A few words abut CERN Rovaniemi23.11.2010 Diego Perini
introduction A few numbers
20 Member States:Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Slovakia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and the United Kingdom.
1 Candidate for Accession to Membership of CERN: Romania
8 Observers to Council:India, Israel, Japan, the Russian Federation, the United States of America, Turkey, the European Commission and Unesco
CERN in Numbers ~ 2200 staff ~ 700 other paid personnel ~ 9500 users Budget 2009 ~1100 MCHF 3
4 The convention that established CERN in 1954 states: “The Organization shall provide for collaboration among European States in nuclear research of a pure scientific and fundamental character (...). The Organization shall have no concern with work for military requirements and the results of its experimental and theoretical work shall be published or otherwise made generally available”. 1) Concentrate energy on particles (accelerator) 2) Collide particles (recreate conditions after Big Bang) 3) Identify created particles in Detector (search for new clues) The instruments used at CERN are particle accelerators and detectors. Accelerators boost beams of particles to high energies before they are made to collide with each other or with stationary targets. Detectors observe and record the results of these collisions.
Why should I pay taxes for this? Today, over half of the world’s particle accelerators are used in medicine, and more and varied uses are being found for them all the time. The same is true for particle detector technology. In the 1970s, CERN played an important role in the emerging technology of positron emission tomography (PET), building prototype scanners in a collaboration with Geneva’s hospital. That tradition continues to this day, with crystal technology developed for LEP, coupled to electronics developed for the LHC, pointing the way to combined PET/MRI scanners.
Where the web was born Tim Berners-Lee, a scientist at CERN, invented the World Wide Web (WWW) in 1989. The Web was originally conceived and developed to meet the demand for automatic information sharing between scientists working in different universities and institutes all over the world. CERN is not an isolated laboratory, but rather a focus for an extensive community that now includes about 60 countries and about 10000 scientists. Although these scientists typically spend some time on the CERN site, they usually work at universities and national laboratories in their home countries. Good contact is clearly essential. The basic idea of the WWW was to merge the technologies of personal computers, computer networking and hypertext into a powerful and easy to use global information system.
LHC and the related experiments What is happening in these days
The LHC machine In the Large Hadron Collider particles are accelerated and forced to collide in four interaction points each surrounded by an experiment. An experiment is a set of detectors designed to study the particles created during the collisions. In the interaction area there is a magnetic field to bend charged particle trajectories. The curvature radius is one of the important parameters considered in the data analysis.
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The Construction of a large experiment Some pictures to give an idea
Machining of the Front Absorber cone The Space Frame – last welds
Assembly of the Front Absorber
Assembly of the SAA1 and SAA2
The TPC into the space Frame Almost ready
Assembly of the TRD detector Cables, cables and cables …
The tracking chambers and the SAA2
And finally when it works:
CERN is not only the LHC machine and the related experiments There are many other small or large facilities
What will happen in the next years: The main LHC experiments have a program of improvements, upgrade or installation of new detectors up to 2016-2017. The intensive R&D programme to define a possible linear collider (2020?) Some non LHC experiments under construction in this moment: (CLOUD) A Study of the Link between Cosmic Rays and Clouds with a Cloud Chamber at the CERN PS (NA62)Proposal to Measure the Rare Decay K+ -> pi+ nu nu at the Cern SPS (AEGIS)Antihydrogen Experiment Gravity Interferometry Spectroscopy