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    TAR TAR Document Transcript

      • Introduction
      A person by the name of Y.M Tengku Abdul Rahman Putera ibn Sultan Abdul Hamid Halim Shah is not strange to the people around the globe especially to Malaysian. His name was among the popular people in Malaysian History especially in term of politic world. He who has the blood of the king is a Chief Minister of the Federation of Malaya at the time his office as well as Malaysia's first Prime Minister. His leadership was evident either in the field of politics as President of UMNO, as a national leader which is much competent and capable in administering the country and its people. The role of Tunku Abdul Rahman Putra Al-Haj in order to achieve national independence is important. As a government, he was responsible for the independence of Malaya from the colonial authorities in 1957. He also played an important role in forming the Federation of Malaya and later transform to Malaysia in 1963. Tunku said to have been successful in bringing our country to the verge of independence. His ability in speaking English and the intelligence he had enable our country gained independence only through negotiations without spilling a drop of blood as compared to what had happened in neighboring countries.<br />Tunku managed to unite the population, which comprises three major races, namely Malays, Chinese and Indians. Consolidation of these three races are under the leadership of Tunku gave confidence to the British colonial government to grant independence to the Federation of Malaya on 31 August 1957. The success of that independence for the country has raised his name as a leading and prominent leader. The success of his independence of Malaya was appointed to his name called as the "Father of Independence and the Father of Malaysia". This is the image of Tunku Abdul Rahman, who was generally known among the people of Malaysia. Tunku is a national leader with several comparable standards. Contributions and sacrifices that he shed for the welfare of this country are learned and perpetuated due to be appreciated by future generations.<br />He should be given high appreciation for his service and sacrifice as a man, a statesman, a defender of the Malays, and a compassion for the people, especially non-Malays and the patience and suffering that he experienced as a national leader. Tunku Abdul Rahman's name should be written with golden ink in the folds of history up to the level of his own efforts. This is because he actually continuing the legency of Dato’ Onn Jaafar which is very much struggle to unite the Malays and striving for the independence of Malay Land. <br />
      • Biodata of Tunku Abdul Rahman
      Full Name: Tengku Abdul Rahman Putera ibn Sultan Abdul Hamid Halim Shah<br />Popular Name: Tunku Abdul Rahman, Father of Independence, Tunku ‘Bobby’<br />Date and Place of Birth: 8 February 1903, Alor Setar<br />Date and Place of Death: 6 December 1990, Kuala Lumpur<br />Born at the Palace of the Three Level, Alor Setar, Kedah, better known as the Palace Pelamin, Tunku was the son of the six and the twenty fourth children of the Sultan Abdul Hamid Halim Shah,the 24th Sultan of Kedah. ‘Bonda’ of Tunku is name with Che Manjalara, a wife of Sultan Abdul Hamid who is not from the royal blood. Che Manjalara is the daughter of Luang Naraborirak (Kleb), a Thai district officer. Tunku birth is normally celebrated as he is not the successor Sultan of Kedah. Successor Sultan of Kedah, Sultan Badlishah son of Sultan Abdul Hamid, had been 30 years old at the time. <br />During child period, Tunku was called with ‘Awang’ as his physical doesn’t look great as compare to his other siblings. He is free to play outside the house and had established the village football team. Tunku commonly hunting for birds and flinging pebbles during his child time and always play with the mud until he get some kind of ulcer disease in his foot. Tunku Abdul Rahman Putra has special characteristics beyond his great successfulness. He was a gentle, kind, wise in making judgments, people-oriented, loyal to his friends, humility, generosity, always sympathetic, responsible, and many more of which enabled him to have many contacts. He was a royal but he still hang out with anyone even from not royal families. After all, Tunku is not purely developed in Malay environment, western and non-Islamic style had been practices such as drinking alcohol and gambling. Such style of life that he underwent make his performance decrease especially in his education because much time and money wasted because of his interest which is not suit the Islamic thought and understanding. <br />
      • Education
      Tunku began his education in 1909 at a Malay school in Jalan Baharu, Alor Setar. Siam is ordinary language at home, he learned the Malay language in schools. A teacher who came to his home to teach English. Tunku was then moved to an English public school which is now known as Sultan Abdul Hamid College. Here, he learned in school during the day and read the Koran in the evening. In 1913 at age 10, Tunku was sent to Bangkok to live with Tunku Yusuf ibn Sultan Abdul Hamid, his eldest brother, and studied at the School Thebsirintrawat (Debsirindir School). In 1915, Tunku returned home and continued his education at Penang Free School which the teachers are HR Cheeseman, and SM Zainal Abidin. He is an active person, thus he joined the Scouts and the Cadet Corps. <br />After received scholarship from Kedah’s Government, Tunku further his studies to St Catherine College, University of Cambridge at the age of 16 in year 1919. In this University, Tunku at the beginning took Bachelor in Law with his friends by the name Ivor Jenning(Sir), H.V. Davies and George Brown but later he changed to Bachelor of Art (History). Tunku is not focused while he study and always mingling around with his motorbike and sports car and committed 28 traffic offences. At last, he failed in his Bachelor of Art (History) due to not attend the final exam and the help from his friend, Taib Endak make Tunku at last received his Degree in year 1925 and returned to Kedah but his family doesn’t satisfied with the result and send him back to Inner Temple to get Law qualification and after several tough years he get the qualification in 1948. <br />Tunku is very much interested in sports and that resulted to him being selected to play as right winger in Little Stukeley. As not many Malays was played for football team, his teammates called him Bobby and because of the skills and speed that Tunku had make him regularly play for Little Stukeley football team.<br />
      • Civil Servant Experiences
      Tunku was sent to England on state scholarship, thus he was automatically a government servant when he returned. Tunku started as the Assistant District Officer in Kulim. He managed to tour all around the areas and visited people, thus District Officer advised him to prepare for Cadet’s Law Exam for promotion. Then, Tunku was promoted to Distric Officer of Padang Terap. <br />The Chinese tin-smith named Chong which previously being asked by Tunku to remove the faded color of green dragons, visited Tunku when he is District Officer of Padang Terap. This time, Chong bring along his daughter named Miss Chong Ah Yong which converted to Islam and change her name to Meriam and they get married. Meriam died in 1933 because suffer of malaria and the wrong medicine was given to her by an Engish doctor. After this incident, Violet Coulson the lady that own a restaurant in England, which Tunku always spent time in her restaurant and sometimes dancing together came to Singapore and they get married in year 1935. This marriage was not permitted by the Royal of Kedah especially by Tunku Ibrahim and after Tunku Mahmud replace the Regent, he gave the permission but the Secretary to Government shows disapproval by transferred Tunku to Langkawi as District Officer and Tunku performance is great in Langkawi therefore he being transferred to Sungei Petani also as District Officer after S.W. Jones M.C.S persuaded the Council of State to do so. <br />In Sungei Petani, Tunku clearly help the local people in running their daily activities in social and economic. Thus, it makes Tunku to oppose to several official instructions from the administration if he thinks it doesn’t help the local people. The crisis between Tunku and administration at the peak when Kedah Commissioner of Police instructed to all taxi driver to surrender their driving license and join the transport company. Tunku clearly opposed to this new scheme and write up to the administration which he faced the cost of being transferred to Kulim with 24 hours notice. Tunku feel he can’t do much in Kulim and ask for long leave to further study in England and got divorced with Violet. His mother arranged her marriage with Sharifah Rodziah in 1939. World War break and Tunku was recalled to Kedah without Law Degree and he was appointed to Deputy Director of Air Raid Precautions Department for South Kedah. Along with the other District Officer, Tunku prepared for the evacuation of civilians in case of invasion.<br />
      • Political
      When Tunku was in England, Dato Onn bin Jaafar is the greatest man who is fighting for independence and getting all the Malays to unite. This makes him the most popular UMNO leader in Malaya at that time. Dato Onn is the man that called for democratic and setting up the new government system which preparing to self government. <br />After graduating as a Barister in Inner Temple in 1948, Tunku sailed to Malaya but there is no post for him. Tunku was posted in LA Office but there is no work for him. The state Legal Adviser was a European and Tunku was instructed to report to him for duty. Tunku’s work was routine and he spent his days reading case files. As a minor compensation, Tunku was invited to accept the Chairmanship of the Kedah branch of United Malay National Organization (UMNO), the premier Malay political party formed by Dato Onn bin Jaafar. The invitation to Tunku to become Deputy Public Prosecutors in Kuala Lumpur came after a Law Adviosr with name Boyle reported to Foster-Sutton the Attorney General at that time. This offer came and Tunku received it because there is no work for Tunku, even though he is the Chairman for UMNO Kedah’s Branch. <br />In Kedah, most of the UMNO is recognizing Dato Onn and always contacted with him rather than Tunku. Tunku at the beginning fighting through Seberkas and Perstuan Melayu Kedah. Even before he returned, he is the Presiden for Malay Society Great Britain. This is the point where his leadership is being developed and it’s continuing until he returned to Malaya and appointed as Chief UMNO in Kedah. <br />In Kuala Lumpur, Tunku appointed by Raja Uda to become Malay Representative in Majlis Mingguan and later they appointed Tunku as Presiden for Selangor Football Club. After the meeting with Football Association of Malaya later as Malaysia, they appointed Tunku as the President of FAM. This make Tunku name become more popular among the youth. Therefore, when they is crisis existed in UMNO, Tunku name is among the popular name proposed by Kedah Malays for being uphold to become the President of UMNO besides others politician like CM Yusoff. <br />After taking the post of UMNO’s President in 1951, Tunku made several changes. Previously, Dato Onn bin Jaafar is heavily protected the Power of Malay Rulers. Under Dato Onn, UMNO was created from 41 Malay Association which united. For sake of independence, Dato Onn draws up the non-Malays participation as Alliance member to ensure they admit the loyalty. This scheme is not accepted by the UMNO members and therefore Dato Onn found the Independece Malaya Party and later Party Negara and he resigned as UMNO’s President. <br />Under Presidency of Tunku, he managed to get support from Malays but very hard for him to get support from Malay Rulers. This is because, for Tunku, independence means that there is power sharing between the rulers and citizen. This is absolutely contrary to the tradition that Malay Rulers is the holder of executive power. The Malay Rulers at the last agreed for this power sharing after they signed the Merdeka Constitution. <br />Tunku hold the post from 1951-1970. Tunku seems doesn’t really protected the Malays, this is because most of the time he befriended with Chinese even Tunku appointed Yap Chin Kwee as his Secretary of Politics. The way of his life also is not really in Islamic way as what Sheikh Ahmad form Perlis had advised him to stop drinking alcohol and read world news when Tunku appointed as President of UMNO. After all, Tunku also had contributed much on the development of Islamic Ideology in Malaya with the establishment of Islamic organization such as Islamic Welfare Organization and initiated the Tilawah and Musabaqah Al-Quran which can help in spreading and strengthening the ideology among Muslim in this country.<br />
      • Tunku Abdul Rahman as a Transformational Leader
      Transformational Leadership Theory is about leadership that creates positive change in the followers whereby they take care of each other's interests and act in the interests of the group as a whole. In this leadership style, the leader enhances the motivation, moral and performance of his follower group. <br />In this theory, Burn describe that a transformational leader is the one that involves changing the organization from a current state to a more desirable future state. Transformation leader also should work hard inspiring and motivating people and the followers and also the employees to work hard for achieving their goals. A transformation leader also is one who ready to accept the responsibility for building the nation and taking the nation and the citizen to the new direction for the successful in politic, economic and social life.<br />3.1 Civil Service and Administration<br />Transformational element is about idealized influence which can be achieved through the charismatic vision and behavior that inspire people to follow. Tunku is very well known about his charismatic character. Many people admire Tunku because of his gentle and easy to mingle with the people even though he is from royal family. This affects much toward the people. The people not only in Malaya at that time but other people outside the country is really appreciating and respecting the work and the Tunku’s administration. <br />The charismatic of Tunku can only being comparable to Sir Winston Churcill because both of them come from royal family and lead the nation for long term and still in favor of the citizen even had resigned from being Prime Minister. When Tunku served the people as Assistant District Officer and District Officer in Kedah, he become the people interest of heart because he always in the people side. The charismatic and accountability leadership are proven when Tunku always writing up to the British administration anything that they done doesn’t meet the requirement of the people. For example the case of malaria disease whereby people managed to get fund to settle the issue of malaria which put under his supervision. <br />When Tunku become the Chief Minister, he managed to inspire people to follow his vision in getting independence but he is actually continuing the hard works that have been done previously by Dato Onn bin Jaafar. The ability of Tunku inspire people to make him suit to this transformation element. <br />Along the way to get independence, credit also need to be given to all the people that help Tunku in managing the country such as Tun Abdul Razak and several other people that help Tunku in aligning the people minds toward the independence. The transformation of Tunku in administration in term of power sharing between the citizen and the Malay Rulers is giving positive and negative impact to this nation. In term of positive view, the Rulers are now subjected to the constitution and cannot do things arbitrarily but it is actually reducing the power of Malay Ruler and it is changing the Malay custom and tradition that have being practiced previously. As people know that traditionally the executive power is holds by the Sultan, but when Tunku proposing the idea of power sharing it is actually reducing the power of Sultan and the transactions of government is the hand of Prime Minister.<br />3.2 Social Change<br />Inspirational motivation is the capacity to motivate others to commit to the vision. Does Tunku fit to this transformation element? In changing people minds, it can be said that Tunku manage to transform people mind. He managed to get people to work together to commit to the vision that can give benefit to the people and to the nation. During his time working as District Officer in Langkawi, Tunku managed to get people to donate and he collect the money for building the most important jetty for Langkawi people as the fund that he demanded from state government doesn’t approved. Tunku again transformed people mind about the Mahsuri cursed which he proudly announced that the Mahsuri cursed is ended where the Langkawi was in developing progress at time he is the District Officer. Even the British Adviser adores the changes that he made to Langkawi. <br />In different views, nothing much had been done by Tunku about changing the Malays standard of living. Malays people still at the poor level which the ideas of changing Malay economic only came from Tun Abdul Razak and the Secretary of Umno at that time which is Dato’ Senu Abdul Rahman. In order to help the Malays, TALASCO is created to talk about the economics among the UMNO member and the UMNO Youth was working very hard to send the message to the Malays. <br />In other element, transformational leader is the one who is able to express views, coaching, mentoring and instill passion in people. This can be credited to Tunku as he managed to express his views about the new taxi scheme introduced by the State Commission of Police which need the entire taxi driver to surrender their license and join Transportation Company. Tunku coaching the taxi drivers to not follow the scheme and he expressed his idea to the administration. <br />3.3 Premiership and Politics<br />As we know, the transformation leader should bring about changes within the nation to ensure harmony and peace among the people. The greatest changing brought by Tunku to the politic world is the establishment of Parti Perikatan/Alliance. This is the transformation done by Tunku to fulfill the need of British in order to grant Malaya with independence. From one perspective, this could be the transformation done by Tunku in uniting the three major races in Malaya at that time. He managed to get trustworthy by the people that the Alliance is the one who strive for independence in order to get support from people who at that time treated with the Malaya Communist Party. This Alliance was actually had been put forwarded by Dato Onn bin Jaafar which want UMNO to open its membership to non-Malays for fulfill the demand from British but the changes brought about by Tunku is the non-Malays joined the MCA and MIC and both of these parties allies with UMNO. The different approach promoted by Tunku made the UMNO members to agree with the Alliance but the contribution of Dato Onn just cannot being denied as he is the man who managed to hosted a dinner for Tan Cheng Lock which is MCA leader at that time which supported the Malayan Union which change the perspective of Malay to Malayan. <br />The transforming of Federation of Malaya to Malaysia was the great thing done by Tunku. Even though it been opposed by Indonesia and Philippine, Tunku succeed in creating Malaysia but the way Tunku handled the issue of Singapore can be question. Dr Mahathir at that time requested that Tunku should give order to arrest Lim Kuan Yew. It is agree that this suggestion is the better way than released Singapore from Malaysia. It is because the ideology of the PAP was actually affecting the politics in Malaysia and there is unfinished agenda that can bring problems to the political stability. <br />Even though Alliance gained victory in the election, but Tunku actually compromising with the Malay agenda. Tunku himself had been strongly criticized by the UMNO elements for not pursuing a more aggressive Malay agenda within the coalition. The role of the Alliance in the battle for independence differed significantly from that of UMNO in 1946-1948 which Dato Onn bin Jaafar battle was fought on behalf of the Malays but Tunku had carry out both Malays and non-Malays with him and Tunku transformed the ‘Tanah Melayu Untuk Melayu’ to ‘Tanah Melayu Untuk Semua Rakyat Berbilang Kaum’. <br />Tunku premiership from 1955 to 1970 is actually bringing some transformation to Malaysia but it cannot be reviewed as what Tun Dr Mahathir had done to this country. There are some transformation in the policies that had been done by Tunku which somehow affect much the right and preservation of Malays. In term of economic policy, Tunku managed to have direct shipment and trading between Malayan and China. Previously, rubber must be exported to England and then it reaches China but now the Malayan can have direct trading with China. The credit also must be given to the people that directly involved in helping Tunku in managing the Malaya economic at that time which is the Minister of Agriculture, Encik Abdul Aziz Ishak and Minister of Labour, V.T Sambanthan<br />Other than that, Malaya is actually doesn’t transform to our own style of managing the nation during the premiership of Tunku as he always looking to the western and everything was liaison to the western way. This is among the criticism of people during the premiership of Tunku as his background that much more related to the western it is actually affecting the way Tunku managed the nation. The education system of the nation is nothing much being transformed by Tunku as credit also must be given to Tun Abdul Razak and Abdul Rahman Talibwhich very much helps Tunku in developing Malaya education system. Even though there is still debatable issue regarding the effectiveness of Razak’s Report and Rahman Talib’s Report in developing the education system such as the allowing for many language being used in schools but it still help the education sytem. <br />3.4 International Affairs<br />In international level, Tunku is giving much intellectual stimulation and creating awareness among the people around the globe. The transformational element that can suit to Tunku contribution to the international was about changing the people awareness and it involve arousing of issues and encourage people toward that problems and creating capacity to solve the problem. During his premiership, Tunku managed to arise the issue of Apartheid that implemented by South Africa. It shows how Tunku manage to persuade people and changing people awareness that the policy is actually giving harm to the people in South Africa. Tunku is the man that actually speaks to the people and the Commonwealth Countries united to withdraw South Africa that could be the reason why some people outside Malaya at that time admire Tunku very much. It is the time of Tunku premiership which the same thing was actually happened during the Tun Dr Mahathir premiership he also did the same thing even he is much aggressive and that the reason why the transformational characteristic of Tun Dr Mahathir just cannot be denied. <br />The involvement of Tunku Islamic Ideology is very much important for the Malays as there is the treat of communism ideology during that time. Malaya doesn’t have any Islamic Organization previously, it is only the Persatuan Alim Ulama UMNO which later withdrew from UMNO and created their own party which is Party Islam Se-Malaya or Pan-Malay Islamic Party which now acronym to PAS which left UMNO after Dato Onn bin Jaafar quited UMNO. Tunku established the Islamic Welfare Organization (PERKIM) in 1960 and rose up the issue of Organization of Islamic Conference in international level which takes very long time to be in place. <br />3.5 Alliance stands on Citizenship, Special Rights of Malays, Religion, language and Education<br />Under Tunku, these are the transformation elements that people have to accept which aligning to get the independence<br />Citizenship <br />This is the biggest issues during Tunku time, which the press from non-Malays UMNO under Tunku was actually retrospectively accept the concept of jus soli which in returned the non-Malays accept the provision of Malays special rights. This is actually what the Malayan Union proposed which is the jus soli concept. Even though non-Malays were accepted the special rights of Malays, it actually increase the number of immigrant and will give some kind of treat to the power of vote to Malays as they will become the citizen if they stayed for five to eight years and proficient in Malay Language. <br />Special Position of the Malays<br />As the indigenous people of Malaya, the Reid Commission agreed that special rights were importance to Malays such as reservation of land, reservation of Malay position in public service, granting of permit and license for business and granting of scholarship and training purposes. Tunku also played role in rejecting the recommendations of Reid Commission about reviewing this rights within 15 years of independence to determine whether if they were still required. The Malays is really having the right over all these things as the Malays are actually the protector of Malaya. To defend Malaya from Communist insurgency, the Government embarked on an effort to recruit the Chinese to join the police force. Between 1949 to 1951, the effort of the government to attract the Chinese to defend the nation against the MCP met with little success. Only 200 Chinese youths volunteered. When National Service was introduced in 1950, considerable amount of Chinese and Indians sought to leave the country. Over 10,000 Chinese fled to China to avoid call-up. This further added to the resentment among the Malays and even Sir Henry Gurney commented – <br />“A feeling of resentment is growing among all the other communities of the apparent reluctance of the Chinese to help. These people (the Chinese) live comfortably and devote themselves wholly to making money…”<br />Religion<br />Islam was accepted as the official religion and the practice of having Sultan as head of the Muslim religion in his own state was retained. It was also agreed that every person had a right to profess or practice any religion other than Islam, except that the propagation of any religious doctrine or belief among Muslims may be controlled or restricted by the state.<br />Language and Education<br />Under premiership of Tunku, Tun Abdul Razak came out with the Razak’s Report which it is not clearly transforming the education system of Malaya. When Razak Committee invited submissions from public, the Malays wanted the government to rectify the things that historical wrong, Malays demanded for the development of a national education system which only Malay is the medium of instruction. Malays argued that Chinese and Tamil should remain as private and unaided school which these were contrast to demand of the Chinese and Indian. At last, Tunku and Alliance agreed that Malay would be made the national language and as medium of instruction in all national schools and English is accepted as second official language. The mother tongue can continually being teach in education in primary schools but rejected the suggestions to abolish Chinese and Tamil schools. People should know that, the Chinese school is generally being aided by a lot of fund and money from the Chinese businessman. Thus, it is make sense that if the school remained unaided by the government as the schools are actually developing but the national school is still very poor developed. <br />3.6 The Communist<br />Even though Tunku managed to stop communism and transform them from stayed in the jungle to help in developing the nation, there is several issues which were contradicted to good transformation that done by Tunku. It can be look at the duration of time Tunku given which is almost 6 month for the communist to accept the amnesty offer. Besides being a firm leader, Tunku actually managed to change their way of lives. This is good transformation done by Tunku but giving them so much benefit actually doesn’t make it. Tunku is giving them place which called as new village for them to stay which is a part of amnesty benefit. This should not include as they continue the bad agenda during the 13 May riots. But it is agreed that Tunku doesn’t accept their demand which are to recognize the communist party, not to hold investigations and not to detain them for such investigations. After all, firm decision had be taken by Tunku which started with the Baling Talks and lastly they accept the amnesty and dissolve of MCP but the agenda is actually continues by the Labor Party during 13 May 1969. Thus, it can be say that, the ideology and agenda of MCP actually no totally dissolve during premiership of Tunku. <br />3.7 The Road to Independence<br />Breakthroughs in the Federal election in 1955 are soaring the name of Tunku Abdul Rahman as important political leaders of Malaya. Tunku meeting with Donald MacGillivary on Sunday, July 31, 1955, is the first step in the process has claimed to be independent. This is the first step as a leader, the Alliance asked Tunku negotiates with British government. But after talking for two hours and a half Tunku failed to discuss. This due the power of veto and appointment of High Commissioner Independent Commission for drafting the constitution. Tunku desire is to allow the alliance to intervene in the administration as what being promised in the last election.<br />For Tunku that accepted the mandate of the people which is to achieve independence, or out of government. The words are quite excited that Tunku was greeted with shouts of "Merdeka" by supporters of the Alliance. This is a demonstration that shows the strength and leadership of the Tunku. This situation caused Lennox Boyd talked with the Malay rulers regarding the claim that the Alliance. In September 1955, the Malay Rulers had issued their approval to allow the Alliance to amend the Federal Treaty of 1948. However, they do not agree that the alliance would only negotiate with the British government. Malays kings also urged to send representatives. Malay Rulers suggested that the group be composed of seven representatives of the four representatives’ of Malay Rulers and three of the Alliance and the Attorney General as an adviser. The Alliance has been pushing for refusing to be treated as the minority. After several negotiations, Tunku finally succeed in made our nation independent. This should be the biggest transformation done by Tunku and several people toward this nation.<br />4. Tunku’s Contributions<br />4.1 Writing<br />Many people like to read on Tunku writing. Tunku was a talented writer. The work he done could attract the attention of the public. Although Tunku retired at the age of 85 years, he is still active witing article such as in the column Looking Back and As I See It in The Star newspaper. From 16 September 1974 until August 16, 1975, Tunku had a total of 53 articles in column Looking Back. In 1969, the Tunku was introduced his first book, which is May 13, Before and After. After that, he continued writing in The Star newspaper in the new column named As I See It. The articles that he produced in the newspapers is about the community and generate Viewpoints (1970), Looking Back (1977), As Matter of Interest (1981), Something to Remember (1983), Less We Forget Issues in Malaysia and Contemporary Politics (1984 ), Challenging Times (1986) and Political Awakening (1986). These entire articles are about the current issues.<br />4.2 Arts<br />Tunku also interested in the arts and the culture of the country. Before becoming prime minister, he aspired to make Kuala Lumpur as the center of the culture. On August 27 to August 30, 1969, he organized the International Conference on Traditional Drama and Music of Southeast Asia with the aim of highlighting the Malay culture in the world. Tunku has produced three works which later filmed, the "Mahsuri", "Raja Bersiung" and "Curse of Mahsuri. Malaysia is showing the film is to raise funds for the Memorial Fund Dhobie Rosli.<br />4.3 Tunku Achievements<br />He managed to get the approval of British and August 31, 1957 set as the date for independence. After this, he got the attention of people all over the world, especially the mass media. On May 27, 1961, Tunku had submitted a proposal to merge Malaya, Singapore, Sabah, Sarawak and Brunei to establish a country called Malaysia. The idea received support from these countries except Brunei. On January 6, 1962, the government of Malaya and the British had established the Cobbold Commission to review the reactions and opinions of the people of Sabah and Sarawak on the formation of Malaysia. Finally, Malaysia was formed on July 16, 1963 by merging of Malaya, Singapore, Sabah and Sarawak which later Singapore withdraws in 1965. <br />4.4 Award<br />Various awards were received by him from universities such as Universiti Malaya, University of Sydney, Araneta University and the University of India. He also received an Honorary Doctor of Letters from Oxford University, England in 1970, Honorary Doctor of Laws from the University of Cambridge (1970) and Honorary Degree in Public Administration from the University of Prince of Songkhla, Thailand (1977). He received ranks as the Order of Istiqqlal, Morocco in 1957, the Order of the State of Kedah in 1958, the Order of Kim Khanh, Vietnam (1958), Seri Paduka Mahkota Brunei (SPMB) and Grand Cross of the Order of the Crown of Belgium Order of Sikatuna of the Philippines (1959), House of Highly Respected Degree (First Class), Ramon Magsaysay Award from the Philippines (1960), Knight Cross of the Most Grang Order of Chula Chom Illustrios Klao of Thailand (1962), Standard King Mahkota Selangor (SPMS) and Grand Cross of the Royal Order of Sahametrai from Cambodia.<br />5. Conclusion<br />Tunku passed away on December 6, 1990 when he was about 87 years. He had watched three of his successor as President of UMNO leaders and the Prime Minister, the late Tun Abdul Razak (1970-1976), Tun Hussein Onn (1976-1981) and for almost 10 years under the leadership of his own political and critics Tun Dr Mahathir administration which lead to the separation of UMNO Malaysia and UMNO Baru. Later, the UMNO Malaysia initiated by Tunku was smash down by Tun Dr Mahathir which he himself initiated UMNO Baru. Then, Tunku used the Semangat 46 created by Tengku Razaleigh Hamzah and continued critics upon the government.<br />Tunku indeed quite pleased and proud because it was he who managed to "redeem" the independence from the British colonial rule that was instituted by certain actions of the Malay rulers themselves. Although he was not a pioneer in the rise of Malay politicians like Dato Onn, but the legacy of the party led by the Tunku was not a gold mine. Tunku certainly had to work hard, make sacrifices of time and labor, including salaries as senior legal, and rank as a prince to come down to the middle of the people with all the difficulties he went across the country to realize that the struggle of UMNO. Not only that, Tunku is actually an important pioneer of racial and ethnic relations in this country with the approach of simplicity that there are times when he seems to ignore the Malay interest and commitment will be misconstrued that Malay nationalism. While he resigned as Prime Minister for over six months towards the 1959 general election campaign solely the result of a rift in the Alliance's claim that more seats by the MCA. Meanwhile, although the Tunku achieve success and received accolades from within and outside the country, but he has also received criticism on the leadership, especially the last few years with landmark events of the decline is the onset of May 13, 1969, which fights between Malays and non Malays. The riots actually can be considered as the one of unfortunate issue in Malaya that time which was struggle very much after the independence. This is truly hardship of Tunku as the Prime Minister as the British people always doesn’t have the confident upon Malaya due the multi-ethnic nation and they believe that this nation must always put under the British Administration. <br />Although the atmosphere of political tide is not unusual in the experience of the majority of political leaders, and also including Tunku in this case, there is no reason to deny that he also left many of the services and their services as part of the heritage and grandeur becoming the pride to the generation of today. The contributions that Tunku made despite the criticism on the way he managed the nation and the occasion where he left the Malays interest and commitment along the premiership, credit should be given to him as the efforts that he made in developing this nation. <br />Prepared by:<br />Mohd Ramlan bin Mohd Arshad<br />Faculty of Administrative Science and Policy Studies<br />-Paper Presented in UiTM Shah Alam-<br />