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STPM/S(E)962                             MAJLIS PEPERIKSAAN MALAYSIA                            (MALAYSIAN EXAMINATIONS CO...
FALSAFAH PENDIDIKAN KEBANGSAAN“Pendidikan di Malaysia adalah satu usaha berterusanke arah memperkembangkan lagi potensi in...
FOREWORDThis revised Chemistry syllabus is designed to replace the existing syllabus which has been in usesince the 2001 S...
CONTENTS                              Syllabus 962 Chemistry                                                              ...
SYLLABUS                                          962 CHEMISTRYAimsThis syllabus aims to enhance candidates knowledge and ...
FIRST TERM                                    Teaching             Topic                                              Lear...
Teaching             Topic                                            Learning Outcome                                   P...
Teaching             Topic                                       Learning Outcome                              Period3   C...
Teaching             Topic                                        Learning Outcome                              Period    ...
Teaching            Topic                                     Learning Outcome                           Period   4.3   So...
Teaching         Topic                                                     Learning Outcome                               ...
Teaching             Topic                                           Learning Outcome                                 Peri...
Teaching         Topic                                            Learning Outcome                             Period     ...
TeachingTopic                                 Learning Outcome         Period                   (d) explain the term azeot...
SECOND TERM                                Teaching             Topic                                          Learning Ou...
Teaching             Topic                                            Learning Outcome                                 Per...
Teaching             Topic                                               Learning Outcome                                 ...
Teaching             Topic                                           Learning Outcome                                  Per...
Teaching            Topic                                              Learning Outcome                                   ...
Teaching            Topic                                             Learning Outcome                                   P...
Teaching             Topic                                             Learning Outcome                                   ...
Teaching         Topic                                               Learning Outcome                                Perio...
THIRD TERM                                 Teaching            Topic                                           Learning Ou...
Teaching         Topic                                         Learning Outcome                            Period         ...
Teaching           Topic                                 Learning Outcome                    Period                       ...
Teaching        Topic                                Learning Outcome                 Period15.2 Alkenes       6       Can...
Teaching           Topic                                   Learning Outcome                    Period                     ...
Teaching           Topic                                          Learning Outcome                             Period     ...
Teaching           Topic                                     Learning Outcome                         Period              ...
Teaching            Topic                                            Learning Outcome                                 Peri...
Teaching         Topic                                      Learning Outcome                       Period                 ...
Teaching           Topic                                           Learning Outcome                              Period   ...
Teaching           Topic                                   Learning Outcome                       Period                  ...
TeachingTopic                                 Learning Outcome         Period                   ( f)   state the role of t...
The Practical SyllabusSchool-based Assessment of Practical (Paper 4)School-based assessment of practical works is carried ...
The objective of this project work is to enable candidates to acquire knowledge and skills inchemistry using information a...
The questions to be set will cover the following three aspects:(a )   Volumetric analysis       Experimental procedures an...
962 Sukatan Pelajaran Kimia STPM (Baharu)
962 Sukatan Pelajaran Kimia STPM (Baharu)
962 Sukatan Pelajaran Kimia STPM (Baharu)
962 Sukatan Pelajaran Kimia STPM (Baharu)
962 Sukatan Pelajaran Kimia STPM (Baharu)
962 Sukatan Pelajaran Kimia STPM (Baharu)
962 Sukatan Pelajaran Kimia STPM (Baharu)
962 Sukatan Pelajaran Kimia STPM (Baharu)
962 Sukatan Pelajaran Kimia STPM (Baharu)
962 Sukatan Pelajaran Kimia STPM (Baharu)
962 Sukatan Pelajaran Kimia STPM (Baharu)
962 Sukatan Pelajaran Kimia STPM (Baharu)
962 Sukatan Pelajaran Kimia STPM (Baharu)
962 Sukatan Pelajaran Kimia STPM (Baharu)
962 Sukatan Pelajaran Kimia STPM (Baharu)
962 Sukatan Pelajaran Kimia STPM (Baharu)
962 Sukatan Pelajaran Kimia STPM (Baharu)
962 Sukatan Pelajaran Kimia STPM (Baharu)
962 Sukatan Pelajaran Kimia STPM (Baharu)
962 Sukatan Pelajaran Kimia STPM (Baharu)
962 Sukatan Pelajaran Kimia STPM (Baharu)
962 Sukatan Pelajaran Kimia STPM (Baharu)
962 Sukatan Pelajaran Kimia STPM (Baharu)
962 Sukatan Pelajaran Kimia STPM (Baharu)
962 Sukatan Pelajaran Kimia STPM (Baharu)
962 Sukatan Pelajaran Kimia STPM (Baharu)
962 Sukatan Pelajaran Kimia STPM (Baharu)
962 Sukatan Pelajaran Kimia STPM (Baharu)
962 Sukatan Pelajaran Kimia STPM (Baharu)
962 Sukatan Pelajaran Kimia STPM (Baharu)
962 Sukatan Pelajaran Kimia STPM (Baharu)
962 Sukatan Pelajaran Kimia STPM (Baharu)
962 Sukatan Pelajaran Kimia STPM (Baharu)
962 Sukatan Pelajaran Kimia STPM (Baharu)
962 Sukatan Pelajaran Kimia STPM (Baharu)
962 Sukatan Pelajaran Kimia STPM (Baharu)
962 Sukatan Pelajaran Kimia STPM (Baharu)
962 Sukatan Pelajaran Kimia STPM (Baharu)
962 Sukatan Pelajaran Kimia STPM (Baharu)
962 Sukatan Pelajaran Kimia STPM (Baharu)
962 Sukatan Pelajaran Kimia STPM (Baharu)
962 Sukatan Pelajaran Kimia STPM (Baharu)
962 Sukatan Pelajaran Kimia STPM (Baharu)
962 Sukatan Pelajaran Kimia STPM (Baharu)
962 Sukatan Pelajaran Kimia STPM (Baharu)
962 Sukatan Pelajaran Kimia STPM (Baharu)
962 Sukatan Pelajaran Kimia STPM (Baharu)
962 Sukatan Pelajaran Kimia STPM (Baharu)
962 Sukatan Pelajaran Kimia STPM (Baharu)
962 Sukatan Pelajaran Kimia STPM (Baharu)
962 Sukatan Pelajaran Kimia STPM (Baharu)
962 Sukatan Pelajaran Kimia STPM (Baharu)
962 Sukatan Pelajaran Kimia STPM (Baharu)
962 Sukatan Pelajaran Kimia STPM (Baharu)
962 Sukatan Pelajaran Kimia STPM (Baharu)
962 Sukatan Pelajaran Kimia STPM (Baharu)
962 Sukatan Pelajaran Kimia STPM (Baharu)
962 Sukatan Pelajaran Kimia STPM (Baharu)
962 Sukatan Pelajaran Kimia STPM (Baharu)
962 Sukatan Pelajaran Kimia STPM (Baharu)
962 Sukatan Pelajaran Kimia STPM (Baharu)
962 Sukatan Pelajaran Kimia STPM (Baharu)
962 Sukatan Pelajaran Kimia STPM (Baharu)
962 Sukatan Pelajaran Kimia STPM (Baharu)
962 Sukatan Pelajaran Kimia STPM (Baharu)
962 Sukatan Pelajaran Kimia STPM (Baharu)
962 Sukatan Pelajaran Kimia STPM (Baharu)
962 Sukatan Pelajaran Kimia STPM (Baharu)
962 Sukatan Pelajaran Kimia STPM (Baharu)
962 Sukatan Pelajaran Kimia STPM (Baharu)
962 Sukatan Pelajaran Kimia STPM (Baharu)
962 Sukatan Pelajaran Kimia STPM (Baharu)
962 Sukatan Pelajaran Kimia STPM (Baharu)
962 Sukatan Pelajaran Kimia STPM (Baharu)
962 Sukatan Pelajaran Kimia STPM (Baharu)
962 Sukatan Pelajaran Kimia STPM (Baharu)
962 Sukatan Pelajaran Kimia STPM (Baharu)
962 Sukatan Pelajaran Kimia STPM (Baharu)
962 Sukatan Pelajaran Kimia STPM (Baharu)
962 Sukatan Pelajaran Kimia STPM (Baharu)
962 Sukatan Pelajaran Kimia STPM (Baharu)
962 Sukatan Pelajaran Kimia STPM (Baharu)
962 Sukatan Pelajaran Kimia STPM (Baharu)
962 Sukatan Pelajaran Kimia STPM (Baharu)
962 Sukatan Pelajaran Kimia STPM (Baharu)
962 Sukatan Pelajaran Kimia STPM (Baharu)
962 Sukatan Pelajaran Kimia STPM (Baharu)
962 Sukatan Pelajaran Kimia STPM (Baharu)
962 Sukatan Pelajaran Kimia STPM (Baharu)
962 Sukatan Pelajaran Kimia STPM (Baharu)
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  1. 1. STPM/S(E)962 MAJLIS PEPERIKSAAN MALAYSIA (MALAYSIAN EXAMINATIONS COUNCIL) PEPERIKSAANSIJIL TINGGI PERSEKOLAHAN MALAYSIA (MALAYSIA HIGHER SCHOOL CERTIFICATE EXAMINATION) CHEMISTRYSyllabus, Specimen Papers and Specimen Experiment This syllabus applies for the 2012/2013 session and thereafter until further notice.
  2. 2. FALSAFAH PENDIDIKAN KEBANGSAAN“Pendidikan di Malaysia adalah satu usaha berterusanke arah memperkembangkan lagi potensi individu secaramenyeluruh dan bersepadu untuk mewujudkan insan yangseimbang dan harmonis dari segi intelek, rohani, emosi,dan jasmani. Usaha ini adalah bagi melahirkan rakyatMalaysia yang berilmu pengetahuan, berakhlak mulia,bertanggungjawab, berketerampilan, dan berkeupayaanmencapai kesejahteraan diri serta memberi sumbanganterhadap keharmonian dan kemakmuran keluarga,masyarakat dan negara.”
  3. 3. FOREWORDThis revised Chemistry syllabus is designed to replace the existing syllabus which has been in usesince the 2001 STPM examination. This new syllabus will be enforced in 2012 and the firstexamination will also be held the same year. The revision of the syllabus takes into account thechanges made by the Malaysian Examinations Council (MEC) to the existing STPM examination.Through the new system, sixth-form study will be divided into three terms, and candidates will sit foran examination at the end of each term. The new syllabus fulfils the requirements of this new system.The main objective of introducing the new examination system is to enhance the teaching andlearning orientation in sixth form so as to be in line with the orientation of teaching and learning incolleges and universities.The revision of the Chemistry syllabus incorporates current developments in chemistry studies andsyllabus design in Malaysia. The syllabus will give candidates exposure to pre-university level aboutChemistry as a central science that includes physical chemistry, inorganic chemistry and organicchemistry. In tandem with the global needs for a sustainable environment, it is important to promoteawareness of the roles of chemistry in the understanding of nature and the universe. As such,environmental chemistry relating to green chemistry as well as water and solid waste management hasbeen included in this revised syllabus. Accordingly, it is hoped that this syllabus will be able toproduce pre-university candidates which are mature minded, knowledgeable, and able tocommunicate idea effectively using various forms of communications.The syllabus contains topics, teaching periods, learning outcomes, examination format, gradedescription, and sample questions.The design of this syllabus was undertaken by a committee chaired by Professor Datuk Dr. A. Hamidbin A. Hadi from University of Malaya. Other committee members consist of university lecturers,representatives from the Curriculum Development Division, Ministry of Education Malaysia, andexperienced teachers teaching Chemistry. On behalf of the MEC, I would like to thank the committeefor their commitment and invaluable contribution. It is hoped that this syllabus will be a guide forteachers and candidates in the teaching and learning process.OMAR BIN ABU BAKARChief ExecutiveMalaysian Examinations Council
  4. 4. CONTENTS Syllabus 962 Chemistry PageAims 1Objectives 1Content First Term 2 – 10 Second Term 11 – 18 Third Term 19 – 30Practical Syllabus (School-based Assessment of Practical (Paper 4)) 31 – 32Written Practical Test (Paper 5) 32 – 33Scheme of Assessment 34 – 35Performance Descriptions 36Summary of Key Quantities and Units 37 – 38Periodic Table 39Reference Books 40Specimen Paper 1 41 – 57Specimen Paper 2 59 – 77Specimen Paper 3 79– 95Specimen Experiment Paper 4 97 – 99Specimen Paper 5 101 – 123
  5. 5. SYLLABUS 962 CHEMISTRYAimsThis syllabus aims to enhance candidates knowledge and understanding of chemistry. It also enablesthem to advance their studies at institutions of higher learning and assists them to pursue a chemistry-related career. It will also promote awareness of the roles of chemistry in the understanding of natureand the universe.ObjectivesThe objectives of this syllabus are to enable the candidates to:(a) understand facts, terminologies and principles of chemistry;(b) interpret phenomena by using models, laws and chemical principles;(c) interpret and apply scientific information presented in various forms;(d) solve problems related to chemistry;(e) analyse, synthesise and evaluate information and ideas logically and critically;(f) plan, carry out experiments, draw inferences and make deductions;(g) use scientific equipment properly and safely;(h) develop positive attitudes and values towards the environment;(i) acquire generic skills. 1
  6. 6. FIRST TERM Teaching Topic Learning Outcome Period1 Atoms, Molecules and 8 Stoichiometry 1.1 Fundamental particles 2 Candidates should be able to: of an atom (a) describe the properties of protons, neutrons and electrons in terms of their relative charges and relative masses; (b) predict the behaviour of beams of protons, neutrons and electrons in both electric and magnetic fields; (c) describe the distribution of mass and charges within an atom; (d) determine the number of protons, neutrons and electrons present in both neutral and charged species of a given proton number and nucleon number; (e) describe the contribution of protons and neutrons to atomic nuclei in terms of proton number and nucleon number; (f) distinguish isotopes based on the number of neutrons present, and state examples of both stable and unstable isotopes. 1.2 Relative atomic, 3 Candidates should be able to: isotopic, molecular and formula masses (a) define the terms relative atomic mass, Ar, relative isotopic mass, relative molecular mass, Mr, and relative formula mass based on 12C; (b) interpret mass spectra in terms of relative abundance of isotopes and molecular fragments; (c) calculate relative atomic mass of an element from the relative abundance of its isotopes or its mass spectrum. 2
  7. 7. Teaching Topic Learning Outcome Period 1.3 The mole and the 3 Candidates should be able to: Avogadro constant (a) define mole in terms of the Avogadro constant; (b) calculate the number of moles of reactants, volumes of gases, volumes of solutions and concentrations of solutions; (c) deduce stoichiometric relationships from the calculations above.2 Electronic Structure of 8 Atoms 2.1 Electronic energy 2 Candidates should be able to: levels of atomic hydrogen (a) explain the formation of the emission line spectrum of atomic hydrogen in the Lyman and Balmer series using Bohr’s Atomic Model. 2.2 Atomic orbitals: 2 Candidates should be able to: s, p and d (a) deduce the number and relative energies of the s, p and d orbitals for the principal quantum numbers 1, 2 and 3, including the 4s orbitals; (b) describe the shape of the s and p orbitals. 2.3 Electronic 2 Candidates should be able to: configuration (a) predict the electronic configuration of atoms and ions given the proton number (and charge); (b) define and apply Aufbau principle, Hund’s rule and Pauli exclusion principle. 2.4 Classification of 2 Candidates should be able to: elements into s, p, d and f blocks in the (a) identify the position of the elements in the Periodic Table Periodic Table as (i) block s, with valence shell configurations s1 and s2, (ii) block p, with valence shell configurations from s2p1 to s2p6, (iii) block d, with valence shell configurations from d1s2 to d10s2; (b) identify the position of elements in block f of the Periodic Table. 3
  8. 8. Teaching Topic Learning Outcome Period3 Chemical Bonding 20 3.1 Ionic bonding 1 Candidates should be able to: (a) describe ionic (electrovalent) bonding as exemplified by NaCl and MgCl2. 3.2 Covalent bonding 15 Candidates should be able to: (a) draw the Lewis structure of covalent molecules (octet rule as exemplified by NH3, CCl4, H2O, CO2, N2O4 and exception to the octet rule as exemplified by BF3, NO, NO2, PCl5, SF6); (b) draw the Lewis structure of ions as exemplified by SO42−, CO32−, NO3− and CN−; (c) explain the concept of overlapping and hybridisation of the s and p orbitals as exemplified by BeCl2, BF3, CH4, N2, HCN, NH3 and H2O molecules; (d) predict and explain the shapes of and bond angles in molecules and ions using the principle of valence shell electron pair repulsion, e.g. linear, trigonal planar, tetrahedral, trigonal bipyramid, octahedral, V-shaped, T-shaped, seesaw and pyramidal; (e) explain the existence of polar and non-polar bonds (including C−C1, C−N, C−O, C−Mg) resulting in polar or/and non-polar molecules; (f) relate bond lengths and bond strengths with respect to single, double and triple bonds; (g) explain the inertness of nitrogen molecule in terms of its strong triple bond and non- polarity; (h) describe typical properties associated with ionic and covalent bonding in terms of bond strength, melting point and electrical conductivity; (i) explain the existence of covalent character in ionic compounds such as A12O3, A1I3 and LiI; (j) explain the existence of coordinate (dative covalent) bonding as exemplified by H3O+, NH4+, A12C16 and [Fe(CN)6]3−. 4
  9. 9. Teaching Topic Learning Outcome Period 3.3 Metallic bonding 1 Candidates should be able to: (a) explain metallic bonding in terms of electron sea model. 3.4 Intermolecular 3 Candidates should be able to: forces: van der Waals forces and (a) describe hydrogen bonding and van der Waals hydrogen bonding forces (permanent, temporary and induced dipole); (b) deduce the effect of van der Waals forces between molecules on the physical properties of substances; (c) deduce the effect of hydrogen bonding (intermolecular and intramolecular) on the physical properties of substances.4 States of Matter 14 Candidates should be able to: 4.1 Gases 6 (a) explain the pressure and behaviour of ideal gas using the kinetic theory; (b) explain qualitatively, in terms of molecular size and intermolecular forces, the conditions necessary for a gas approaching the ideal behaviour; (c) define Boyle’s law, Charles’ law and Avogadro’s law; (d) apply the pV = nRT equation in calculations, including the determination of the relative molecular mass, Mr; (e) define Dalton’s law, and use it to calculate the partial pressure of a gas and its composition; (f) explain the limitation of ideality at very high pressures and very low temperatures. 4.2 Liquids 2 Candidates should be able to: (a) describe the kinetic concept of the liquid state; (b) describe the melting of solid to liquid, vaporisation and vapour pressure using simple kinetic theory; (c) define the boiling point and freezing point of liquids. 5
  10. 10. Teaching Topic Learning Outcome Period 4.3 Solids 2 Candidates should be able to: (a) describe qualitatively the lattice structure of a crystalline solid which is: (i) ionic, as in sodium chloride, (ii) simple molecular, as in iodine, (iii) giant molecular, as in graphite, diamond and silicon(IV) oxide, (iv) metallic, as in copper; (b) describe the allotropes of carbon (graphite, diamond and fullerenes), and their uses. 4.4 Phase diagrams 4 Candidates should be able to: (a) sketch the phase diagram for water and carbon dioxide, and explain the anomalous behaviour of water; (b) explain phase diagrams as graphical plots of experimentally determined results; (c) interpret phase diagrams as curves describing the conditions of equilibrium between phases and as regions representing single phases; (d) predict how a phase may change with changes in temperature and pressure; (e) discuss vaporisation, boiling, sublimation, freezing, melting, triple and critical points of H2O and CO2; (f) explain qualitatively the effect of a non- volatile solute on the vapour pressure of a solvent, and hence, on its melting point and boiling point (colligative properties); (g) state the uses of dry ice.5. Reaction Kinetics 14 5.1 Rate of reaction 2 Candidates should be able to: (a) define rate of reaction, rate equation, order of reaction, rate constant, half-life of a first-order reaction, rate determining step, activation energy and catalyst; (b) explain qualitatively, in terms of collision theory, the effects of concentration and temperature on the rate of a reaction. 6
  11. 11. Teaching Topic Learning Outcome Period5.2 Rate law 4 Candidates should be able to: (a) calculate the rate constant from initial rates; (b) predict an initial rate from rate equations and experimental data; (c) use titrimetric method to study the rate of a given reaction.5.3 The effect of 1 Candidates should be able to: temperature on reaction kinetics (a) explain the relationship between the rate constants with the activation energy and temperature using Arrhenius equation Ea − k = Ae RT ; (b) use the Boltzmann distribution curve to explain the distribution of molecular energy.5.4 The role of catalysts in 2 Candidates should be able to: reactions (a) explain the effect of catalysts on the rate of a reaction; (b) explain how a reaction, in the presence of a catalyst, follows an alternative path with a lower activation energy; (c) explain the role of atmospheric oxides of nitrogen as catalysts in the oxidation of atmospheric sulphur dioxide; (d) explain the role of vanadium(V) oxide as a catalyst in the Contact process; (e) describe enzymes as biological catalysts.5.5 Order of reactions and 5 Candidates should be able to: rate constants (a) deduce the order of a reaction (zero-, first- and second-) and the rate constant by the initial rates method and graphical methods; (b) verify that a suggested reaction mechanism is consistent with the observed kinetics; (c) use the half-life (t½) of a first-order reaction in calculations. 7
  12. 12. Teaching Topic Learning Outcome Period6 Equilibria 32 6.1 Chemical equilibria 10 Candidates should be able to: (a) describe a reversible reaction and dynamic equilibrium in terms of forward and backward reactions; (b) state mass action law from stoichiometric equation; (c) deduce expressions for equilibrium constants in terms of concentrations, Kc, and partial pressures, Kp, for homogeneous and heterogeneous systems; (d) calculate the values of the equilibrium constants in terms of concentrations or partial pressures from given data; (e) calculate the quantities present at equilibrium from given data; ( f) apply the concept of dynamic chemical equilibrium to explain how the concentration of stratospheric ozone is affected by the photodissociation of NO2, O2 and O3 to form reactive oxygen radicals; (g) state the Le Chatelier’s principle and use it to discuss the effect of catalysts, changes in concentration, pressure or temperature on a system at equilibrium in the following examples: (i) the synthesis of hydrogen iodide, (ii) the dissociation of dinitrogen tetroxide, (iii) the hydrolysis of simple esters, (iv) the Contact process, (v) the Haber process, (vi) the Ostwald process; (h) explain the effect of temperature on equilibrium constant from the equation ΔH ln K = − + C. RT 6.2 Ionic equilibria 10 Candidates should be able to: (a) use Arrhenius, BrØnsted-Lowry and Lewis theories to explain acids and bases; (b) identify conjugate acids and bases; 8
  13. 13. Teaching Topic Learning Outcome Period (c) explain qualitatively the different properties of strong and weak electrolytes; (d) explain and calculate the terms pH, pOH, Ka, pKa, Kb, pKb, Kw and pKw from given data; (e) explain changes in pH during acid-base titrations; ( f) explain the choice of suitable indicators for acid-base titrations; (g) define buffer solutions; (h) calculate the pH of buffer solutions from given data; ( i) explain the use of buffer solutions and their importance in biological systems such as the role of H2CO3 / HCO3− in controlling pH in blood.6.3 Solubility equilibria 5 Candidates should be able to: (a) define solubility product, Ksp; (b) calculate Ksp from given concentrations and vice versa; (c) describe the common ion effect, including buffer solutions; (d) predict the possibility of precipitation from solutions of known concentrations; (e) apply the concept of solubility equilibria to describe industrial procedure for water softening.6.4 Phase equilibria 7 Candidates should be able to: (a) state and apply Raoult’s law for two miscible liquids; (b) interpret the boiling point-composition curves for mixtures of two miscible liquids in terms of ‘ideal’ behaviour or positive or negative deviations from Raoult’s law; (c) explain the principles involved in fractional distillation of ideal and non ideal liquid mixtures; 9
  14. 14. TeachingTopic Learning Outcome Period (d) explain the term azeotropic mixture; (e) explain the limitations on the separation of two components forming an azeotropic mixture; ( f) explain qualitatively the advantages and disadvantages of fractional distillation under reduced pressure. 10
  15. 15. SECOND TERM Teaching Topic Learning Outcome Period7 Chemical Energetics 18 7.1 Enthalpy changes of 6 Candidates should be able to: reaction, ΔH (a) explain that most chemical reactions are accompanied by enthalpy changes (exothermic or endothermic); (b) define enthalpy change of reaction, ΔH, and state the standard conditions; (c) define enthalpy change of formation, combustion, hydration, solution, neutralisation, atomisation, bond energy, ionisation energy and electron affinity; (d) calculate the heat energy change from experimental measurements using the relationship: heat change, q = mcΔT or q = mcθ ; (e) calculate enthalpy changes from experimental results. 7.2 Hess’ law 6 Candidates should be able to: (a) state Hess’ law, and its use to find enthalpy changes that cannot be determined directly, e.g. an enthalpy change of formation from enthalpy changes of combustion; (b) construct energy level diagrams relating the enthalpy to reaction path and activation energy; (c) calculate enthalpy changes from energy cycles. 7.3 Born-Haber cycle 4 Candidates should be able to: (a) define lattice energy for simple ionic crystals in terms of the change from gaseous ions to solid lattice; (b) explain qualitatively the effects of ionic charge and ionic radius on the numerical magnitude of lattice energy values; (c) construct Born-Haber cycle for the formation of simple ionic crystals. 11
  16. 16. Teaching Topic Learning Outcome Period 7.4 The solubility of 2 Candidates should be able to: solids in liquids (a) construct energy cycles for the formation of aqueous solutions of ionic compounds; (b) explain qualitatively the influence on solubility of the relationship between enthalpy change of solution, lattice energy of solid and enthalpy change of hydration or other solvent-solute interaction.8 Electrochemistry 26 8.1 Half-cell and redox 2 Candidates should be able to: equations (a) explain the redox processes and cell diagram (cell notation) of the Daniell cell; (b) construct redox equations. 8.2 Standard electrode 9 Candidates should be able to: potential (a) describe the standard hydrogen electrode; (b) use the standard hydrogen electrode to determine standard electrode potential (standard reduction potential), Eº; (c) calculate the standard cell potential using the Eo values, and write the redox equations; (d) predict the stability of aqueous ions from Eº values; (e) predict the power of oxidising and reducing agents from Eº values; ( f) predict the feasibility of a reaction from Eº cell value and from the combination of various electrode potentials: spontaneous and non- spontaneous electrode reactions. 8.3 Non-standard cell 3 Candidates should be able to: potentials (a) calculate the non-standard cell potential, Ecell, of a cell using the Nernst equation. 8.4 Fuel cells 2 Candidates should be able to: (a) describe the importance of the development of more efficient batteries for electric cars in terms of smaller size, lower mass and higher voltage, as exemplified by hydrogen-oxygen fuel cell. 12
  17. 17. Teaching Topic Learning Outcome Period 8.5 Electrolysis 6 Candidates should be able to: (a) compare the principles of electrolytic cell to electrochemical cell; (b) predict the products formed during electrolysis; (c) state the Faraday’s first and second laws of electrolysis; (d) state the relationship between the Faraday constant, the Avogadro constant and the electronic charge; (e) calculate the quantity of electricity used, the mass of material and/or gas volume liberated during electrolysis. 8.6 Applications of 4 Candidates should be able to: electrochemistry (a) explain the principles of electrochemistry in the process and prevention of corrosion (rusting of iron); (b) describe the extraction of aluminium by electrolysis, and state the advantages of recycling aluminium; (c) describe the process of anodisation of aluminium to resist corrosion; (d) describe the diaphragm cell in the manufacture of chlorine from brine; (e) describe the treatment of industrial effluent by electrolysis to remove Ni2+, Cr3+ and Cd2+; (f ) describe the electroplating of coated plastics.9 Periodic Table: Periodicity 10 9.1 Physical properties of 5 Candidates should be able to: elements of Period 2 and Period 3 (a) interpret and explain the trend and gradation of atomic radius, melting point, boiling point, enthalpy change of vaporisation and electrical conductivity in terms of structure and bonding; (b) explain the factors influencing ionisation energies; (c) explain the trend in ionisation energies across Period 2 and Period 3 and down a group; 13
  18. 18. Teaching Topic Learning Outcome Period (d) predict the electronic configuration and position of unknown elements in the Periodic Table from successive values of ionisation energies. 9.2 Reactions of Period 3 2 Candidates should be able to: elements with oxygen and water (a) describe the reactions of Period 3 elements with oxygen and water; (b) interpret the ability of elements to act as oxidising and reducing agents. 9.3 Acidic and basic 3 Candidates should be able to: properties of oxides and hydrolysis of (a) explain the acidic and basic properties of the oxides oxides of Period 3 elements; (b) describe the reactions of the oxides of Period 3 elements with water; (c) describe the classification of the oxides of Period 3 elements as basic, amphoteric or acidic based on their reactions with water, acid and alkali; (d) describe the use of sulphur dioxide in food preservation.10 Group 2 10 10.1 Selected Group 2 7 Candidates should be able to: elements and their compounds (a) describe the trends in physical properties of Group 2 elements: Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba; (b) describe the reactions of Group 2 elements with oxygen and water; (c) describe the behaviour of the oxides of Group 2 elements with water; (d) explain qualitatively the thermal decomposition of the nitrates, carbonates and hydroxides of Group 2 elements in terms of the charge density and polarisability of large anions; (e) explain qualitatively the variation in solubility of sulphate of Group 2 elements in terms of the relative magnitudes of the enthalpy change of hydration for the relevant ions and the corresponding lattice energy. 14
  19. 19. Teaching Topic Learning Outcome Period 10.2 Anomalous behaviour 2 Candidates should be able to: of beryllium (a) explain the anomalous behaviour of beryllium as exemplified by the formation of covalent compounds; (b) describe the diagonal relationships between beryllium and aluminium; (c) explain the similarity of aqueous beryllium salts to aqueous aluminium salts in terms of their acidic property. 10.3 Uses of Group 2 1 Candidates should be able to: compounds (a) state the uses of Group 2 compounds in agriculture, industry and medicine.11 Group 14 10 11.1 Physical properties of 2 Candidates should be able to: Group 14 elements (a) explain the trends in physical properties (melting points and electrical conductivity) of Group 14 elements: C, Si, Ge, Sn, Pb. 11.2 Tetrachlorides and 4 Candidates should be able to: oxides of Group 14 elements (a) explain the bonding and molecular shapes of the tetrachlorides of group 14 elements; (b) explain the volatility, thermal stability and hydrolysis of tetrachlorides in terms of structure and bonding; (c) explain the bonding, acid-base nature and the thermal stability of the oxides of oxidation states +2 and +4. 11.3 Relative stability of +2 2 Candidates should be able to: and +4 oxidation states of Group 14 elements (a) explain the relative stability of +2 and +4 oxidation states of the elements in their oxides, chlorides and aqueous cations. 11.4 Silicon, silicone and 1 Candidates should be able to: silicates (a) describe the structures of silicone and silicates (pyroxenes and amphiboles), sheets (mica) and framework structure (quartz) (general formulae are not required); 15
  20. 20. Teaching Topic Learning Outcome Period (b) explain the uses of silicon as a semiconductor and silicone as a fluid, elastomer and resin; (c) describe the uses of silicates as basic materials for cement, glass, ceramics and zeolites. 11.5 Tin alloys 1 Candidates should be able to: (a) describe the uses of tin in solder and pewter.12 Group 17 8 12.1 Physical properties of 1 Candidates should be able to: selected Group 17 elements (a) state that the colour intensity of Group 17 elements: Cl2, Br2, I2, increase down the group; (b) explain how the volatility of Group 17 elements decreases down the group. 12.2 Reactions of selected 4 Candidates should be able to: Group 17 elements (a) deduce and explain the relative reactivities of Group 17 elements as oxidising agents from Eº values; (b) explain the order of reactivity of F2, Cl2, Br2, I2 with hydrogen, and compare the relative thermal stabilities of the hydrides; (c) explain the reactions of chlorine with cold and hot aqueous sodium hydroxide. 12.3 Reactions of selected 2 Candidates should be able to: halide ions (a) explain and write equations for reactions of Group 17 ions with aqueous silver ions followed by aqueous ammonia; (b) explain and write equations for reactions of Group 17 ions with concentrated sulphuric acid. 12.4 Industrial applications 1 Candidates should be able to: of halogens and their compounds (a) describe the industrial uses of the halogens and their compounds as antiseptic, bleaching agent and in black-and-white photography; (b) explain the use of chlorine in water treatment. 16
  21. 21. Teaching Topic Learning Outcome Period13 Transition Elements 14 13.1 Physical properties of 2 Candidates should be able to: first row transition elements (a) define a transition element in terms of incomplete d orbitals in at least one of its ions; (b) describe the similarities in physical properties such as atomic radius, ionic radius and first ionisation energy; (c) explain the variation in successive ionisation energies; (d) contrast qualitatively the melting point, density, atomic radius, ionic radius, first ionisation energy and conductivity of the first row transition elements with those of calcium as a typical s-block element. 13.2 Chemical properties of 8 Candidates should be able to: first row transition elements (a) explain variable oxidation states in terms of the energies of 3d and 4s orbitals; (b) explain the colours of transition metal ions in terms of a partially filled 3d orbitals; (c) state the principal oxidation numbers of these elements in their common cations, oxides and oxo ions; (d) explain qualitatively the relative stabilities of these oxidation states; (e) explain the uses of standard reduction potentials in predicting the relative stabilities of aqueous ions; ( f) explain the terms complex ion and ligand; (g) explain the formation of complex ions and the colour changes by exchange of ligands. (Examples of ligands: water, ammonia, cyanide ions, thiocyanate ions, ethanedioate ions, ethylenediaminetetraethanoate, halide ions; examples of complex ions: [Fe(CN)6]4−, [Fe(CN)6]3−, [Fe(H2O)5(SCN)]2+); (h) explain the use of first row transition elements in homogeneous catalysis, as exemplifed by Fe2+ or Fe3+ in the reaction between I− and S2O82−; 17
  22. 22. Teaching Topic Learning Outcome Period ( i) explain the use of first row transition elements in heterogeneous catalysis, as exemplifed by Ni and Pt in the hydrogenation of alkenes.13.3 Nomenclature and 3 Candidates should be able to: bonding of complexes (a) name complexes using International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) nomenclature; (b) discuss coordinate bond formation between ligands and the central metal atom/ion, and state the types of ligands, i.e. monodentate, bidentate and hexadentate.13.4 Uses of first row 1 Candidates should be able to: transition elements and their compounds (a) describe the use of chromium (in stainless steel), cobalt, manganese, titanium (in alloys) and TiO2 (in paints). 18
  23. 23. THIRD TERM Teaching Topic Learning Outcome Period14 Introduction to Organic 21 Chemistry 14.1 Bonding of the carbon 4 Candidates should be able to: atoms: the shapes of ethane, ethene, ethyne (a) use the concept of sp3, sp2 and sp and benzene molecules hybridisations in carbon atoms to describe the bonding and shapes of molecules as exemplified by CH4, C2H4, C2H2 and C6H6; (b) explain the concept of delocalisation of π electrons in benzene ring. 14.2 General, empirical, 2 Candidates should be able to: molecular and structural formulae of (a) state general, empirical, molecular and organic compounds structural formulae of organic compounds; (b) determine empirical and molecular formulae of organic compounds. 14.3 Functional groups: 2 Candidates should be able to: classification and nomenclature (a) describe the classification of organic compounds by functional groups and the nomenclature of classes of organic compounds according to the IUPAC rules of the following classes of compounds: (i) alkanes, alkenes, alkynes and arenes, (ii) haloalkanes, (iii) alcohols (including primary, secondary and tertiary) and phenols, (iv) aldehydes and ketones, (v) carboxylic acids and their derivatives (acyl chlorides, amides and esters), (vi) primary amines, amino acids and protein. 14.4 Isomerism: structural 3 Candidates should be able to: and stereoisomerism (a) define structural and stereoisomerism (geometrical and optical); (b) explain the meaning of a chiral centre in optical isomerism; 19
  24. 24. Teaching Topic Learning Outcome Period (c) classify isomers as structural, cis-trans and optical isomers; (d) identify chiral centres and/or cis-trans isomerism in a molecule of given structural formula; (e) deduce the possible isomers for an organic compound of known molecular formula.14.5 Free radicals, 4 Candidates should be able to: nucleophiles and electrophiles (a) describe homolytic and heterolytic fissions; (b) define the terms free radical, nucleophile and electrophile; (c) explain that nucleophiles such as OH−, NH3, H2O, Br−, I− and carbanion are Lewis bases; (d) explain that electrophiles such as H+, NO2+, Br2, A1C13, ZnC12, FeBr3, BF3 and carbonium ion are Lewis acids.14.6 Molecular structure 2 Candidates should be able to: and its effect on physical properties (a) describe the relationship between the size of molecules in the homologous series and the melting and boiling points; (b) explain the forces of attraction between molecules (van der Waals forces and hydrogen bonding).14.7 Inductive and 4 Candidates should be able to: resonance effect (a) explain inductive effect which can determine the properties and reactions of functional groups; (b) use inductive effect to explain why functional groups such as −NO2, −CN, −COOH, −COOR, >C=O, −SO3H, −X (halogen), −OH, −OR, −NH2, −C6H5 are electron acceptors whereas R(alkyl) is an electron donor; (c) explain how the concept of induction can account for the differences in acidity between CH3COOH, C1CH2COOH, C12CHCOOH and Cl3CCOOH; between C1CH2CH2CH2COOH and CH3CH2CHClCOOH; 20
  25. 25. Teaching Topic Learning Outcome Period (d) use the concept of resonance to explain the differences in acidity between CH3CH2OH and C6H5OH, as well as the differences in basicity between CH3NH2 and C6H5NH2.15 Hydrocarbons 21 15.1 Alkanes 7 Candidates should be able to: (a) write the general formula for alkanes; (b) explain the construction of the alkane series (straight and branched), and IUPAC nomenclature of alkanes for C1 to C10; (c) describe the structural isomerism in aliphatic alkanes and cis-trans isomerism in cycloalkanes; (d) state the physical properties of alkanes; (e) define alkanes as saturated aliphatic hydrocarbons; ( f) name alkyl groups derived from alkanes and identify primary, secondary, tertiary and quartenary carbons; (g) explain the inertness of alkanes towards polar reagents; (h) describe the mechanism of free radical substitution as exemplified by the chlorination of methane (with particular reference to the initiation, propagation and termination reactions); ( i) describe the oxidation of alkane with limited and excess oxygen, and the use of alkanes as fuels; ( j) explain the use of crude oil as a source of aliphatic hydrocarbons; (k) explain how cracking reactions can be used to obtain alkanes and alkenes of lower Mr from larger hydrocarbon molecules; ( l) discuss the role of catalytic converters in minimising air pollution by oxidising CO to CO2 and reducing NOx to N2; (m) explain how chemical pollutants from the combustion of hydrocarbon affect air quality and rainwater as exemplified by acid rain, photochemical smog and greenhouse effect. 21
  26. 26. Teaching Topic Learning Outcome Period15.2 Alkenes 6 Candidates should be able to: (a) write the general formula for alkenes; (b) name alkenes according to the IUPAC nomenclature and their common names for C1 to C5; (c) describe structural and cis-trans isomerism in alkenes; (d) state the physical properties of alkenes; (e) define alkenes as unsaturated aliphatic hydrocarbons with one or more double bonds; ( f) describe the chemical reactions of alkenes as exemplified by the following reactions of ethene: (i) addition of hydrogen, steam, hydrogen halides, halogens, bromine water and concentrated sulphuric acid, (ii) oxidation using KMnO4, O2/Ag, (iii) ozonolysis, (iv) polymerisation; (g) describe the mechanism of electrophilic addition in alkenes with reference to Markovnikov’s rule; (h) explain the use of bromination reaction and decolourisation of MnO4− ions as simple tests for alkenes and unsaturated compounds; ( i) explain briefly the importance of ethene as a source for the preparation of chloroethane, epoxyethane, ethane-1,2-diol and poly(ethane).15.3 Arenes 8 Candidates should be able to: (a) name aromatic compounds derived from benzene according to the IUPAC nomenclature, including the use of ortho, meta and para or the numbering of substituted groups to the benzene ring; (b) describe structural isomerism in arenes; 22
  27. 27. Teaching Topic Learning Outcome Period (c) describe the chemical reactions of arenes as exemplified by substitution reactions of haloalkanes and acyl chloride (Friedel-Crafts reaction), halogen, conc. HNO3/conc. H2SO4 and SO3 with benzene and methylbenzene (toluene); (d) describe the mechanism of electrophilic substitution in arenes as exemplified by the nitration of benzene; (e) explain why benzene is more stable than aliphatic alkenes towards oxidation; ( f) describe the reaction between alkylbenzene and hot acidified KMnO4; (g) determine the products of halogenation of methylbenzene (toluene) in the presence of (i) Lewis acid catalysts, (ii) light; (h) explain the inductive effect and resonance effect of substituted groups (−OH, −C1, −CH3, −NO2, −COCH3, −NH2) attached to the benzene ring towards further substitutions; (i) predict the products in an electrophilic substitution reaction when the substituted group in benzene is electron accepting or electron donating; ( j) explain the uses of arenes as solvents; (k) recognise arenes as carcinogen.16 Haloalkanes 8 Candidates should be able to: (a) write the general formula for haloalkanes; (b) name haloalkanes according to the IUPAC nomenclature; (c) describe the structural and optical isomerism in haloalkanes; (d) state the physical properties of haloalkanes; (e) describe the substitution reactions of haloalkanes as exemplified by the following reactions of bromoethane: hydrolysis, the formation of nitriles and the formation of primary amines; 23
  28. 28. Teaching Topic Learning Outcome Period ( f) describe the elimination reactions of haloalkanes; (g) describe the mechanism of nucleophilic substitution in haloalkanes (SN1 and SN2); (h) explain the relative reactivity of primary, secondary and tertiary haloalkanes; ( i) compare the reactivity of chlorobenzene and chloroalkanes in hydrolysis reactions; ( j) explain the use of haloalkanes in the synthesis of organomagnesium compounds (Grignard reagents), and their use in reactions with carbonyl compounds; (k) describe the uses of fluoroalkanes and chlorofluoroalkanes as inert substances for aerosol propellants, coolants and fire- extinguishers; ( l) state the use of chloroalkanes as insecticide such as DDT; (m) describe the effect of chlorofluoroalkanes in the depletion of the ozone layer, and explain its mechanism.17 Hydroxy Compounds 12 17.1 Introduction to 1 Candidates should be able to: hydroxy compounds (a) write the general formula for hydroxy compounds; (b) name hydroxy compounds according to the IUPAC nomenclature; (c) describe structural and optical isomerism in hydroxy compounds; (d) state the physical properties of hydroxy compounds. 17.2 Alcohols 6 Candidates should be able to: (a) classify alcohols into primary, secondary and tertiary alcohol; (b) classify the reactions of alcohols whereby the RO−H bond is broken: the formation of an alkoxide with sodium, esterification, acylation, oxidation to carbonyl compounds and carboxylic acids; 24
  29. 29. Teaching Topic Learning Outcome Period (c) classify the reactions of alcohols whereby the R−OH is broken and −OH is replaced by other groups: the formation of haloalkanes and the dehydration to alkenes and ethers; (d) explain the relative reactivity of primary, secondary and tertiary alcohols as exemplified by the reaction rate of such alcohols to give haloalkanes, and the reaction products of KMnO4/K2Cr2O7 oxidation in the presence of sulphuric acid; (e) explain the reaction of alcohol with the structure CH3CH(OH)− with alkaline aqueous solution of iodine to form triiodomethane; ( f) describe the laboratory and industrial preparation of alcohol as exemplified by ethanol from the hydration of ethane; (g) describe the synthesis of ethanol by fermentation process; (h) state the uses of alcohols as antiseptic, solvent and fuel. 17.3 Phenols 5 Candidates should be able to: (a) explain the relative acidity of water, phenol and ethanol with particular reference to the inductive and resonance effects; (b) describe the reactions of phenol with sodium hydroxide, sodium, acyl chlorides and electrophilic substitution in the benzene ring; (c) describe the use of bromine water and aqueous iron(III) chloride as tests for phenol; (d) describe the cumene process in the manufacture of phenol; (e) explain the use of phenol in the manufacture of cyclohexanol, and hence, nylon-6,6.18 Carbonyl Compounds 8 Candidates should be able to: (a) write the general formula for carbonyl compounds: aliphatic and aromatic aldehydes and ketones; (b) name aliphatic and aromatic aldehydes and ketones according to the IUPAC nomenclature; 25
  30. 30. Teaching Topic Learning Outcome Period (c) describe structural and optical isomerism in carbonyl compounds; (d) state the physical properties of aliphatic and aromatic aldehydes and ketones; (e) write the equations for the preparation of aldehydes and ketones; ( f) explain the reduction reactions of aldehydes and ketones to primary and secondary alcohols respectively through catalytic hydrogenation reaction and with LiA1H4; (g) explain the use of 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine reagent as a simple test to detect the presence of >C=O groups; (h) explain the mechanism of the nucleophilic addition reactions of hydrogen cyanide with aldehydes and ketones; ( i) explain the oxidation of aldehydes; ( j) differentiate between aldehyde and ketone based on the results of simple tests as exemplified by Fehling’s solution and Tollens’ reagent; (k) explain the reactions of carbonyl compounds with the structure CH3−C=O with alkaline aqueous solution of iodine to give triiodomethane (iodoform test); ( l) explain that natural compounds such as glucose, sucrose and other carbohydrates which have the >C=O group; (m) explain the characteristics of glucose as a reducing sugar.19 Carboxylic Acids and their 10 Derivatives 19.1 Carboxylic acid 4 Candidates should be able to: (a) write the general formula for aliphatic and aromatic carboxylic acids; (b) name carboxylic acids according to the IUPAC nomenclature and their common names for C1 to C6; (c) describe structural and optical isomerism in carboxylic acids; 26
  31. 31. Teaching Topic Learning Outcome Period (d) state the physical properties of carboxylic acids; (e) write the equations for the formation of carboxylic acids from alcohols, aldehydes and nitriles; ( f) describe the acidic properties of carboxylic acids as exemplified by their reactions with metals and bases to form salts; (g) explain the substitution of the −OH in carboxylic acids by the nucleophiles −OR and −C1 to form esters and acyl chlorides respectively; (h) describe the reduction of carboxylic acids to primary alcohols; ( i) describe the oxidation and dehydration of methanoic and ethanedioic acids (oxalic acid); ( j) state the uses of carboxylic acids in food, perfume and polymer industries.19.2 Acyl chlorides 2 Candidates should be able to: (a) write the general formula for acyl chlorides; (b) name acyl chlorides according to the IUPAC nomenclature; (c) describe structural and optical isomerism in acyl chlorides; (d) state the physical properties of acyl chlorides; (e) explain the ease of hydrolysis of acyl chlorides compared to chloroalkanes; (f ) describe the reactions of acyl chlorides with alcohols, phenols and primary amines.19.3 Esters 2 Candidates should be able to: (a) write the general formula for esters; (b) name esters according to the IUPAC nomenclature; (c) describe structural and optical isomerism in esters; (d) state the physical properties of esters; (e) describe the preparation of esters by the reactions of acyl chlorides with alcohols and phenols; 27
  32. 32. Teaching Topic Learning Outcome Period (f) describe the acid and base hydrolysis of esters; (g) describe the reduction of esters to primary alcohols; (h) state the uses of esters as flavourings, preservatives and solvents. 19.4 Amides 2 Candidates should be able to: (a) write the general formula for amides; (b) name amides according to the IUPAC nomenclature; (c) describe structural and optical isomerism in amides; (d) state the physical properties of amides; (e) describe the preparation of amides by the reaction of acyl chlorides with primary amines; ( f) describe the acid and base hydrolysis of amides.20 Amines, Amino Acids and 8 Proteins 20.1 Amines 4 Candidates should be able to: (a) write the general formula for amines; (b) name amines according to the IUPAC nomenclature and their common names; (c) describe structural and optical isomerism in amines; (d) state the physical properties of amines; (e) classify amines into primary, secondary and tertiary amines; ( f) explain the relative basicity of ammonia, ethanamine and phenylamine (aniline) in terms of their structures; (g) describe the preparation of ethanamine by the reduction of nitriles, and phenylamine by the reduction of nitrobenzene; (h) explain the formation of salts when amines react with mineral acids; ( i) differentiate primary aliphatic amines from primary aryl (aromatic) amines by their respective reactions with nitric(III) acid (nitrous acid) and bromine water; 28
  33. 33. Teaching Topic Learning Outcome Period (j) explain the formation of dyes by the coupling reaction of the diazonium salt as exemplified by the reaction of benzenediazonium chloride with phenol. 20.2 Amino acids 3 Candidates should be able to: (a) write the structure and general formula for α-amino acids; (b) name α-amino acids according to the IUPAC nomenclature and their common names; (c) describe structural and optical isomerism in amino acids; (d) state the physical properties of α-amino acids; (e) describe the acid and base properties of α-amino acids; ( f) describe the formation of zwitterions; (g) explain the peptide linkage as amide linkage formed by the condensation between two or more α-amino acids as exemplified by glycylalanine and alanilglycine. 20.3 Protein 1 Candidates should be able to: (a) identify the peptide linkage in the primary structure of protein; (b) describe the hydrolysis of proteins; (c) state the biological importance of proteins.21 Polymers 8 Candidates should be able to: (a) state examples of natural and synthetic polymers; (b) define monomer, polymer, repeating unit, homopolymer and copolymer; (c) identify the monomers in a polymer; (d) describe condensation polymerisation as exemplified by terylene and nylon-6,6; (e) describe addition polymerisation as exemplified by poly(ethene)/polyethylene/ polythene, poly(phenylethene)/polystyrene and poly(chloroethene)/polyvinylchloride; 29
  34. 34. TeachingTopic Learning Outcome Period ( f) state the role of the Ziegler-Natta catalyst in the addition polymerisation process; (g) explain the classification of polymers as thermosetting, thermoplastic and elastomer; (h) identify isoprene (2-methylbuta-1,3-diene) as the monomer of natural rubber; ( i) describe the two isomers in poly(2- methylbuta-1,3-diene) in terms of the elastic cis form (from the Hevea brasiliensis trees) and the inelastic trans form (from the gutta- percha trees); ( j) state the uses of polymers; (k) explain the difficulty in the disposal of polymers; ( l) outline the advantages and disadvantages of dumping polymer-based materials in rivers and seas. 30
  35. 35. The Practical SyllabusSchool-based Assessment of Practical (Paper 4)School-based assessment of practical works is carried out throughout the form six school terms forcandidates from government and private schools which have been approved by the MEC to carry outthe school-based assessment. MEC will determine 13 compulsory experiments and one project to be carried out by thecandidates and to be assessed by the subject teachers in schools in the respective terms. The projectwill be carried out during the third term in groups of two or three candidates. Details of the title, topic,objective, theory, apparatus, and procedure of each of the experiments and project will be specified inthe Teacher’s and Student’s Manual for Practical Chemistry which can be downloaded from MECPortal (http://www.mpm.edu.my) during the first term of form six by the subject teachers. Candidates should be supplied with a work scheme before the day of the compulsory experimentso as to enable them to plan their practical work. Each experiment is expected to last one schooldouble period. Assessment of the practical work is done by the subject teachers during the practicalsessions and also based on the practical reports. The assessment should comply with the assessmentguidelines prepared by MEC. A repeating candidate may use the total mark obtained in the coursework for two subsequentexaminations. Requests to carry forward the moderated coursework mark should be made during theregistration of the examination. Candidates will be assessed based on the following: (a ) the use and organisation of techniques, apparatus and materials, (b) observations, measurements and recording, (c) the interpretation of experimental observations and data, (d ) the designing and planning of investigations, (e) scientific and critical attitudes. The Chemistry practical syllabus for STPM should achieve its objective to improve the quality ofstudents in the aspects as listed below. (a ) The ability to follow a set or sequence of instructions. (b) The ability to plan and carry out experiments using appropriate methods. (c) The ability to choose suitable equipment and use them correctly and carefully. (d ) The ability to record readings from diagrams of apparatus. (e) The ability to describe, explain, comment on or suggest experimental arrangements, techniques and procedures. ( f) The ability to complete tables of data and/or plot graphs. (g ) The ability to interpret, analyse and evaluate observations, experimental data and make deductions. (h ) The ability to do calculations based on experiments. (i) The ability to make conclusions. (j ) The awareness of the safety measures which need to be taken. 31
  36. 36. The objective of this project work is to enable candidates to acquire knowledge and skills inchemistry using information and communication technology as well as to develop soft skills asfollows: (a ) communications, (b) teamwork, (c) critical thinking and problem solving, (d ) flexibility/adaptability, (e) leadership, ( f) organising, (g ) information technology and communications, (h) moral and ethics.Written Practical Test (Paper 5)The main objective of written practical test paper is to assess the candidates’ understanding ofpractical procedures in the laboratory. The following candidates are eligible to take this written practical test: (a) individual private candidates, (b) candidates from private schools which have no permission to carry out the school-based assessment of practical work, (c) candidates who repeat upper six (in government or private schools), (d ) candidates who do not attend classes of lower six and upper six in two consecutive years (in government or private schools). (e) candidates who take Chemistry other than the package offered by schools. Three structured questions on routine practical work and/or design of experiments will be set.MEC will not be strictly bound by the syllabus in setting questions. Where appropriate, candidateswill be given sufficient information to enable them to answer the questions. Only knowledge of theorywithin the syllabus and knowledge of usual laboratory practical procedures will be expected. The questions to be set will test candidates’ ability to: (a ) record readings from diagrams of apparatus, (b) describe, explain, comment on, or suggest experimental arrangements, techniques, and procedures, (c) complete tables of data and/or plot graphs, (d ) interpret, draw conclusions from and evaluate observations and experimental (including graphical) data, (e) perform simple calculations based on experiments, ( f) describe tests for gases, ions, oxidising and reducing agents, and/or make deductions from such tests. 32
  37. 37. The questions to be set will cover the following three aspects:(a ) Volumetric analysis Experimental procedures and calculations such as purity determination and stoichiometry from volumetric analysis of acid-base and redox titrations will be assessed.(b ) Determination of physical quantities Experiments involving the measurements of selected quantities in the following topics: thermochemistry, reaction kinetics, equilibrium, solubility and electrochemistry will be assessed.(c) Techniques Techniques involving qualitative analysis of ions and functional groups and synthesis will be assessed. It will be assumed that candidates will be familiar with the simple reactions of the following ions: NH4+, Mg2+, Al3+, Ca2+, Cr3+, Mn2+, Fe2+, Fe3+, Ni2+, Cu2+, Zn2+, Ba2+, Pb2+, CO32−, NO3−, NO2−, S2−, SO42−, SO32−, S2O32−, Cl−, Br−, I−, MnO4−, CH3CO2−, C2O42−. Knowledge of simple organic reactions, e.g. test-tube reactions indicating the presence of unsaturation and functional groups will be required. The substances to be asked in questions may contain ions not included in the above list; in such cases, candidates will not be expected to identify the ions but to draw conclusions of a general nature. 33

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