Keynote Conference: "The Big Picture - Integrating Systems Thinking with Design" Dr. Pourdehnad, University of Pennsylvania.

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Keynote Conference: "The Big Picture - Integrating Systems Thinking with Design" Dr. Pourdehnad, University of Pennsylvania. …

Keynote Conference: "The Big Picture - Integrating Systems Thinking with Design" Dr. Pourdehnad, University of Pennsylvania.

In the Third International Congress of Systems Sciences. Mexican Academy of The Systems Science. July 7th & 8th. Universidad Iberoamericana, México, D.F.

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  • 1. The Big Picture – Integrating Systems Thinking With Design John Pourdehnad, Ph.D. University of Pennsylvania The Third International Congress of System Sciences July 7, 2011 Mexican Academy of The Systems Sciences Universidad Iberoamericana, Mexico, D.F.
  • 2. Design Thinking Is A Failed Experiment. So Whats Next? Bruce Nussbaum, one of Design Thinkings biggest advocates, is moving on to something new. Here, he begins defining "Creative Quotient.” thinking-is-a-failed-experiment-so-whats-next
  • 3. Design• Design, as an activity, has been around forever.• Almost everything around us, except for nature, has been designed• An approach to make purposeful change in social systems
  • 4. Design & Its Consequences• Design in all its manifestation has greatly helped our human societies to make extraordinary progress in every aspect of human life• At the same time, many of our societal woes are also the unintended and unacceptable consequences of our design activities.
  • 5. Design & Its Consequences (Cont’d)• Today, we are confronted with many wicked problems in the world that refuse to go away.• These include environmental, economic and political crises that threaten to lower the quality of life for many.
  • 6. Systems Thinking• Systems Thinking is rather new• It was developed in the early 1950s• A new mindset and a perspective to better understand the world and tackle it’s ever more complex problems
  • 7. So what is being done today?• First, there is gradual acknowledgment of the existence of diverse organizational contexts (simple, complicated and complex) that require different approaches to planning, management, leadership and problem solving.
  • 8. Snowden’s Decision Making Context• Simple : The Domain of Best Practice• Complicated : The Domain of Experts• Complex : The Domain of Emergence• Chaotic : The Domain of Rapid Response » Source: David J. Snowden, Mary E. Boone, “A Leaders Framework for Decision Making,” Harvard Business Review Article, Nov 1, 2007
  • 9. The Cynefin Framework 9
  • 10. IBM 2010 CEO Study
  • 11. The Case for ComplexityMark Schenk from Anecdote uses Pecha Kucha format to describe complexity using the Cynefin framework
  • 12. Different Approaches to Planning, Management and Leadership From ToManagement LeadershipPredict and Forecast AnticipateAnalyze Data Recognize PatternsSimplify – “KISS” See and Deal With The WholePay Attention To Details Pay Attention To RelationshipsRational Thinking Intuitive ThinkingLearn a Skill Training Nurture Cognitive abilitiesThink Algorithmically Think HeuristicallyAnalytical Thinking (scientific, based Design Thinking (based on abductionon induction and deduction thinking) thinking)
  • 13. Design Thinking• This process of thinking, purportedly leading to systematic creative breakthroughs, is known as design thinking – a topic sweeping through management science like a tsunami.• One of the central tenets of design thinking is the importance of combining existing ideas in unique ways.
  • 14. All People Are Designers• Design is basic to all human activity.• Design is the conscious effort to impose meaningful order• The planning and patterning of any act towards a desired, foreseeable end constitutes the design process• All that we do, almost all the time, is design• Any attempt to separate design, to make it a “thing- by-itself”, works counter to the inherent value of design as the primary underlying matrix of life
  • 15. Design Thinking• While design thinking may be the topic de jour within the domain of business, the process of creation through combination has a long history.• In his 1964 book, The Act of Creation, Koestler writes, “Invention or discovery, be it in mathematics or anywhere else, takes place by combining ideas”
  • 16. Where Good Ideas Come From?by Steven Johnson
  • 17. Where Good Ideas Come From?• If one particular style of thought stands out for creative geniuses, it is the ability to make juxtapositions that elude mere mortals. Call it a facility to connect the unconnected by forcing relationships that enable them to see things to which others are blind” (Michalko, “Thinking like a genius” )• “…combinatory play seems to be the essential feature in productive thought.” Certainly, Einstein was not the first to investigate energy, mass or light. However, he was the first to combine them in such a unique way when he derived his famous equation E = mc2.
  • 18. Design thinking• New research suggests that creative genius is, at least in part, based on knowing “how” to think instead of “what” to think• Design thinking gives organizations a competitive advantage because it encourages innovation by teaching “how” to think instead of “what” to think. Today’s companies are too large and complex to be managed in the “top down” style popular in the 20th Century.• Our education system focuses almost entirely on analytical thinking which uses inductive and deductive logic. While these are undoubtedly important, for the United States to remain competitive, schools need to teach student to think synthetically and creatively.
  • 19. Design Thinking The designers who can solve the most wicked problems do it through collaborative integrative thinking, using abductive logic, which means the logic of what might be. Conversely, deductive and inductive logic are the logic of what should be or what is. In traditional organizations do you get rewarded for thinking about what might be? Encouraged? No . . . these firms can only do what they know how to do and constraints are the enemy— as opposed to the design firm, where constraints bring challenge and excitement. Source: Design Thinking and How It Will Change Management Education: An Interview and Discussion DAVID DUNNE ROGER MARTIN, Joseph L. Rotman School of Management.
  • 20. Web 2.0 (Enterprise 2.0)• As the economy becomes increasingly knowledge-based and global, where the core values are mass collaboration and innovation, new technologies and broader and richer channels of communication allow for organizational stakeholders to combine their knowledge to inspire fresh ideas and realize new opportunities.
  • 21. Web 2.0 (Enterprise 2.0)• Enterprise 2.0, a system-wide enabling technology that facilitates the participation of an organization’s stakeholders and employees in the process of creating a successful business model.
  • 22. Central Question Facing Management• In today’s knowledge-based economy, an organization’s value is increasingly derived from its intellectual assets. The challenge of creating value through the engagement of the stakeholders in design activities in “business model” innovation is paramount. Therefore, the central question facing management is: How can business opportunities and value be created from the knowledge that resides within individuals and organizations?
  • 23. Open Innovation• Innovation is a process that takes place somewhere in your organization, or perhaps in someone’s mind. The result, in any case, can be an insight, a new idea, a product, a strategy, or perhaps a new business model.• The word “innovation” refers to an attribute, a process, and a result. This innovativeness refers to its distinctiveness, its originality, perhaps its usefulness, and most importantly its value
  • 24. Open Innovation• To be considered an innovation in business, the result must be increased value in the form of new or improved functionality, reduced cost, a price increase (good for the seller), a price decrease (good for the buyer), better margin for the seller, or some combination of these.
  • 25. Open Innovation• Until now, closed innovation was the paradigm in which most firms operated. • Most innovating companies kept their discoveries highly secret and made no attempt to assimilate information from outside their own R&D labs.• However, in recent years the world has seen major advances in technology and society, which have facilitated the diffusion of information. • Not the least of these advances are electronic communication systems, including the Internet.
  • 26. Open Innovation• Open Innovation is a term promoted by Henry Chesbrough:• “Open innovation is the use of purposive inflows and outflows of knowledge to accelerate internal innovation, and expand the markets for external use of innovation, respectively. [This paradigm] assumes that firms can and should use external ideas as well as internal ideas, and internal and external paths to market, as they look to advance their technology.”
  • 27. Crowdsourcing• Companies across varied industries have extended their search for innovation beyond their own walls by engaging in dialogs with disparate sources of ideas including consumers, partners and even competitors. One popular method of gathering ideas from external sources is through the use of “crowdsourcing” which collect
  • 28. Crowdsourcing Examples
  • 29. An Example of Crowdsourcing
  • 30. Systems Thinking as an Alternative Mindset• Quote by Einstein that says: "We cant solve problems by using the same kind of thinking we used when we created them."• The value of systems thinking is being recognized as a powerful alternative point of view that incorporates synthetic thinking in addition to the traditional analytical thinking, and affords us with a long view to anticipate how a particular solution will play out over time.
  • 31. Systems Thinking: What is a System?• Def. – System – Whole which consists of a set of two or more parts – Three requirements: • Each part must affect behavior • All parts must be interconnected • All subsets must effect behavior, none can act independently
  • 32. Definition of Systems Thinking• Systems thinking is a “holistic approach to understanding that focuses on the way that a systems constituent parts interrelate and how systems work over time and within the context of larger systems:” • (• In order to understand systems thinking, we must first understand systems…
  • 33. Steps to a Systems Approach• Synthesis & Analysis – Synthesis = putting things together – Analysis = taking things apart• 3 Steps (1)Identify a containing whole (system) of which the thing to be explained is a part (2)Explain the behavior or properties of the containing whole (3)Then explain the behavior or properties of the thing to be explained in terms of its role(s) or function(s) within its containing whole
  • 34. Analytical and Synthetic Thinking• Analytical Thinking – The object/idea to be explained is considered a whole to be taken apart – Example: Integrating by parts in calculus• Synthetic Thinking – The object/idea to be explained is considered a part of a larger whole – Comparable to systems thinking – Example: Observing a Rolex for both its intrinsic and extrinsic values
  • 35. Change in Method of Inquiry From Mechanistic To Social Systems Thinking ThinkingAnalysis Synthesis(An explanation of the whole derived from explanation (An explanation of the whole derived from explanationof its parts.) explaining the role of the system in the larger system of which it is a part.)Reductionism Expansionism(The belief that everything can be reduced.) (The system is always a sub-system of some lager system.)Cause and Effect Producer–Product(Environmental free theory of explanation, a cause (Environmental full theory of explanation as opposed toneeds to both necessary and sufficient in order to have cause and effect where the importance of the environment isthe corresponding effect.) stressed.)Determinism Indeterminism(Fatalism, prior condition ) (Probabilistic, observe and discover.)Research Design(The embodiment of the above to arrive at instructions (The embodiment of the above to facilitate learning.based on theory.) Designing the whole systems means creating a system configuration that is optimum.)
  • 36. In Conclusion!• Evidence shows that systems thinking integrated with design thinking is the appropriate mindset and methodology for coping with highly complex situations.