuyFoxHistoryProject,aneducationalcharitywhichcreatesinnovativepublicationsforchildren.Tolearnaboutour work,visitwww.guyfox.org.uk.Copyright2010,GuyFoxLimited.Allrightsreserved.Duplicationispermittedforeducationaluseonly. TOWERBRIDGEEXHIBITION:ClassroomActivities AFTER6.20 ACTIVITY7B:TOWERBRIDGEEXHIBITION ASAWORLDLANDMARK Objective: •Toexploretheroleofthemarketingdepartmentinavisitorattraction RequiredResources: •ImagesofTowerBridge(Item#16inthisKit,plusimagesfromyourvisit!) •CurrentmarketingmaterialfromTowerBridge (NOTE:BesuretocollectbrochuresandpamphletswhenyouvisitTowerBridgeExhibition!) •Artmaterials Askyourpupilsto: ImagineyouarepartoftheMarketingTeamofTowerBridgeExhibition.Discusstheroleofa‘MarketingTeam’. Whataretheytryingtodo,andwhatdotheyusetodothis? Discusswithpupils: DiscusstheroleandfunctionsoftheMarketingTeamatTowerBridgeExhibition,including: •AttractingvisitorfromtheUKandallovertheworldtovisitTowerBridgeExhibition •Creatinganddistributing‘collateral’whichinformspotentialvisitorsabouthowtomakeavisit •Findingwaystoimprovethevisitor’sexperienceofTowerBridgeExhibition,sothattheywillvisit againand/ortelltheirfriendsaboutthevisit. CreateapieceofMarketingCollateral Dividetheclassintosmallgroups.PupilsshouldcontinuetoimaginetheyarepartoftheMarketingTeamat TowerBridgeExhibition,butyoucouldgiveeachgroupaspecificobjective(e.g.promotingTowerBridge Exhibitiontofamilieswithchildren,tovisitorsfromoverseas,ortoeducators,etal). AskeachgrouptodesignaposterwhichattractsvisitorstoTowerBridgeExhibition: 1.Selectanimageofthebridge,orpartofit,thatwillgettheattentionofyour audience,somethingwhichwouldbeappropriateforalargeposterorbillboard. 2.Identifyaquestionorstatementtogowiththepicturethatwouldmake peoplestopandthink. 3.Imaginethebridgeisaskingthequestiontoapasser-by.Itmightbesomething ofapuzzle.(Forexample,doyouknowwhatabasculeis?Doyouknowhow abasculeworks?). 4.Thinkofaninterestingfactaboutthebridgethatcouldgowiththepicture. 5.Writeafewsentencesaboutthepictureandtosaywhatwasgreataboutthe visit. FINALLY Discussdifferentwaysyoucouldpresentthematerial(topeoplefromallover theworld)andthinkabouthowtoarrangethepicture,question,amazing factandstory. NationalCurriculumLinks: KeyStage2 ArtandDesign:1a,1b,1c,2a,2b, 2c,4a,4b,5a,5b,5d English:En3.1a-e,En3.2a-e,En3.6a, En3.8,En3.9a-c,En3.11 ICT:2a,3a,3b,
  28. 28. CMYCMMYCYCMYK Printedfrom“TowerBridgeExhibition:EducationalActivities&Resources,”aFREETeachersKitdesignedbyGuyFoxLimited.GuyFox LimitedispartofGuyFoxHistoryProject,aneducationalcharitywhichcreatesinnovativepublicationsforchildren.Tolearnaboutour work,visitwww.guyfox.org.uk.Copyright2010,GuyFoxLimited.Allrightsreserved.Duplicationispermittedforeducationaluseonly. TOWERBRIDGEEXHIBITION:ClassroomActivities AFTER6.21 ACTIVITY7C:TOURINGTOWERBRIDGEEXHIBITION Objective: •ToidentifykeyfactsandpointsofinterestinandaroundTowerBridgeExhibition •TounderstandtheroleofaTourGuideatavisitorattraction RequiredResources: •‘MyVisittoTowerBridgeExhibition’Worksheet •TowerBridgeFactsSheet(Item#7inthisKit) Askyourpupilsto: ImaginetheyarewelcomingavisitorwhoiscomingtoLondonforthefirsttime. Discusstheroleofaguideatalandmarkortouristattraction: •Identifywhatahelpfulguideneedstoknow. •Identifywhatahelpfulguideneedstoprepareforhisorhervisitor. •Identifywhatahelpfulguideneedstodooncetheirvisitorsarrive. •IdentifyfiveplacesinornearTowerBridgeExhibitionthathaveaninterestingstoryorfact,and/orthat aguidemaywanttofocusonwhenhostingvisitors. Whenchoosingyourfiveplaces,youmaywanttoconsider: 1)TowerBridgeitself:itshistory,itsconstruction,funfactsaboutthebridge anditsimportanceasaLondonlandmark. 2)TheHighLevelWalkways:theirfunctionandwhatyouseefromupthere, andwhetherthosethingshaveaninterestingstoryorfact. 3)TheSteamEngineRooms:whathappenedthereuntil1976andwhatisdisplayed therenow. 4)TheneighbourhoodaroundTowerBridge:buildings,localhistory,etal. Dividetheclassintogroups,andaskeachgroupto: •ImaginetheyareateamofguidesatTowerBridgeExhibition. •WritedownaplanforatourofTowerBridgeExhibitionandallthepoints toshowyourvisitor. •Thinkaboutthequestionsyourvisitormighthave. •Makealistofthosequestions,andthentrytofindtheanswers. •Discussthequestionsandanswersasaclass.Wheretheyhaven’tbeenable tofindtheinformation,askpupilstoconsiderwhattheythinktheanswers mightbe.DiscusspossiblesourcesforresearchinginformationaboutTower BridgeExhibitionandthelocalarea. NationalCurriculumLinks: KeyStage2 English:En1.3a-e,En1.7,En1.10a Geography:3a,3c,3d,3e,6a,6c,6d,7a History:1a,1b,2a,2c,2d,4a,4b,5a,5b, 6,7,8a,11a ICT:1a,3b
  29. 29. CMYCMMYCYCMYK Printedfrom“TowerBridgeExhibition:EducationalActivities&Resources,”aFREETeachersKitdesignedbyGuyFoxLimited.GuyFox LimitedispartofGuyFoxHistoryProject,aneducationalcharitywhichcreatesinnovativepublicationsforchildren.Tolearnaboutour work,visitwww.guyfox.org.uk.Copyright2010,GuyFoxLimited.Allrightsreserved.Duplicationispermittedforeducationaluseonly. TOWERBRIDGEEXHIBITION:ClassroomActivities AFTER6.22 continues... ACTIVITY8A:THEPOOLOFLONDON andLONDONSLARDER Objectives: •TounderstandthehistoryoftheRiverThamesandindustryinthelocalarea •TounderstandthechangingroleoftheRiverThamesfromVictoriantimestopresentday RequiredResources: •‘MyVisittoTowerBridgeExhibition’Worksheet •LocalAreaMap(Item#4inthisKit) •WorldMapWorksheet,duplicatedforeachstudent(Item#15inthisKit) Readthefollowingpassagestoyourpupils: TheRiverThames’roleinLondonin1860:ACommercialRiver In1860,theMODERNLONDONvisitor’sguide(publishedbyJohnMurray)describedtheRiver ThameswithinLondonasthe‘noblestcommercialriverintheworld,’andestimatedthat10,000 vesselsusedthePortofLondoneachyear.Fromlargeshipstocolliers(bargeswhichcarriedcoal), theThameswasanimportantpartofLondon’seconomy. ItwasameansofTRANSPORTATION,itwasameansofDISTRIBUTION(forfoodand goods),anditwasasourceofJOBS. CargoshipswouldtraveluptheRiverThamesintothePoolofLondon.Valuablegoodsandcommodities wereoffloadedtothenorthsideofthePoolofLondon(intotheCity),whilefoodstuffsandspices wereoffloadedtothesouthsideofthePoolofLondon(intoBanksideandBermondsey). Dockworkers,called‘stevedores’,wouldoffloadthecargotolightermen(whoworkedonsmall boats),whowouldtransportthecargototheriverside.There,thecargowouldbestoredinwarehouses andusedintheproductionofvariousedibleproducts,givingtheneighbourhoodthenickname ‘London’sLarder.’ Theoffloading,transportationanddistributionofcargoandthemanufactureofediblegoodswasvery labour-intensiveandprovidedalotofjobstothelocalarea. TheRiverThames’roleinLondonin2005:ALeisureAmenity In2005,theEYEWITNESSLONDONvisitor’sguide(publishedbyDorlingKindersley)describedthe RiverThamesas‘thecapital’sforemostleisureamenity’andprovidedinformationabouttouristboat services,aswellasmuseumsandrestaurantslocatedalongtheriverside.InLondon,theRiverThames maynolongerbea‘workingriver,’butitdoesserveanimportantfunction–asavisitorattraction andplacetohavefun. Discussthedefinitionsoftheterms‘commercial’and‘leisure’: ‘Commercial’(adjective)–concerningbusiness;usedforfinancialgain. ‘Leisure’(noun)–concerningfreetimeandfun. Asaclass,makealistofpossiblereasonswhytheroleoftheRiver ThameschangedsomuchinLondonfrom1860to2005. NationalCurriculumLinks: KeyStage2 English:En3.1a-e,En3.8, En3.9a+b,En3.11,En3.12 Geography:1a,2a,2c,3a,3b,3c, 3d,3e,3g,4b,6a,6c,6d History:2a,2c,2d,5a,5b,6,7,8a, 11a
  30. 30. CMYCMMYCYCMYK Printedfrom“TowerBridgeExhibition:EducationalActivities&Resources,”aFREETeachersKitdesignedbyGuyFoxLimited.GuyFox LimitedispartofGuyFoxHistoryProject,aneducationalcharitywhichcreatesinnovativepublicationsforchildren.Tolearnaboutour work,visitwww.guyfox.org.uk.Copyright2010,GuyFoxLimited.Allrightsreserved.Duplicationispermittedforeducationaluseonly. TOWERBRIDGEEXHIBITION:ClassroomActivities AFTER6.23 ACTIVITY8A:Continued Readthefollowingtoyourpupils: SowhydidroleoftheRiverThamesinLondonchangesomuch? Twothingswereresponsibleforthechange:1)TheRailwaysand2)TheactivitiesofthePortof LondonAuthority. 1.TheRailways Beforetherailwayswerebuilt,transportationofgoodsreliedonships.Smallershipscouldnavigate shallowwaterandtraveluptheRiverThamesanddockatthePoolofLondon.Fromthere,thecargo couldbetakenonshortjourneysbyhorseandcart. Oncetherailwayswerebuilt,however,theyprovidedanetworktomovegoodsacrosstheUK.Ships nolongerneededtocomeallthewayuptheRiverThamesintothePoolofLondon.Shipswerebeing builtlargerinsize(thebiggertheship,themorecargoitcouldcarry!).Theseshipsneededdeep waterports,wheretheycoulddockandbeoffloaded.Fromthere,thecargowasloadedontotrains fortransportationtoitsdestinations. 2.TheActivitiesofthePortofLondonAuthority Throughoutthe19thcentury,trafficontheRiverThamesincreaseduntilthecongestionbecamea problem.ThePortofLondonAuthoritywascreatedin1909tosolvetheproblem.Theirsolution? TobuildadeepwatershippingchannelatTilbury(25milesdownstreamfromthePoolofLondon), wheretheRiverThameswas800metreswide.Incontrast,atthePoolofLondon,theRiverThames was61metreswide.TheyalsobuiltacargojettyattheKingGeorgeVdocks,andincreasedthearea oftheLondondocksbysixsquaremilesby1925. TheseandotherimprovementsmeantthatcargoshipscoulddockatTilburyandoffloadtheircargo. ThisnotonlyeasedcongestioninthePoolofLondon,itendeditscommercialactivitiesit!By1970, StKatharineDocksandthedocksinthePoolofLondonwereclosedtocommercialships. DiscussasaClass: TheRiverThameswasarouteforfoodimportsfromaroundtheworld,especiallyspices.Manyofthelocal buildingshavebeennamedafterthespiceswhichwereoncestoredthere. Askyourpupils: Question:Didyouseeanyoldwarehousesintheneighbourhood? Question:Whatweresomeofthenamesofthewarehousesandbuildingsyousaw? Answer:CinnamonWharf,CorianderWharf,CuminWharf,GingerWharf,VanillaWharf, andTeaTradeWharf(amongothers) Question:Doesanybodyknowwherethesespicescamefrom? Answer:Cinnamon–Indonesia Coriander–NorthAmerica Cumin–India Ginger–China Vanilla–Madagascar Tea–SriLanka(formerlyCeylon) Identifyonaworldmapthelocationofeachoftheseplaces. continues...
  31. 31. CMYCMMYCYCMYK Printedfrom“TowerBridgeExhibition:EducationalActivities&Resources,”aFREETeachersKitdesignedbyGuyFoxLimited.GuyFox LimitedispartofGuyFoxHistoryProject,aneducationalcharitywhichcreatesinnovativepublicationsforchildren.Tolearnaboutour work,visitwww.guyfox.org.uk.Copyright2010,GuyFoxLimited.Allrightsreserved.Duplicationispermittedforeducationaluseonly. TOWERBRIDGEEXHIBITION:ClassroomActivities AFTER6.24 MappingActivity UsingtheWorldMapWorksheet(Item#15inthisKit),identifyLondonasthedestinationandidentifyeachof theabovecountriesastheoriginofeachspice.DrawpathsfortheshipstotravelfromtheirorigintoLondon. Youmayalsochoosetoexpandthisactivitytoincludeadiscussionofworldgeography(includingtopicssuch asGreenwichMeridian,theEquator,theTropicsofCancerandCapricorn,andlongitudeandlatitude).Encourage studentstodomap-basedactivitiesontheWorldMapWorksheet(Item#15inthisKit). WritingActivity:TheFutureoftheRiver! ImagineyouarelivinginLondon150yearsfromnowandhavetowriteaguidebookentryabouttheRiver Thames.Writeaparagraphaboutthe‘RiverThamesoftheFuture’: Thingstoconsider: •WhatwilltheroleoftheRiverThamesbe? •Willitbeacommercialriver?Orwillitbealeisureamenity? •Willthewaterbeclean?Whichkindsofwildlifewillliveinorneartheriver? •Whattypeofboatsandvesselswilltravelalongit? •HowwillLondonersgetacrossit? •WhatwillTowerBridgebelike? ACTIVITY8A:Continued
  32. 32. CMYCMMYCYCMYK Printedfrom“TowerBridgeExhibition:EducationalActivities&Resources,”aFREETeachersKitdesignedbyGuyFoxLimited.GuyFox LimitedispartofGuyFoxHistoryProject,aneducationalcharitywhichcreatesinnovativepublicationsforchildren.Tolearnaboutour work,visitwww.guyfox.org.uk.Copyright2010,GuyFoxLimited.Allrightsreserved.Duplicationispermittedforeducationaluseonly. TOWERBRIDGEEXHIBITION:ClassroomActivities AFTER ACTIVITY8B:MUDLARKS ANDTHEPORTOFLONDON Objectives: •Tounderstandlocalhistoryandtheimportanceoftheareatotheshippingindustry •TounderstandhowpoorchildrenmadealivingfromtheRiverThamesinVictoriantimes Readthefollowingtexttoyourclass: MUDLARKING InVictoriantimes,‘mudlarks’werechildrenwholivedinpoorneighbourhoodsandtenementsnear theriverandhuntedforvaluableobjectsontheriverbankoftheThames.Duringlowtide,theywould paddlethroughthemudontheshore–sometimesuptowaist-deep–andcollectwhateverthey found.WithsomanyboatscarryingsomanydifferentcargosintothePoolofLondon,the‘mudlarks’ foundpiecesofcoal,chunksofiron,oldrope,animalbones,deadbodies(eek!)andcoppernailswhich droppedfrombargesneartheriverbank.‘Mudlarks’wouldsellthethingstheyfound. ‘Mudlarks’alsopickedupartefactswhichhadbeendroppedontotheriverbankfromthewarehouses andbusinesseswhichwerealongtheRiverThamesnearTowerBridge. Many‘mudlarks’hadnoshoes;evenso,they‘larked’inthemudinallweatherconditions.Many ‘mudlarks’werescoundrels–paddlingoutinbetweencoalbargesandworkinginteamstoknock piecesofcoalfromthebargeintothemud.Theywouldthenpickupthecoalfromthemudandsell itforfuel.Sometimes,theywerecaughtbythepoliceandarrestedasthieves. Askpupilstoimaginetheyare‘mudlarks’inVictorianLondonandconsiderthelifeofa‘mudlark’: Question:Whatkindsofthingsdotheythinktheymightfindnearboatsalongtheriver? Question:Whatkindsofdangersmighta‘mudlark’encounteralongtheriverbank?OrintheRiverThames? Consider:Thedangersassociatedwithtides,water,mud,otherpeople,largemovingboats,animals, changingweather,jaggedmetal,etc. Question:Whatwoulda‘mudlark’looklikeattheendoftheday? ArtActivity: Askpupilstodrawapictureofwhattheyimaginea‘mudlark’mightlooklike. JournalActivity: Askpupilstoimaginemoreofwhateverydaylifewaslikefora‘mudlark’.Keepadiaryforoneweekwhich imaginesanddescribesthelifeofa‘mudlark’andhisorherexperiences. ExtensionActivity:ModernMudlarks! Askpupilstoimaginetheyaremodern‘mudlarks’.WhatsortofthingswouldyoufindalongtheThamesriverbank now? ForFurtherExploration: ContacttheThamesDiscoveryProgrammeatwww.thamesdiscovery.org.ThamesDiscoveryProgrammeorganises ‘mudlarking’archaeologicaleventsalongtheRiverThames. 6.25 NationalCurriculumLinks: KeyStage2 ArtandDesign:1a,1b,2c,5a English:En3.1a-e,En3.8,En3.9a, En3.12 Geography:1a,2a,3a,3d,3e,4b,6a, 6c,6d,6e,7a History:2a,2b,6,8a,11a
  33. 33. CMYCMMYCYCMYK Printedfrom“TowerBridgeExhibition:EducationalActivities&Resources,”aFREETeachersKitdesignedbyGuyFoxLimited.GuyFox LimitedispartofGuyFoxHistoryProject,aneducationalcharitywhichcreatesinnovativepublicationsforchildren.Tolearnaboutour work,visitwww.guyfox.org.uk.Copyright2010,GuyFoxLimited.Allrightsreserved.Duplicationispermittedforeducationaluseonly. TOWERBRIDGEEXHIBITION:ClassroomActivities AFTER ACTIVITY9A:TOWERBRIDGE: WITNESSTOHISTORY Objective: •TorelatethehistoryofTowerBridgetolocal,nationalandglobalhistoriceventsinthe 19thand20thcenturies RequiredResources: •‘MyVisittoTowerBridge’Worksheet(Item#5inthisKit) •IllustratedLondonNewsArticle(Item#8inthisKit) Askeachpupilto: ReviewtheirworksheetsfromyourvisittoTowerBridgeExhibition. TimelineActivity: AskpupilstoconsiderTowerBridgeasawitnesstoover100yearsofLondonandWorldHistory. First,makealargetimelineforyourclassroomwall,with1886asthefirstdate.ThisisthedateTowerBridge wasstarted.Thelastdateonyourtimelineshouldbethecurrentyear! DrawillustrationsoftheconstructionofTowerBridge(seeActivity3A)andaddthosetothetimelinebetween 1886and1894.DrawanillustrationoftheofficialopeningofTowerBridgeandaddthatdrawingtothetimeline onthedate1894. Considerhistoriceventsthatoccurredinthe19thand20thcenturiesinLondon,theUKandacrosstheworld. Askpupilstochooseanhistoriceventandtoillustrateit.Addthoseeventstoyourtimeline.Pupilswillsee TowerBridgeincontextwithlocal,nationalandinternationalhistoricevents. SomeHistoricalEventstoGetYouThinking: Thisisjustalistofsuggestions.Youcouldbrainstormevenmoreeventswhichhaveoccurredsince1886.Perhaps therearelocalhistoryeventsorfamouspeoplewhomyou’dliketoincludeinyourtimeline.Perhapsyoucould includeyourpupils’birthdatesinyourtimeline. ExtensionActivity: Usetheinternettoresearchthedatesofanyeventsorpeoplethatyouwanttoaddtoyourtimeline. 6.26 LondonHistory 1898:London’sfirstescalator 1932:LambethBridgeopens 1940:AirraidsbeginonLondon (SecondWorldWar) 1945:LastV2rocketattackonLondon 1966:EnglandwintheWorldCup 2000:TheLondonEyewasfinished 2005:Londonwinsthebidtohostthe 2012SummerOlympics UK/WorldHistory 1901:QueenVictoriadies 1922:TheBBCbeginsradio transmissions 1953:QueenElizabethIIwas crownedatStPaul’s Cathedral 1969:LunarLandingofApollo11 1990:NelsonMandelaisreleased fromprisoninSouthAfrica 2008:BarackObamaiselected PresidentoftheUSA TowerBridgeHistory 1886:TowerBridgeisstarted 1894:TowerBridgeisfinished 1912:Aplanefliesunderneaththe highlevelwalkwaysofthe bridge 1952:ALondondoubledeckerbus jumpsthebascules 2009:RobbieMasonjumpsthe basculesonhismotorcycle 2009to2012:TowerBridgeis renovatedandrepainted continues... NationalCurriculumLinks: KeyStage2 ArtandDesign:1a English:En3.1a-e,En3.8,En3.9a, En3.11,En3.12 History:1a,1b,4a,5a,5b,5c,6, 8a,11a ICT:1a,3a,5a
  34. 34. CMYCMMYCYCMYK Printedfrom“TowerBridgeExhibition:EducationalActivities&Resources,”aFREETeachersKitdesignedbyGuyFoxLimited.GuyFox LimitedispartofGuyFoxHistoryProject,aneducationalcharitywhichcreatesinnovativepublicationsforchildren.Tolearnaboutour work,visitwww.guyfox.org.uk.Copyright2010,GuyFoxLimited.Allrightsreserved.Duplicationispermittedforeducationaluseonly. TOWERBRIDGEEXHIBITION:ClassroomActivities AFTER CreativeWritingActivity: AskpupilstorefertothetimelineandimagineTowerBridgecouldtellitsownstory!Askpupilstochooseone ofthesetitlesandwriteanessayfromtheviewpointofTowerBridge: •My,ohmy!HowtheNeighbourhoodhasChanged! •MyScariestDay •TheThingsILikeAboutLondon •DearDiary...You’llNeverBelieveWhatHappenedToday •My100thBirthdayParty •MyMakeover(renovationin2009-2012) •IFeltProudtoSeeThat! •IWouldLiketoTellYouaStoryAbout... ACTIVITY9B:TOWERBRIDGEANDTHEBRIDGES OFTHEWORLD Objective: •Toinvestigateelementsofsuccessfulbridgedesign RequiredResources: •Imagesofdifferentbridges(sourcedfromyourownmaterialsoronline) •BridgesoftheWorldInformationSheet(Item#10inthisKit) Asaclass,discuss: TheBuilderMagazinedescribedHoraceJones’originaldesignforTowerBridgeas‘simplebut impressive’.Doyouagree?Whyorwhynot? Askpupilsto: •ReviewtheBridgesoftheWorldInformationSheetandmakealistofthe featuresofeachbridgethattheythinkareattractiveorimpressive. •Choosethebridgetheythinkbestfitsthedescription:‘simplebutimpressive’. Imaginetheirchoiceistobeenteredina‘MostImpressiveBridgeintheWorld’competition. Writeashortdescriptionoftheirchoice.Describethecolour,shapeandlines. •Preparetotelltheclasswhytheirbridgeisthemostimpressive. •Thinkaboutaplacethatneedsabridgeanddrawadesignthatis‘simplebut impressive’. Asaclass,discuss: Comparedrawingswhentheyarefinished.Whohasagoodcombinationofcolour,shapeandlinesthatmakes fitsthedescription‘simplebutimpressive’? ACTIVITY9A:Continued 6.27 NationalCurriculumLinks: KeyStage2 ArtandDesign:1a,1b,2a,2b,2c, 3a,4a,4b,5a,5d DesignandTechnology:1a,3c
  35. 35. C M Y CM MY CY CMY K TOWER BRIDGE EXHIBITION: Educational Activities & Resources Kit CLASSROOM ACTIVITIES CURRICULUM LINKS INDEX AFTER 6A
  36. 36. CMYCMMYCYCMYK HoraceJonesdesignedTowerBridge, buthediedbeforeitwasfinished.If hedhadhisway,thebridgewouldbe cladinredbrick. Ittook8yearstobuildTowerBridge.Ittookfouryears justtobuildthepiers! ThetotalcostforTowerBridgewas£1millionin1894—£110millionintodaysmoney. TowerBridgehas14,000tonsofmetaland31millionbricks. TowerBridgehas2millionrivets;everysinglerivetwashanddriven. Rivetersonthehighlevelwalkwaysworked42metresabovethe river,withoutanysafetynets! TowerBridgewascalledtheWonderBridge.Withitsbascules,suspensionchains andsteamengines,itwasamarvelofVictorianengineering. Morethan40,000vehiclescrossTowerBridgeeveryday! TOWERBRIDGE:FACTS&FIGURES Printedfrom“TowerBridgeExhibition:EducationalActivities&ResourcesKit,”aFREETeachersResourcedesignedbyGuyFox Limited.GuyFoxLimitedispartofGuyFoxHistoryProject,aneducationalcharitywhichcreatesinnovativepublicationsforchildren. Tolearnaboutourwork,visitwww.guyfox.org.uk.Copyright©2010,GuyFoxLimited.Allrightsreserved.Duplicationispermitted foreducationaluseonly. RESOURCE
  37. 37. CMYCMMYCYCMYK TOWERBRIDGEEXHIBITION:EducationalActivities&ResourcesKit RESOURCE Printedfrom“TowerBridgeExhibition:EducationalActivities&ResourcesKit,”aFREETeachersResourcedesignedbyGuyFoxLimited. GuyFoxLimitedispartofGuyFoxHistoryProject,aneducationalcharitywhichcreatesinnovativepublicationsforchildren.Tolearnabout ourwork,visitwww.guyfox.org.uk.Copyright©2010,GuyFoxLimited.Allrightsreserved.Duplicationispermittedforeducationaluseonly. FromTHEILLUSTRATEDLONDONNEWS July1894 THENEWTOWERBRIDGE. ThemagnificentandmostusefulstructurewhichwasopenedforpublicaccommodationonSaturday,June30,byhis RoyalHighnessthePrinceofWales,onbehalfofherMajestytheQueen,hasbeeneightyearsinprogress.Long beforeJune21,1886,whenthePrinceofWaleslaidthefoundationoftheTowerBridge,therehadbeenmuchdiscussion ofthebestmeansofrelievingtheimmensetrafficacrosstheThamesbetweenthesouthernandnorthernsides, augmentedbythelargecontributionsfromtheBrightonandSouth-EasternRailways.TheBridgeHouseEstates CommitteeoftheCityCorporationcameforward,and,adoptingthegrandconceptionofabasculebridgedesigned bytheCityarchitect,thelateSirHoraceJones,devotedthesumof£750,000toitserection,withsomefurtheryearly grantsforthemaintenanceofitsengineandhydraulicpowerandlifts.Mr.JohnWolfeBarryhavingbeenassociated withtheundertakingasengineer,workhasgoneforwarduninterruptedly.TwocontractsweretakenbyMr.Jackson forthefoundationsofthepiersandthenorthernapproach,andthatforthesouthernapproachbyMr.Webster;also contractsbySirWilliamArrolandCo.,thebuildersoftheForthBridge,forthesteelstructure;andforthemachinery bySirWilliamArmstrongandCo.ThemasonryofthetowerswasundertakenbyMessrs.Perry. Thetotallengthofthebridge,whichislevelfromoneabutmenttotheother,is940ft.,whilethecentreoftheriver isleftopenforawaterwayforshipsavailableatalltimesfortheirpassage,andnevertobeclosedagainstthemexcept forafewminuteswhilstvehicles arecrossingthebridge.This centralwaterway,orìopeningspan,’ is200ft.widefromthetwo buttresses,orpiers,oneoneach side,whichcarrytwoloftytowers. Attheupperpartofthesetowers thereisalightbutsubstantial latticebridgeforfoot-passengers ataheightof140ft.abovehigh water;andfromthetowersarelaid thesuspensiongirders,onetothe northandonetothesouth abutment.Thesegirderssupport thefixedportionsofthelow-level bridge,betweenthepiersofthe towersandtheshoresoneachside oftheriver,soastocoverthetwo sidespans,270ft.inlength;the clearheadwayfromhighwaterto undersideofthesespansbeing27 ft.Ateachabutmentisashortertower,overwhichthesuspensionchainsarepassed,andareanchoredsome40ft. deepinenormousblocksofconcreteinthegroundbeyond.Itwillbeseen,therefore,thattheonlyportionofthe bridgewhichopensisthebasculeportionoverthecentralwaterway.Thisconsistsoftwoleavesofironroadway,each 100ft.long,andabout50ft.wide.Eachleaforbasculeispivotted[sic]onahugesteelpivotshaft,34in.indiameter, extendingfromsidetosideoftheroadwayonthepier.Thepierroadwayiscarriedoneightlongitudinalgirders,and theroadwayofthebasculeleafiscarriedonfourgirders,whichpassininterspacesoftheeightgirders.Thesefour girdersareprolonged46ft.beyondthepivot-shaft,andtheirshorterendshavebeenloadedtoacounterpoisewith thebasculeitself.Pinionsonshaftsconnectedtothehydraulicenginesarearrangedtoworkagainstrack-quadrants, andtheleafcanberaisedvertically,orloweredhorizontally,steadily,andunderperfectcontrol.Toprovidedue securitytherearetwohydraulicengines–oneforgeneralserviceandtheotherforuseinboisterousweather.These basculeshavethelikeconstructiononbothpiers. Thesinkingofthefoundationsofthepiersandthebuildingofthemasonrysuperstructureabovewaterhaveinvolved veryinterestingoperations.Thedepthofwateronthesitesofthetwopiersisabout33ft.fromhigh-waterdatumto
  38. 38. CMYCMMYCYCMYK TOWERBRIDGEEXHIBITION:EducationalActivities&ResourcesKit Printedfrom“TowerBridgeExhibition:EducationalActivities&ResourcesKit,”aFREETeachersResourcedesignedbyGuyFoxLimited. GuyFoxLimitedispartofGuyFoxHistoryProject,aneducationalcharitywhichcreatesinnovativepublicationsforchildren.Tolearnabout ourwork,visitwww.guyfox.org.uk.Copyright©2010,GuyFoxLimited.Allrightsreserved.Duplicationispermittedforeducationaluseonly. theriverbed.Tosecureadequatefoundations,ironcaissons,eachabout12ft.square,wereplacedinarow,with2ft. spacesbetweeneachcaisson,andateachendwasoneofangledform.Suchaseriesofcaissonsprovidedforoneside ofthepier.Asimilarseries,2ft.apart,wasprovidedfortheotherside.Timberpileswerenextdrivendowninthe2 ft.interspaces,andtheplateswereremovedfromthecontiguoussidesofthecaissons.Thewholethenbecamean irondam,fromwhichtheinteriorcoreofgravelandsoilwasclearedoutbydiversandbyaPriestmanmechanical digger;then,atover27ft.depthintheriverbed,thedamwasunderpinnedandaninfillingofconcretewasmadeto aheightof19ft.Abovethiswerelaidcoursesofbluebricksandthenofgranitemasonrysetbacktenormorefeet toformthevisiblebaseofthetower,being70ft.inlengthand34ft.across.Fromthisplatformofmasonryriseon eachpierfourenormoushollowsteelcolumns,whicharecarriedup100ft.ormore,totheheightoftheunderside ofthehigh-levelfootbridge,140ft.abovehighwater.Thecrossgirders,withthehugesuspensiongirders,being attachedtothecolumns,bindtogetherthewholeofthesteelandironworkfromsidetosideoftheriver.The architecturalmasonryrisesfromthesameplatformasthesteelcolumns,andhasbeenfilledinbetweenthesteelwork; agreatportionofitisborneuponthefloor-girders.Altogether,thepinnaclesandarchitecturaldetailsattainaheight some60or70ft.abovethefootbridge.Thecarryingofthishigh-levellatticebridgeacrossagapof200ft.bytreating itstopandbottomrailsasboomsis,initsway,a remarkableachievement.Theboilersandtwosteam- pumpingengineshavebeenerectedontheshoreside ofthesouthernabutment;theyareeachof360-horse power.Thehydraulicpressurehereobtainedis connectedbypipeswithsixaccumulators,calculated tomaintainapressureonthehydraulicenginesof 1000lb.onthesquareinch;butthepressurewill ordinarilybeusedat700lb.Twooftheseaccumulators areplacedinthesouthernabutmentandtwoin convenientchambersineachpier.Theirduty,besides raisingorloweringthebascules,istoworkapassenger liftineachtower,some14ft.by6ft.insize,capable ofelevatingthirtypersons,andthereisalsoastaircase. Asanengineeringcombinationgreatingenuityis showninthecontrivanceoftheTowerBridge. RESOURCE THEILLUSTRATEDLONDONNEWS (Continued-Page2)
  39. 39. CMYCMMYCYCMYK TOWERBRIDGEEXHIBITION:EducationalActivities&ResourcesKit RESOURCE Printedfrom“TowerBridgeExhibition:EducationalActivities&ResourcesKit,”aFREETeachersResourcedesignedbyGuyFoxLimited. GuyFoxLimitedispartofGuyFoxHistoryProject,aneducationalcharitywhichcreatesinnovativepublicationsforchildren.Tolearnabout ourwork,visitwww.guyfox.org.uk.Copyright©2010,GuyFoxLimited.Allrightsreserved.Duplicationispermittedforeducationaluseonly. TYPESOFBRIDGES Therearethreebasictypesofbridgeconstruction: BeamBridge Arigidhorizontalbeamwhichrestsontwosupports, oneateachend.Theentireweightofthebridgeand theloadisbornebythesupports. Forces:Theweightpushesdownward(inthedirection ofgravity). ArchBridge Asemi-circularstructurewithabutmentsoneachend. Thearch(semi-circle)divertstheweightfromthebridge decktotheabutments. Forces:Archbridgesareundercompression. Theweightofcompressionispushedoutwardalong thecurveofthearchtowardtheabutments. archbridgecanspanupto240to300metres. SuspensionBridge Asuspensionbridgehasaroadwaywhichissuspended fromcables(orropesorstrings).Modernsuspension bridgeshavetwotalltowersthroughwhichcablesare strung.Thus,thetowerssupporttheroadway’sweight. Forces:Theforceofcompressionpushesdownonthe suspensionbridge'sdeck,butbecauseitisasuspended roadway,thecablestransferthecompressiontothe towers,whichdissipatethecompressiondirectlyintothepierswheretheyarefirmlyentrenched. Span:Asuspensionbridgecanspanupto2,100metres. PhysicalForcesinBridges: Compressionandtensionarepresentinallbridges. Whentheforceofcompressionistoostrong,theobject‘buckles.’Whentheforceoftensionistoo strong,theobject‘snaps.’ Thebestwaytodealwithcompressionandtensionisto‘dissipate’themorto‘transfer’them. Todissipateforce,thebridgedesigndistributesitoveragreaterarea;thismeanstheforceisn’t concentratedononepartofthebridge.AnArchBridgeisagoodexampleofdissipation. Totransferforce,thebridgedesignmustmovetheforcefromanareaofweaknesstoanareaofstrength. ASuspensionBridgeisagoodexampleoftransference. BeamBridge ArchBridge SuspensionBridge
  40. 40. CMYCMMYCYCMYK TOWERBRIDGEEXHIBITION:EducationalActivities&ResourcesKit Printedfrom“TowerBridgeExhibition:EducationalActivities&ResourcesKit,”aFREETeachersResourcedesignedbyGuyFoxLimited. GuyFoxLimitedispartofGuyFoxHistoryProject,aneducationalcharitywhichcreatesinnovativepublicationsforchildren.Tolearnabout ourwork,visitwww.guyfox.org.uk.Copyright©2010,GuyFoxLimited.Allrightsreserved.Duplicationispermittedforeducationaluseonly. BRIDGESOFTHEWORLD TheGoldenGateBridge,SanFrancisco,USA SuspensionBridge Theworld’slongestsuspensionbridgewhenitwasbuiltin 1937,theGoldenGateBridgewaspainted“International Orange”toenhancevisibility.Image©copyrightRich NiewiroskiJr.Usedwiththepermission. SydneyHarbourBridge,Australia BeamBridge Thisbridge,nicknamedthe‘Coathanger’becauseofits shape,remainsthelongestsingle-spanbridgeintheworld. Image©copyrightnoodlesnacks.com. TheNewRiverGorgeBridge,WestVirginia ArchBridge Thisbridgeisthesecond-highestintheworld.Moneywas savedinitsconstructionbynotpaintingitwhichgivesita distinctiveappearance.PhotographbyWikipediaUserJaGa. PublishedundertheGNUFreeDocumentationLicense. TheIronBridge,Shropshire,UnitedKingdom ArchBridge Theworld'sfirstcastironbridgewasbuiltovertheRiver SevernatCoalbrookdalein1779.Image©copyrightRoger Cave.Usedwithpermission. JamunaBridge,Bangladesh BeamBridge TheJamunaBridgeestablishedastrategiclinkbetweenthe easternandwesternpartsofBangladesh.Thebridgeis locatedontheAsianHighwayandtheTrans-AsianRailway which,whenfullydeveloped,willprovideuninterrupted internationalroadandrailwaylinksfromSouth-eastAsia toNorth-westEurope.ImagefromWikipedia.com. PublishedundertheAttribution-ShareAlike1.0Generic License.
  41. 41. C M Y CM MY CY CMY K TOWER BRIDGE EXHIBITION: Educational Activities & Resources Kit RESOURCE Printed from “Tower Bridge Exhibition : Educational Activities & Resources,” a FREE Teachers Kit designed by Guy Fox Limited. Guy Fox Limited is part of Guy Fox History Project, an educational charity which creates innovative publications for children.To learn about our work, visit www.guyfox.org.uk. Copyright 2010, Guy Fox Limited.All rights reserved. Duplication is permitted for educational use only. Tower Bridge: Diagram of Forces Gravity CompressionTension Tension Tension TensionTensionTension Gravity Gravity
  42. 42. C M Y CM MY CY CMY K Where in the bridge did this happen? TOWER BRIDGE EXHIBITION: Educational Activities & Resources Kit HOW THE BASCULES WERE RAISEDRESOURCE Printed from “Tower Bridge Exhibition: Educational Activities & Resources,” a FREE Teachers Kit designed by Guy Fox Limited. Guy Fox Limited is part of Guy Fox History Project, an educational charity which creates innovative publications for children. To learn about our work, visit www.guyfox.org.uk. Copyright 2010, Guy Fox Limited. All rights reserved. Duplication is permitted for educational use only. Coal was put into a Boiler.
  43. 43. C M Y CM MY CY CMY K Where in the bridge did this happen? TOWER BRIDGE EXHIBITION: Educational Activities & Resources Kit HOW THE BASCULES WERE RAISEDRESOURCE Printed from “Tower Bridge Exhibition: Educational Activities & Resources,” a FREE Teachers Kit designed by Guy Fox Limited. Guy Fox Limited is part of Guy Fox History Project, an educational charity which creates innovative publications for children. To learn about our work, visit www.guyfox.org.uk. Copyright 2010, Guy Fox Limited. All rights reserved. Duplication is permitted for educational use only. The boiler creates steam which powered the Steam Engines.
  44. 44. C M Y CM MY CY CMY K Where in the bridge did this happen? TOWER BRIDGE EXHIBITION: Educational Activities & Resources Kit HOW THE BASCULES WERE RAISEDRESOURCE Printed from “Tower Bridge Exhibition: Educational Activities & Resources,” a FREE Teachers Kit designed by Guy Fox Limited. Guy Fox Limited is part of Guy Fox History Project, an educational charity which creates innovative publications for children. To learn about our work, visit www.guyfox.org.uk. Copyright 2010, Guy Fox Limited. All rights reserved. Duplication is permitted for educational use only. The Steam Engines created pressurised water which was stored in Accumulators.
  45. 45. C M Y CM MY CY CMY K Where in the bridge did this happen? TOWER BRIDGE EXHIBITION: Educational Activities & Resources Kit HOW THE BASCULES WERE RAISEDRESOURCE Printed from “Tower Bridge Exhibition: Educational Activities & Resources,” a FREE Teachers Kit designed by Guy Fox Limited. Guy Fox Limited is part of Guy Fox History Project, an educational charity which creates innovative publications for children. To learn about our work, visit www.guyfox.org.uk. Copyright 2010, Guy Fox Limited. All rights reserved. Duplication is permitted for educational use only. The pressurised water was pumped through Hydraulic Pipes to the Accumulators in the piers.
  46. 46. C M Y CM MY CY CMY K Where in the bridge did this happen? TOWER BRIDGE EXHIBITION: Educational Activities & Resources Kit HOW THE BASCULES WERE RAISEDRESOURCE Printed from “Tower Bridge Exhibition: Educational Activities & Resources,” a FREE Teachers Kit designed by Guy Fox Limited. Guy Fox Limited is part of Guy Fox History Project, an educational charity which creates innovative publications for children. To learn about our work, visit www.guyfox.org.uk. Copyright 2010, Guy Fox Limited. All rights reserved. Duplication is permitted for educational use only. The pressurised water powered the Bascule Steam Engine.
  47. 47. C M Y CM MY CY CMY K Where in the bridge did this happen? TOWER BRIDGE EXHIBITION: Educational Activities & Resources Kit HOW THE BASCULES WERE RAISEDRESOURCE Printed from “Tower Bridge Exhibition: Educational Activities & Resources,” a FREE Teachers Kit designed by Guy Fox Limited. Guy Fox Limited is part of Guy Fox History Project, an educational charity which creates innovative publications for children. To learn about our work, visit www.guyfox.org.uk. Copyright 2010, Guy Fox Limited. All rights reserved. Duplication is permitted for educational use only. The Bridge Operator pulled the levers, which started the Bascule Engines.
  48. 48. C M Y CM MY CY CMY K Where in the bridge did this happen? TOWER BRIDGE EXHIBITION: Educational Activities & Resources Kit HOW THE BASCULES WERE RAISEDRESOURCE Printed from “Tower Bridge Exhibition: Educational Activities & Resources,” a FREE Teachers Kit designed by Guy Fox Limited. Guy Fox Limited is part of Guy Fox History Project, an educational charity which creates innovative publications for children. To learn about our work, visit www.guyfox.org.uk. Copyright 2010, Guy Fox Limited. All rights reserved. Duplication is permitted for educational use only. The Bascule Engines provide energy to turn the gears (yellow) which lift the Bascules.
  49. 49. C M Y CM MY CY CMY K Where in the bridge does this happen? TOWER BRIDGE EXHIBITION: Educational Activities & Resources Kit HOW THE BASCULES ARE RAISED (Now)RESOURCE Printed from “Tower Bridge Exhibition : Educational Activities & Resources,” a FREE Teachers Kit designed by Guy Fox Limited. Guy Fox Limited is part of Guy Fox History Project, an educational charity which creates innovative publications for children. To learn about our work, visit www.guyfox.org.uk. Copyright 2010, Guy Fox Limited. All rights reserved. Duplication is permitted for educational use only. The Bridge Operator pulls a lever, which sends an impulse to the Bascule Engine. The Control Cabin is located on the downstream side of the North Pier.
  50. 50. C M Y CM MY CY CMY K Where in the bridge does this happen? TOWER BRIDGE EXHIBITION: Educational Activities & Resources Kit HOW THE BASCULES ARE RAISED (Now)RESOURCE Printed from “Tower Bridge Exhibition : Educational Activities & Resources,” a FREE Teachers Kit designed by Guy Fox Limited. Guy Fox Limited is part of Guy Fox History Project, an educational charity which creates innovative publications for children. To learn about our work, visit www.guyfox.org.uk. Copyright 2010, Guy Fox Limited. All rights reserved. Duplication is permitted for educational use only. The Bascule Engine supplies energy to turn the Gears.
  51. 51. C M Y CM MY CY CMY K Where in the bridge does this happen? TOWER BRIDGE EXHIBITION: Educational Activities & Resources Kit HOW THE BASCULES ARE RAISED (Now)RESOURCE Printed from “Tower Bridge Exhibition : Educational Activities & Resources,” a FREE Teachers Kit designed by Guy Fox Limited. Guy Fox Limited is part of Guy Fox History Project, an educational charity which creates innovative publications for children. To learn about our work, visit www.guyfox.org.uk. Copyright 2010, Guy Fox Limited. All rights reserved. Duplication is permitted for educational use only. The Gears (yellow) rotate and lift the Bascule.
  52. 52. C M Y CM MY CY CMY K VICTORIAN MAP OF LONDON IN 1843 Drawn & engraved by H.R. Davies. Published by the Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge. Copyright ' David Rumsey Map Collection, www.davidrumsey.com. Reprinted with the kind permission of David Rumsey. Printed from “Tower Bridge Exhibition: Educational Activities & Resources,” a FREETeachers Kit designed by Guy Fox Limited. Guy Fox Limited is part of Guy Fox History Project,an educational charity which creates innovative publications for children.To learn about our work, visit www.guyfox.org.uk. Copyright 2010, Guy Fox Limited.All rights reserved. Duplication is permitted for educational use only. RESOURCE
  53. 53. 60S 50S 40S 30S 20S 10S 0 10N 20N 30N 40N 50N 60N 70N Tropic of Cancer Tropic of Capricorn Equator Greenland Antarctica Bangkok Cairo Beijing Accra Tripoli Dodoma Canada United States United States Chile Iceland United Kingdom Portugal China Egypt Thailand Chittagong Sri Lanka Madagascar Tanzania Libya Ghana Antarctica Singapore 40W 30W 20W 10W 0 10E 20E 30E 40E 50E 60E 70E 80E 90E 100E 110E 120E 13170W 50W60W70W80W90W100W110W120W130W140W150W160W Venezuela Vancouver Canada Halifax Valparaiso Lisbon London South Africa Port Sucre Baltimore Colombo Bangladesh Manjanjary Cape Town Atlantic Ocean Pacific Ocean Indian Ocean Arabian Sea Arctic Ocean Arctic Ocean Printed from “Tower Bridge Exhibition: Educational Activities & Resources,” a FREE Teachers Kit designed by Guy Fox Limited. Guy Fox Limited is part of Guy Fox History Project, an educational charity which creates innovative publications for children. To learn about our work, visit www.guyfox.org.uk. Copyright 2010, Guy Fox Limited. All rights reserved. Duplication is permitted for educational use only.
  54. 54. CMYCMMYCYCMYK TOWERBRIDGEEXHIBITION:EducationalActivities&ResourcesKit IMAGELIBRARY RESOURCE Printedfrom“TowerBridgeExhibition:EducationalActivities&Resources,”aFREETeachersKitdesignedbyGuyFoxLimited. GuyFoxLimitedispartofGuyFoxHistoryProject,aneducationalcharitywhichcreatesinnovativepublicationsforchildren.Tolearnabout ourwork,visitwww.guyfox.org.uk.Copyright2010,GuyFoxLimited.Allrightsreserved.Duplicationispermittedforeducationaluseonly. ImagefromtheLondonMetropolitanArchives.Usedwithpermission. DesignforNewRiverCrossing:Tunnel
  55. 55. C M Y CM MY CY CMY K TOWER BRIDGE EXHIBITION: Educational Activities & Resources Kit IMAGE LIBRARY RESOURCE Printed from “Tower Bridge Exhibition: Educational Activities & Resources,” a FREE Teachers Kit designed by Guy Fox Limited. Guy Fox Limited is part of Guy Fox History Project, an educational charity which creates innovative publications for children.To learn about our work, visit www.guyfox.org.uk. Copyright 2009, Guy Fox Limited.All rights reserved. Duplication is permitted for educational use only. Image from the London Metropolitan Archives. Used with permission. Design for New River Crossing: High Level Bridge
  56. 56. C M Y CM MY CY CMY K TOWER BRIDGE EXHIBITION: Educational Activities & Resources Kit IMAGE LIBRARY RESOURCE Printed from “Tower Bridge Exhibition: Educational Activities & Resources,” a FREE Teachers Kit designed by Guy Fox Limited. Guy Fox Limited is part of Guy Fox History Project, an educational charity which creates innovative publications for children.To learn about our work, visit www.guyfox.org.uk. Copyright 2009, Guy Fox Limited.All rights reserved. Duplication is permitted for educational use only. London Metropolitan Archives Credit. Used with permission. Design for New River Crossing: Vertical Lift Bridge
  57. 57. C M Y CM MY CY CMY K TOWER BRIDGE EXHIBITION: Educational Activities & Resources Kit IMAGE LIBRARY RESOURCE Printed from “Tower Bridge Exhibition: Educational Activities & Resources,” a FREE Teachers Kit designed by Guy Fox Limited. Guy Fox Limited is part of Guy Fox History Project, an educational charity which creates innovative publications for children.To learn about our work, visit www.guyfox.org.uk. Copyright 2009, Guy Fox Limited.All rights reserved. Duplication is permitted for educational use only. Image from the London Metropolitan Archives. Used with permission. Design for New River Crossing: Rotating Bridge
  58. 58. C M Y CM MY CY CMY K TOWER BRIDGE EXHIBITION: Educational Activities & Resources Kit IMAGE LIBRARY RESOURCE Image from the London Metropolitan Archives. Used with permission. Printed from “Tower Bridge Exhibition: Educational Activities & Resources,” a FREE Teachers Kit designed by Guy Fox Limited. Guy Fox Limited is part of Guy Fox History Project, an educational charity which creates innovative publications for children.To learn about our work, visit www.guyfox.org.uk. Copyright 2009, Guy Fox Limited.All rights reserved. Duplication is permitted for educational use only. Original Drawings: Abutment Towers
  59. 59. C M Y CM MY CY CMY K TOWER BRIDGE EXHIBITION: Educational Activities & Resources Kit IMAGE LIBRARY RESOURCE Image from the London Metropolitan Archives. Used with permission. Printed from “Tower Bridge Exhibition: Educational Activities & Resources,” a FREE Teachers Kit designed by Guy Fox Limited. Guy Fox Limited is part of Guy Fox History Project, an educational charity which creates innovative publications for children.To learn about our work, visit www.guyfox.org.uk. Copyright 2009, Guy Fox Limited.All rights reserved. Duplication is permitted for educational use only. Original Drawings: Abutment Towers

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