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Head neck iii special senses
 

Head neck iii special senses

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    Head neck iii special senses Head neck iii special senses Presentation Transcript

    • HEAD III: Special Senses
      • Taste
      • Smell
      • Vision
      • Hearing/Balance
    • TASTE: how does it work?
      • Taste buds on tongue on fungiform papillae (“mushroom-like projections)
      • Each “bud” contains several cell types in microvilli that project through pore and chemically sense food
      • Gustatory receptor cells communicate with cranial nerve axon endings to transmit sensation to brain
      M&M, Fig. 16.1
    • Five taste sensations
      • Sweet—front middle
      • Sour—middle sides
      • Salty—front side/tip
      • Bitter —back
      • “ umami”—posterior pharynx
      M&M, Fig. 16.1
    • Cranial Nerves of Taste
      • Anterior 2/3 tongue: VII (Facial)
      • Posterior 1/3 tongue: IX Glossopharyngeal)
      • Pharynx: X (Vagus)
      M&M, Fig. 16.2
    • Smell: How does it work?
      • Olfactory epithelium in nasal cavity with special olfactory receptor cells
      • Receptor cells have endings that respond to unique proteins
      • Every odor has particular signature that triggers a certain combination of cells
      • Axons of receptor cells carry message back to brain
      • Basal cells continually replace receptor cells—they are only neurons that are continuously replaced throughout life.
      • Olfactory epithelium just under cribiform plate (of ethmoid bone) in superior nasal epithelium at midline
      M&M, Fig. 16.3
    • Vision
      • Movement of eye—extrinsic eye muscles and location in orbit
      • Support of eye—lids, brows, lashes, tears, conjunctiva
      • Lens and focusing—structures of eyeball and eye as optical device
      • Retina and photoreceptors
    • Movement of eye Eye movement simulator ( http:// cim . ucdavis . edu /eyes/version1/ eyesim . htm )
    • Extrinsic eye muscles III (Oculomotor) Elevates eye, turns laterally Inferior oblique III (Oculomotor) Depresses eye Inferior rectus III (Oculomotor) Elevates Superior rectus III (Oculomotor) Turns medially Medial rectus VI (Abducens) Turns laterally Lateral rectus IV (Trochlear) Depresses eye, turns laterally Superior oblique Nerve Movement Muscle
    • M&M, fig. 16.4
    • Support/Maintenance of Eye
      • Eyebrows: shade, shield for perspiration
      • Eyelids (palpebrae): skin-covered folds with “tarsal plates” connective tissue inside
        • Levator palpebrae superioris muscle opens eye (superior portion is smooth muscle—why?)
      • Canthus (plural canthi): corner of eye
        • Lacrimal caruncle makes eye “sand” at medial corner
        • Epicanthal folds in many Asian people cover caruncle
        • Tarsal glands make oil to slow drying
      • Eyelash—ciliary gland at hair follicle—infection is sty
      • Eyelashes—touch sensitive, thus blink
    • Support of Eye--conjunctiva
      • Mucous membrane that coats inner surface of eyelid (palpebral part) and then folds back onto surface of eye (ocular part)
      • Thin layer of connective tissue covered with stratified columnar epithelium
      • Very thin and transparent, showing blood vessels underneath (blood-shot eyes)
      • Goblet cells in epithelium secrete mucous to keep eyes moist
      • Vitamin A necessary for all epithelial secretions—lack leads to conjunctiva drying up—”scaly eye”
    • Support of eye--tears
      • Lacrimal glands—
      • superficial/lateral in orbit, produce tears
      • Lacrimal duct (nasolacrimal duct) —
      • medial corner of eye carries tears to nasal cavity (frequently closed in newborns—opens by 1 yr usually)
      • Tears contain mucous, antibodies, lysozyme (anti-bacterial)
      M&M, fig. 16.5
    • Eye as lens/optical device
      • Light path: Cornea  Anterior segment  Pupil  Lens  Posterior segment  Neural layer of retina  Pigmented retina
      M&M, fig. 16.7
    • Eye as optical device--structures
      • Sclera (fibrous tunic): is tough connective tissue “ball” that forms outside of eyeball
        • like box/case of camera
        • Corresponds to dura mater of brain
      • Cornea: anterior transparent part of sclera (scratched cornea is typical sports injury); begins focusing light
      • Choroid Internal to sclera/cornea
        • Highly vascularized
        • Darkly pigmented (for light absorption inside box)
      • Ciliary body: thick ring of tissue that encircles and holds lens
      • Iris: colored part of eye between lens and cornea, attached at base to ciliary body
      • Pupil: opening in middle of iris
      • Retina: sensory layer that responds to light and transmits visual signal to brain
    • M&M, fig. 16.4
    • Detail: Aperture and focus
      • APERTURE
      • Pupil changes shape due to intrinsic autonomic muscles
        • Sympathetic: Dilator pupillae (radial fibers)
        • Parasympathetic: sphinchter pupillae
      • FOCUS
      • Ciliary muscles in ciliary body pull on lens to focus far away
      • Elasticity of lens brings back to close focus
      • Thus, with age, less elasticity, no close focus  far-sighted
      M&M, fig. 16.8 ( animation of lens http:// artsci.shu.edu/biology/Student%20Pages/Kyle%20Keenan/eye/lensmovementnrve.html )
    • Detail: eye color
      • Posterior part of iris always brown in color
      • People with brown/black eyes with pigment throughout iris
      • People with blue eyes—rest of iris clear, brown pigment at back appears blue after passing through iris/cornea
    • Details: Retina and photoreceptors
      • Retina is outgrowth of brain
      • Neurons have specialized receptors at end with “photo pigment” proteins (rhodopsins)
        • Rod cells function in dim light, not color-tuned
        • Cone cells have three types: blue, red, green
        • In color blindness, gene for one type of rhodopsin is deficient, usually red or green
      • Photoreceptors sit on pigmented layer of choroid. Pigment from melanocytes--melanoma possible in retina!!
      • Axons of photoreceptors pass on top or superficial to photoreceptor region
      • Axons congregate and leave retina at optic disc (blind spot)
      • Fovea centralis is in direct line with lens, where light is focused most directly, and has intense cone cell population (low light night vision best from side of eye)
      • Blood vessels superficial to photoreceptors (retina is good sight to check for small vessel disease in diabetes)
    • Retina and photoreceptors M&M, fig. 16.10
      • Outer Ear: auricle is elastic cartilage attached to dermis, gathers sound
      • Middle ear: ear ossicles transmit and modulate sound
      • Inner ear: cochlea, ampullae and semicircular canals sense sound and equilibrium
      Ear/Hearing M&M, fig. 16.17
    • Middle Ear
      • External auditory canal ends at tympanic membrane which vibrates against malleus on other side
      • Inside middle ear chamber
        • malleus  incus  stapes which vibrates on oval window of inner ear
      • Muscles that inhibit vibration when sound is too loud
        • Tensor tympani m. (inserts on malleus)
        • Stapedius m. (inserts on stapes)
      M&M, fig. 16.19
    • Inner Ear/Labyrinth
      • Static equilibrium, linear motion
        • Utricle, saccule are egg-shaped sacs in center (vestibule) of labyrinth
      • 3-D motion, angular acceleration
        • 3 semicircular canals for X,Y,Z planes
      • Sound vibrations
        • Cochlea (“snail”)
      M&M, fig. 16.20 Auditory Nerve (Acoustic) VIII receives stimulus from all to brain Vestibular n.—equilibrium Cochlear n.—hearing
      • Spiral organ is receptor epithelium for hearing
      • Range of volume and tone that are perceived astonishing
      • Basilar membrane running down middle
        • Thicker at start, vibrates with lower sounds
        • Thinner at end, vibrates at higher sound
      • (in figure shown uncoiled, in life is spiral in shape)
      Cochlea--how it works M&M, fig. 16.24 Which is more incredible? Retina or spiral organ?