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Tuesday, September 03, 2013 Marudhar Engineering College, Bikaner 1
A
SEMINAR REPORT
ON
SUMMER TRAINING
FROM
SURATGARH SUP...
INTRODUCTION
 Suratgarh thermal power station is the first super
thermal power Station of Rajasthan with total
installed ...
S.S.T.P.S. is designed in six stages
•STAGE I - 1x250 MW
•STAGE II - 1x250 MW
•STAGE III - 1x250 MW
•STAGE IV - 1x250 MW
•...
Tuesday, September 03, 2013 Marudhar Engineering College, Bikaner 4
 Supply of Water
 Requirement of Land
 Labour Suppl...
Exhaust
Steam
Tuesday, September 03, 2013 Marudhar Engineering College, Bikaner 5
Boiler
Water
Fuel
Air
Waste
Gases
Steam
...
Tuesday, September 03, 2013 Marudhar Engineering College, Bikaner 6
LAYOUT OF THERMAL POWER
PLANT
Tuesday, September 03, 2013 Marudhar Engineering College, Bikaner 7
 Coal Handling Plant (C.H.P)
 Water Treatment Plant ...
Raw coal from bharat
coal ltd. Dhanbad &
bilaspur(MP)
To SSTPS from gudla via a single
railway track
Wagon
Tippler
Hoppers...
Tuesday, September 03, 2013 Marudhar Engineering College, Bikaner 9
PLANT FAMILIARIZATION
BOILER
In boiler heat energy is...
SUPER HEATER
 A super heater is a device in
a steam engine that heats the
steam generated by the boiler
again, increasing...
ECONOMIEER
 Economizer is device which
recover the heat from the flue
gases on their way to chimney.
 Flue gases coming ...
Air Pre-heater is a heat
exchanger in which
preheating of air done by
transferring heat from the
flue gas before supplying...
Tuesday, September 03, 2013 Marudhar Engineering College, Bikaner 13
Steam after rotating steam
turbine comes to the
cond...
Tuesday, September 03, 2013 Marudhar Engineering College, Bikaner 14
These heaters are used to heat the feed water by mean...
 The condensate (water)
formed in the condenser
after condensation is
initially at high temperature.
This hot water is pa...
Tuesday, September 03, 2013 Marudhar Engineering College, Bikaner 16
A steam generating boiler requires that the boiler f...
TURBINE
 Turbine is rotating device that converts the energy of a
moving stream of water, steam, or gas into mechanical e...
Tuesday, September 03, 2013 Marudhar Engineering College, Bikaner 18
ALTERNATOR
An alternator is a device which convert m...
Tuesday, September 03, 2013 Marudhar Engineering College, Bikaner 19
 Thermal station use
coal as the main fuel.
 Raw co...
Tuesday, September 03, 2013 Marudhar Engineering College, Bikaner 20
FEED WATER
 The system coming out the turbine is con...
ASH HANDLING PLANT
 The percentage of ash in
coal is 5% in good quality
coal & about 40% in poor
quality coal.
 Power pl...
Tuesday, September 03, 2013 Marudhar Engineering College, Bikaner 22
DRAUGHT SYSTEM
 The circulation of air is caused by ...
Tuesday, September 03, 2013 Marudhar Engineering College, Bikaner 23
THERMAL POWER PLANT
AUXILIARIES
The equipments which ...
Tuesday, September 03, 2013 Marudhar Engineering College, Bikaner 24
MAJOR EQUIPMERNT IN
THERMAL POWER PLANT
 Power Trans...
SWITCH YARD
 Placed where switching operation of power
distribution is performed is known as Switch Yard.
 Main Componen...
SWITCH YARD
Tuesday, September 03, 2013 26Marudhar Engineering College, Bikaner
CIRCUIT BREAKER
 These are used for automatic switching during normal or
abnormal conditions .
Specification:
Manufacture...
ISOLATOR
 These are used to disconnect transmission line under no-load
condition for safety, isolation and maintenance.
S...
LIGHTENING ARRESTOR
 These are used to discharge lightning over voltages and
switching over voltages to earth.
Specificat...
BUS BAR
 The conductors to which several incoming and
outgoing lines are connected.
 They are made up of Cu & Al,
 The ...
CURRENT TRANSFORMER
 These are used to step-down currents for measurement, control
& protection.
 Current transformers a...
VOLTAGE TRANFORMER
 VT measure voltage and this parameter used for protection of
system.
 For high voltage CVT (capaciti...
Tuesday, September 03, 2013 Marudhar Engineering College, Bikaner 33
CONTROL ROOM
 The control room is the nerve centre o...
Tuesday, September 03, 2013 Marudhar Engineering College, Bikaner 34
CONTROL ROOM
Tuesday, September 03, 2013 Marudhar Engineering College, Bikaner 35
EFFICIENCY OF THERMAL
POWER PLANT
Installed Plant Cap...
Tuesday, September 03, 2013 Marudhar Engineering College, Bikaner 36
SUPER CRICTICAL
TECHNOLOAGY
 At a temperature of abo...
Tuesday, September 03, 2013 Marudhar Engineering College, Bikaner 37
ULTRA SUPER CRITICAL
TECHNOLOGY
Temperature around 7...
Tuesday, September 03, 2013 Marudhar Engineering College, Bikaner 38
ADVANTAGES
 They can respond to rapidly changing loa...
Tuesday, September 03, 2013 Marudhar Engineering College, Bikaner 39
 Maintenance and operating costs are high
 Long tim...
Tuesday, September 03, 2013 Marudhar Engineering College, Bikaner 40
CONCLUSION
Thermal power plants haves low efficiency ...
Tuesday, September 03, 2013 Marudhar Engineering College, Bikaner 41
REFERENCE
 "Suratgarh Super Thermal Power Station" R...
Tuesday, September 03, 2013 Marudhar Engineering College, Bikaner 42
Tuesday, September 03, 2013 Marudhar Engineering College, Bikaner 43
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  1. 1. Tuesday, September 03, 2013 Marudhar Engineering College, Bikaner 1 A SEMINAR REPORT ON SUMMER TRAINING FROM SURATGARH SUPER THERMAL POWER STATION SUBMITTED TO: HEMANT KAUSHIK SEMINAR COVERNER SUBMITTED BY: Ramesh tholiya Electrical engineering
  2. 2. INTRODUCTION  Suratgarh thermal power station is the first super thermal power Station of Rajasthan with total installed capacity of 1500 MW.  Suratgarh super thermal power station is located 27 km away from Suratgarh town in Shree Ganganagar Distt. on the left bank of IGNP at Up Stream of Suratgarh Barrage. This station is operated and maintained by Rajasthan Vidhyt Utpadan Nigam Limited. Tuesday, September 03, 2013 Marudhar Engineering College, Bikaner 2
  3. 3. S.S.T.P.S. is designed in six stages •STAGE I - 1x250 MW •STAGE II - 1x250 MW •STAGE III - 1x250 MW •STAGE IV - 1x250 MW •STAGE V - 1x250 MW •STAGE VI - 1x250 MW •STAGE VII - 1x660MW(Under construction) •STAGE VIII- 1x660MW(Under construction) Total Power Generation - 1500 MW Tuesday, September 03, 2013 Marudhar Engineering College, Bikaner 3 INSTALLED CAPACITY OF S.S.T.P.S.
  4. 4. Tuesday, September 03, 2013 Marudhar Engineering College, Bikaner 4  Supply of Water  Requirement of Land  Labour Supplies  Transportation Facility  Ash Disposal Distance form Populated Area  Near to the Load Centre  Magnitude and nature of load to be handled SELECTION OF SITE FOR THERMAL POWER PLANT
  5. 5. Exhaust Steam Tuesday, September 03, 2013 Marudhar Engineering College, Bikaner 5 Boiler Water Fuel Air Waste Gases Steam Steam Turbine Alternator Bus-Bars Three Phase Transmission Line BASIC STRUCTURE OF THERMAL POWER PLANT
  6. 6. Tuesday, September 03, 2013 Marudhar Engineering College, Bikaner 6 LAYOUT OF THERMAL POWER PLANT
  7. 7. Tuesday, September 03, 2013 Marudhar Engineering College, Bikaner 7  Coal Handling Plant (C.H.P)  Water Treatment Plant (W.T.P)  Boiler Maintenance Division (B.M.D)  Turbine Maintenance Division (T.M.D)  Generator Division (G.D) MAIN UNITS OF THERMAL POWER PLANT
  8. 8. Raw coal from bharat coal ltd. Dhanbad & bilaspur(MP) To SSTPS from gudla via a single railway track Wagon Tippler HoppersCrusher HouseBunkers Raw coal feeders Coal mills (pulverization) Boiler furnace Tuesday, September 03, 2013 Marudhar Engineering College, Bikaner 8 OVER VIEW OF COAL HANDLIG PLANT
  9. 9. Tuesday, September 03, 2013 Marudhar Engineering College, Bikaner 9 PLANT FAMILIARIZATION BOILER In boiler heat energy is released from the combustion of fossils fuel and heat is transferred to different fluids in the system. The boiler installed in S.T.P.S. are single drum, tangential fired water tube naturally circulated over hanged, pulverizing coal firing with a max. Continuous steam output of 375 tons/hour at 138 kg/cm2 pressure and 5400C temperature.
  10. 10. SUPER HEATER  A super heater is a device in a steam engine that heats the steam generated by the boiler again, increasing its thermal energy.  Super heater eliminates the formulation of condensate during transporting of steam in pipelines and inside the early stages of turbine, which is harmful to the turbine blades and pipelines Tuesday, September 03, 2013 10Marudhar Engineering College, Bikaner
  11. 11. ECONOMIEER  Economizer is device which recover the heat from the flue gases on their way to chimney.  Flue gases coming out of the boiler carry lot of heat.  An economizer extracts a part of this heat from flue gases and uses it for heating feed water.  This use of economizer results in saving coal consumption and higher boiler efficiency . Tuesday, September 03, 2013 11Marudhar Engineering College, Bikaner
  12. 12. Air Pre-heater is a heat exchanger in which preheating of air done by transferring heat from the flue gas before supplying to the combustion chamber. The preheating of air results: 1.Improved combustion 2.Saving in fuel consumption 3.Thermal efficiency. AIR PRE-HEATER Tuesday, September 03, 2013 12Marudhar Engineering College, Bikaner
  13. 13. Tuesday, September 03, 2013 Marudhar Engineering College, Bikaner 13 Steam after rotating steam turbine comes to the condenser.  The purpose of condenser is to condense the outlet steam from steam turbine to get the condensed steam in the form of pure water. This water is then Pumped back to the boiler. CONDENSER
  14. 14. Tuesday, September 03, 2013 Marudhar Engineering College, Bikaner 14 These heaters are used to heat the feed water by means of bled steam before it is supplied to the boiler. Necessity of heating feed water before feeding it back to the boiler arises due to the following reasons: Overall power plant efficiency is improved. Thermal stresses due to cold water entering the drum of boiler are avoided. Increase in the quantity of steam produced by the boiler. Boiler corrosion are removed in the feed water heaters. FEED WATER HEATER
  15. 15.  The condensate (water) formed in the condenser after condensation is initially at high temperature. This hot water is passed to cooling towers.  It is a tower- or building- like structure in which atmospheric air circulates in direct or indirect contact with warmer water and the water is thereby cooled. COOLING TOWER Tuesday, September 03, 2013 15Marudhar Engineering College, Bikaner
  16. 16. Tuesday, September 03, 2013 Marudhar Engineering College, Bikaner 16 A steam generating boiler requires that the boiler feed water should be devoid of air and other dissolved gases, particularly corrosive ones.  In order to avoid corrosion of the metal, power station uses a Deaerator, for the removal of air and other dissolved gases from the boiler feed water. A deaerator has a vertical, domed deaeration section mounted on top of a horizontal cylindrical vessel which serves as a deaerated boiler feed water storage tank. DEAERATOR
  17. 17. TURBINE  Turbine is rotating device that converts the energy of a moving stream of water, steam, or gas into mechanical energy. The basic element in a turbine is a wheel or rotor.  This mechanical energy is then transferred through a drive shaft to operate an alternator. Tuesday, September 03, 2013 17Marudhar Engineering College, Bikaner
  18. 18. Tuesday, September 03, 2013 Marudhar Engineering College, Bikaner 18 ALTERNATOR An alternator is a device which convert mechanical energy to electrical energy. Turbo-alternators are high speed machines (3,000 or 5,000RPM) for 50 Hz systems.  Alternator have horizontal configurations and smooth cylindrical (or non salient pole) type field structure wound usually for 2 or 4 poles.
  19. 19. Tuesday, September 03, 2013 Marudhar Engineering College, Bikaner 19  Thermal station use coal as the main fuel.  Raw coal is transported by railway trains.  The supply of coal is from MP, Jharkhand by rail. About 18000 tonne coal required per day for whole unit and each unit consumes 150tonnes coal per day. COAL HANDLING
  20. 20. Tuesday, September 03, 2013 Marudhar Engineering College, Bikaner 20 FEED WATER  The system coming out the turbine is condensed and the condensate is feedback to the boiler as feed water.  Some water may be lost due to blow-down, leakage etc. and to make up these losses additional water, called the make-up water, is required to be fed to the boiler. The make-up water in a modern thermal plant is about 1-4%. The heating of feed water :- i. Improves the overall efficiency of the plant ii. Removes dissolved oxygen and carbon-die-oxide iii.Causes precipitation of other impurities carried by steam and condensate outside the boiler iv.Avoids thermal stresses owing to entry of cold water into the boiler.
  21. 21. ASH HANDLING PLANT  The percentage of ash in coal is 5% in good quality coal & about 40% in poor quality coal.  Power plants generally use poor quality of coal , thus amount of ash produced by it is quite large.  A modern 1000MW plant produces about 4800 tons of ash daily.  The stations use some conveyor arrangement to carry ash to dump sites. Tuesday, September 03, 2013 21Marudhar Engineering College, Bikaner
  22. 22. Tuesday, September 03, 2013 Marudhar Engineering College, Bikaner 22 DRAUGHT SYSTEM  The circulation of air is caused by a difference in pressure, known as draught.  In a boiler the combustions of the fuel requires supply of sufficient quantity of air and removal of exhaust gases and this is achieved by draught system.  There are two types of drought system i. Natural Draught : - The natural draught is provided by the action of chimney or stack and is used only in small boilers. Its intensity depends upon the average temperature (difference between the flue gases within the chimney and the outside air (the gases within the chimney are at as higher temperature than that of the surrounding air) and also on the height of the chimney above the level of the furnace grate. ii. Mechanical Draught: - Artificial or mechanical draught is provided when the natural draught caused by a chimney is not sufficient or where a certain draught is required to be maintained irrespective of weather conditions or boiler operating conditions.
  23. 23. Tuesday, September 03, 2013 Marudhar Engineering College, Bikaner 23 THERMAL POWER PLANT AUXILIARIES The equipments which help in the proper functioning of the plant are called plant auxiliaries.  Boiler make-up water treatment plant and storage  Fuel preparation system  Barring gear  Oil system  Generator cooling  Generator high-voltage system  Monitoring and alarm system
  24. 24. Tuesday, September 03, 2013 Marudhar Engineering College, Bikaner 24 MAJOR EQUIPMERNT IN THERMAL POWER PLANT  Power Transformers  Voltage Regulators  Reactors  Insulators Switch Yard
  25. 25. SWITCH YARD  Placed where switching operation of power distribution is performed is known as Switch Yard.  Main Components of Switch Yard: 1. Circuit breaker 2. Isolator 3. Lightening arrester 4. Bus bar 5. Current Transformer 6. Potential Transformer Tuesday, September 03, 2013 25Marudhar Engineering College, Bikaner
  26. 26. SWITCH YARD Tuesday, September 03, 2013 26Marudhar Engineering College, Bikaner
  27. 27. CIRCUIT BREAKER  These are used for automatic switching during normal or abnormal conditions . Specification: Manufacturer ABB Limited Type of Circuit Breaker SF6 Rated Voltage 245 KV Rated Current Under Site Condition of 40 0C Under Site Condition of 50 0C 4000 A 2000 A Rated Frequency 50 Hz Tuesday, September 03, 2013 27Marudhar Engineering College, Bikaner
  28. 28. ISOLATOR  These are used to disconnect transmission line under no-load condition for safety, isolation and maintenance. Specification: Rated current for site conditions 2000 A Rated Voltage 245 KV Rated Frequency 50 Hz Operating time of Isolator Less than 12 sec. Tuesday, September 03, 2013 28Marudhar Engineering College, Bikaner
  29. 29. LIGHTENING ARRESTOR  These are used to discharge lightning over voltages and switching over voltages to earth. Specification: Manufacturer Crompton Greaves Ltd, Nasik Model No. ZLA X 25 C Ref. Standard IEC 99 – 4. 1991 Rated Frequency 50 Hz Max. Leakage Current 5 mA Tuesday, September 03, 2013 29Marudhar Engineering College, Bikaner
  30. 30. BUS BAR  The conductors to which several incoming and outgoing lines are connected.  They are made up of Cu & Al,  The incoming and outgoing cables are provided for metering purpose. Tuesday, September 03, 2013 30Marudhar Engineering College, Bikaner
  31. 31. CURRENT TRANSFORMER  These are used to step-down currents for measurement, control & protection.  Current transformers are used extensively for measuring current and monitoring the operation of the power grid. Tuesday, September 03, 2013 31Marudhar Engineering College, Bikaner
  32. 32. VOLTAGE TRANFORMER  VT measure voltage and this parameter used for protection of system.  For high voltage CVT (capacitive voltage transformer) is used instead of VT and capacitors play divider role.  We can also use these capacitors for PLC system. Tuesday, September 03, 2013 32Marudhar Engineering College, Bikaner
  33. 33. Tuesday, September 03, 2013 Marudhar Engineering College, Bikaner 33 CONTROL ROOM  The control room is the nerve centre of a power station.  The various controls performed from here 1. Voltages adjustment 2. Load control 3. Emergency tripping of turbines 4. The equipment and instruments housed in a control room are synchronising equipment and are controlled form control room like as voltages regulators, relays, ammeters, voltmeters, wattmeters, kWh meters, kVARh meters etc. 5. Temperature gauges 6. Water level indicators and other appliances 7. As well as a mimic diagram and suitable indicating equipment to show the opened or closed position of circuit breakers, isolators etc.
  34. 34. Tuesday, September 03, 2013 Marudhar Engineering College, Bikaner 34 CONTROL ROOM
  35. 35. Tuesday, September 03, 2013 Marudhar Engineering College, Bikaner 35 EFFICIENCY OF THERMAL POWER PLANT Installed Plant Capacity Average Overall Thermal Efficiency Up to 1MW 4% 1MW to 10MW 12% 10MW to 50MW 16% 50MW to 100MW 24% above 100MW 27%
  36. 36. Tuesday, September 03, 2013 Marudhar Engineering College, Bikaner 36 SUPER CRICTICAL TECHNOLOAGY  At a temperature of about 600 degree centigrade and pressure of 30N/mm2, water enters a supercritical phase and has properties between those of liquid and gas.  Water in supercritical stage can dissolve a number of organic compounds and gases and on addition of hydrogen peroxide and liquid oxygen combustion process starts.  The steam power plants operating on this principle are called supercritical plats.  Advantages 1. Low grade fossil fuels (e.g. lignite) can be used 2. NO2 emissions are completely eliminated 3. SO2 emission are reduced 4. complete burning of coal occurs. 5. need of desulphurisation and equipment and soot collector. 6. The cost of processing flue gas emissions (electrostatic precipitator etc.) is eliminated 7. cooling water requirements are also reduced, 8. more economical and efficient. 9. Supercritical power plants, these days have an overall efficiency of just over 40%.
  37. 37. Tuesday, September 03, 2013 Marudhar Engineering College, Bikaner 37 ULTRA SUPER CRITICAL TECHNOLOGY Temperature around 700 degree centigrade is known as ultra supercritical technology. Efficiency of the power plant may be improved to around 50%.
  38. 38. Tuesday, September 03, 2013 Marudhar Engineering College, Bikaner 38 ADVANTAGES  They can respond to rapidly changing loads without difficulty  A portion of the steam generated can be used as a process steam in different industries  Steam engines and turbines can work under 25 % of overload continuously  Fuel used is cheaper  Cheaper in production cost in comparison with that of diesel power stations
  39. 39. Tuesday, September 03, 2013 Marudhar Engineering College, Bikaner 39  Maintenance and operating costs are high  Long time required for erection and putting into action  A large quantity of water is required  Great difficulty experienced in coal handling  Presence of troubles due to smoke and heat in the plant  Unavailability of good quality coal  Maximum of heat energy lost  Problem of ash removing DISADVANTAGES
  40. 40. Tuesday, September 03, 2013 Marudhar Engineering College, Bikaner 40 CONCLUSION Thermal power plants haves low efficiency and these are releases large amount of harmful gases in environment and large amount of ash in the form of wastage. To use renewable energy source to save environment.
  41. 41. Tuesday, September 03, 2013 Marudhar Engineering College, Bikaner 41 REFERENCE  "Suratgarh Super Thermal Power Station" Rajasthan Rajya Vidyut Utpadan Nigam Ltd  A course in Electrical Power By J.B.Gupta  Babcock & Wilcox Co. (2005). Steam: Its Generation and Use (41st edition ed.) ISBN 0-9634570-0-4  Thomas C. Elliott, Kao Chen, Robert Swanekamp (Co-author) (1997). Standard Handbook of Power plant Engineering (2nd edition ed.). McGraw-Hill Professional. ISBN 0-07-019435-1  Maury Klein, The Power Makers: Steam, Electricity, and the Men Who Invented Modern America Bloomsbury Publishing USA, 2009 ISBN 1-59691-677-X  J.C. Hensley (Editor) (2006). Cooling Tower Fundamentals (2nd Ed. ed.). SPX Cooling Technologies.
  42. 42. Tuesday, September 03, 2013 Marudhar Engineering College, Bikaner 42
  43. 43. Tuesday, September 03, 2013 Marudhar Engineering College, Bikaner 43
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