The nature, scope and function of school administration 2


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The nature, scope and function of school administration 2

  2. 2. Landmark in the history of the Philippine Educational System EDUCATION ACT OF 1982 Human Uplift Social ProgressThe act restates the policy of the state to establish and maintain a complete, adequate, and integrated system of education relevant to the goals of national development, and it delineatesspecific provisions relevant to various concerns of the educational enterprise.
  3. 3. A Challenge to School AdministratorThe Education Act of 1982 providesthat every school administratorshall: 1. Perform his duties to the school by discharging hisresponsibilities in accordance with the philosophy, goals, and objectives of the school;
  4. 4. A Challenge to School AdministratorThe Education Act of 1982 providesthat every school administratorshall: 2. be accountable for the efficient and effective administration and management of the school;
  5. 5. A Challenge to School AdministratorThe Education Act of 1982 providesthat every school administratorshall:3. develop and maintain a school atmosphere conducive to the promotion and preservation of academic freedom and effective teaching and learning and toharmonious and progressive school- personnel relationship;
  6. 6. A Challenge to School AdministratorThe Education Act of 1982 providesthat every school administratorshall: 4. assume and maintainprofessional behaviour in his workand in his dealings with students, teachers, academic non-teaching personnel, administrative staff, and parents or guardians;
  7. 7. A Challenge to School AdministratorThe Education Act of 1982 providesthat every school administratorshall: 5. render adequate reports to teachers, academic non-teaching personnel, and non-academic staff on their actual performance and counsel them on ways to improve the same;
  8. 8. A Challenge to School AdministratorThe Education Act of 1982 providesthat every school administratorshall: 6. observe due process,fairness, promptness, privacy, constructiveness, and consistency in disciplining his teachers and other personnel;
  9. 9. A Challenge to School AdministratorThe Education Act of 1982 providesthat every school administratorshall: 7. maintain adequate recordsand submit required reports to the Department of Education.
  10. 10. Educational Community Educational community refersto “those persons or group ofpersons as such or associated in institutional involved in organized teaching and learning system.”
  11. 11. ParentsStakeholders Students SchoolNon-teaching Teaching Staff Staff Administrator
  12. 12. The Nature of School Administration AMINISTRATOR PEOPLEfor the tasks of organization that 1. they know what they are to do,2. they know how to go at the task together, 3. they get it done, and4. they are rewarded for doing it.
  13. 13. Educational AdministrationDirectly People Indirectly Social Process, in terms of: Objective,because it desired end as a whole is human and social development.
  14. 14. Educational Administration Directly People Indirectly Social Process, in terms of: Content,because the substance or subject matter of its decision-making function involves or affects people directly or indirectly.
  15. 15. Educational Administration Directly People Indirectly Social Process, in terms of: Method, utilizes procedures, andtechniques which involve oraffect human beings directly or indirectly.
  16. 16. The Nature of Educational Administration Two complementary Viewsfoundational view functional view “why” one behaves as he “what” one does or should does, and it utilizes do as a school administrator, established and emerging and it focusses on the taskstheoretical frameworks for and activities in which oneanalysing the antecedents, must be competent if he is predictors, correlates, or to be an effective schooloutcomes of administrative administrator. behaviour.
  17. 17. Scope and Function of School Administration Scope function Five Major Functions in Educational Administration 1. To help community translate the overall, and somewhat nebulous, goals (education for all, for example) intoconcrete and achievable goal and plans (for a given school for instance).
  18. 18. Five major Functions in Educational Administration 2. To direct and supervise the amazingly complex task of bringing together the necessary teachers,students, and support personnel, along with the required physical plant and educational equipment and materials, into an operating unit known as a school.
  19. 19. Five major Functions in Educational Administration 3. To establish and maintain effective “feedback” circuits so that an adequate evaluation of “how are we doing” is always available. This will include research operations of two kinds: (1) research togather data and present an accurate picture of the operation “as is”; (2) experimental research to utilize new facts from the physical and human sciences along with newtheories of learning in an effort to produce improved teaching and learning situations.
  20. 20. Five major Functions in Educational Administration 4. To initiate new structures, processes, or procedures that becomenecessary for goal achievement or forchanging existing goals and purposes. The necessity for such initiatory activities and the indication of the kind needed will be derived from the aforementioned evaluation.
  21. 21. Five major Functions in Educational Administration 5. To communicate with the body politic regarding all phases of theeducational institution. This involves two-way communication, not a simple one-group telling another process but a true and continuous conversation-a dialectic concerning education.
  22. 22. Broad Functional Areas of Administration Policy Resources Execution is defined as a people, money, integration statement of authority, and and athose objectives materials. synthesis of that guide the Decision- resources and actions of making is also policies that substantial used by the are portion of the administrator interrelated total in dealing to achieve a organization. with resource- purposeful allocation . organization
  23. 23. Task of School Administrator Tasks referring to “what is expected to be done” by the school administrator in providing leadership for the improvement of the school.1. Instructional program;2. Staff personnel;3. Student-personnel;4. Financial and physical resources;5. School-community relationships.
  24. 24. Areas of Responsibility of Administrator 1. Purposing- 2. Maintaining- 3. Allocating- 4. Evaluating-
  25. 25. Function of the School EDUCATION ACT OF 1982 School Administrator all persons occupying policy-implementing position having to do with the “function”, “functional areas”, “tasks”, “areas of responsibility”, and “functional categories” are referred to educational administration.
  26. 26. System Approach to School Administration System Kaufman (1970) System Analysis SynthesisSteps in system analysis:1.Identifying the problem; and2.Determining solution requirements and alternativesSteps in system synthesis:3.Choosing a solution strategy from alternatives;4.Implementing the solution strategy;5.Determining performance effectiveness.
  27. 27. “Efficiency,” and “Effectiveness” Gibson and Hunt (1965) described their concept of “efficiency” as “the ratio of realized outcomes to input of personnel identified with the school material” and theyexpress it in the following formula: Ef = _____RO______ R (P, S) + M
  28. 28. “Efficiency,” and “Effectiveness” Other authors described their concept of effectiveness as “the ratio of realized outcomes tointended outcomes,” and express it, formula-wise, as follows: Ef = ____RO___ IO
  29. 29. ENDSsometimes referred to as purpose or objectives, give direction to the educational effort.The curriculum is the means utilized to attain the ends.It includes the concepts and factual data selected, the methodologyemployed, the experiences contrived, and the organizational stratagems used.
  30. 30. Efficiency of Means andEffectiveness of Means as Applied to Evaluation of Curriculum Efficiency of Means Involves time and money “Will the curriculum means accomplish the attainment of the intended goal within the reasonable time and for reasonable amount of money?”
  31. 31. Efficiency of Means if a particular means is both appropriate and valid butrequires too much time, then it does not meet criterion of efficiency. Or a given meansmay be very quick to accomplishthe intended objectives, but if it’s extremely costly to employ, then it does not meet the efficiency criterion.
  32. 32. Effective of Meanscontent, methodology, organizational arrangements, experience. “Are the curriculum ends actually attained?” “Do the students learn what is intended for them to learn?” “Are the desired objectives realized?” “Do the arrangement of time, space, and staff maximally contribute to the attainment of the intended objectives?”
  33. 33. School AdministrationInstitutional Social System IndividualEffectiveness Theory Efficiency Effectiveness Efficiency relates to the relates to theaccomplishment of satisfaction of cooperative individualpurpose, which is motives and is social and non- personal in personal in character. character.
  34. 34. School Administration McGregor Theory of YTheory of X (1960) Theory X views Theory Y viewsbehaviour in terms behaviour in terms of organization, of human growth, control and self-expression, direction. self-direction, and self- fulfilment.
  35. 35. Two Vital Aspects of School AdministrationOrganization Managementis the restructuring refers to the of individuals and direction of functions into individuals and productive functions to achieve relationship. It is ends previously concerned mainly determined. It with the formal and involves the human rational aspects of and generalizing administration. factors.
  36. 36. AdministrationDistinction between Administration and Management Management
  37. 37. Administration Management It is concerned about the determination It puts into action the policies andNature of Work of objectives and major policies of an plans laid down by the organization. administration.Type of Function It is a determinative function It is an executive function It takes major decisions of an enterprise It takes decisions within theScope as a whole. framework set by the administration.Level of Authority It is a top-level activity. It is a middle level activity. It consists of owners who invest capital in It is a group of managerial personnelNature of status and receive profits from an enterprise. who use their specialized knowledge to fulfil the objectives of an enterprise. It is popular with government, military, It is used in business enterprisesNature of Usage educational, and religious organizations. Its decisions are influenced by public Its decisions are influenced by theDecision Making opinion, government policies, social, and values, opinions, and beliefs of the religious factors. managers. Planning and organizing functions are Motivating and controlling functionsMain Function involved in it. are involved in it It needs administrative rather than It requires technical activities.Abilities technical abilities. Management handles the employees. Administration handles the business aspects such as finance.
  38. 38. EducationalAdministration Governance concerned with the process of administering, the execution of public affairs in educational organizations, the performance of executive functions, guiding, controlling, and directing of educational organizations, and thejudicious use of means to accomplish educational ends.
  39. 39. EducationalAdministration Governanceis concerned with the political function of policy-making in education; theorganization and machinery through whichpolitical units such as agencies, statesand local school exercise authority and perform functions; and the complexpolitical institution, laws, and customs that comprise the setting for the performance of administrative functions and responsibilities.
  40. 40. “Management” is the highest order of administration. Management is theevidence of quality administration,but the trust of the management role is still action-oriented. Management is concerned withinternal functions which enable the organization to realize its established aims and goals.
  41. 41. “Administration” exist to serve and facilitate theeffective operation of the various phases of the school’s total program.In this context management refers tovarious ways through which human andmaterial resources can be mobilizedto work toward attaining the school goal.
  42. 42. “Administration” Sergiovanni defines administration in its management sense as “the science and art of achieving organizational objectives in afashion which is cost-effective andwhich obtains sufficient teacher and consumer satisfaction to ensure their continued participation and support.”
  43. 43. Educational Administration Bottom line Educational Leadership The educational leader isvery much concerned with the issue of purpose and direction.
  44. 44. AdministrationPolicy Resources Execution Decision-Making Policy-Making
  45. 45. Policies are not only formulated Programmed Communicated Monitored Evaluated
  46. 46. pattern of action involving a cycle of activities referred to as policy cycle, Figure1. Policymaking Process Policy Evaluation Policy Agenda Policy Implementation Policy Formulation Policy Adoption The Policy Cycle
  47. 47. Video ofK+12 Enhanced Basic Education Program
  48. 48. Policymaking Process• Problem Identification and Agenda Setting Problem Identification – What is the problem? What happens if, we do nothing? – Demand for government action to resolve a problem or take advantage of an opportunity – Getting the government to see the problem – Problems capture the attention of policymakers through indicators, focusing events (disasters), crises, feedback or problems just fade away – Budget (money makes the world go around) is a special problem
  49. 49. Policymaking ProcessAgenda Setting – Those items policymakers are discussing and seriously considering – Getting the government to begin to act on the problem – Output that transform the problem into an ISSUE • Issue – conflict between two or more identifiable groups over procedural or substantive matters relating to the distribution of positions and resources
  50. 50. Policymaking Process• Policy Formulation –Development of a plan to solve the problem –Government’s proposed solution to the problem
  51. 51. Policymaking Process• Policy Adoption/Legitimation – Decision – making state – Development of support for a specific proposal such that the policy is legitimized or authorized – Getting the government to accept a particular solution to the problem – Policy decisions rests on public officials or body to adopt, modify or reject a preferred policy alternative
  52. 52. Policymaking Process• Policy Implementation – Application of the adopted policy by the government’s bureaucracy to the problem – Execution of a program that has been adopted by legislation or by executive or judicial order – Control (designed to cause people to do things, refrain from doing things, or continue doing things that they otherwise would not do) Ex. Coercive/non coercive, inspection, licensing, contracts, taxation, sanctions, etc. – Compliance (induce people to act in accordance with governmentally prescribed rules and regulations)
  53. 53. Policymaking Process• Policy Evaluation – estimation, assessment, or appraisal of policy including its content, implementation and effects – Effectiveness: Has the valued outcome been achieved? – Efficiency: How much effort was required to achieve a valued result? – Adequacy: To what extent does the achievement of a valued outcome resolve the problem? – Equity: Are costs and benefits distributed equitably among different groups? – Responsiveness: Do policy outcomes satisfy the needs, preferences or values of particular groups? – Appropriateness: Are desired outcomes (objectives) actually worthy and valuable?
  54. 54. DepEd Order No. 31 s. 201 Policy Guidelines onthe Implementation of K to 12 BasicEducation Curriculum
  55. 55. pattern of action involving a cycle of activities referred to as policy cycle, Figure1. Policymaking Process Policy Evaluation Policy Agenda Policy Implementation Policy Formulation Policy Adoption The Policy Cycle
  56. 56. Video ofK+12 Enhanced Basic Education Program
  57. 57. Educational Administration Tangibles Intangibles school site, the humanization of laboratory facilities, administration, the library facilities, encouragement of faculty, medical- academic freedom, theexercise of democratic dental, and security leadership, the services, and co-strengthening of group curricular or special facilities such as dynamics, the audio-visual aids, maintenance of good public relations, and speech clinics, and guidance andthe development of the counselling centers. child.
  58. 58. School AdministrationTangibles IntangiblesAdministrative Accountability the administration should be aware not only of its responsibility but also of itsaccountability to its clientele,the students, and the society at large.