Premarital Sexual Activities and Awareness ofEmergency Contraception: A Study of Men in Tamil Nadu, India Ramesh Chellan New Delhi INDIA
Objectives To assess the premarital sexual activities and awareness of emergency contraception among men in Tamil Nadu, India. To examine the differentials by the selected socio- economic, demographic, and community factors in the premarital sexual activities and awareness of emergency contraception among men. To estimate influences of various factors on premarital sexual activities and awareness of emergency contraception among men in Tamil Nadu, India.
The Study Area and Data Source• The study focuses on the Villupuram distirct in Tamil Nadu, India.• The study covered a sample of 343 men in the age group of 18- 54 years reside in 3873 households in Villupuram district, Tamil Nadu.• The field survey was carried out between May 2007 and October 2007.
Sample Design for Primary Data Collection Tamil Nadu State Villupuram District DLHS-RCH-2 Sample villages Village (N=28) Selected 10 (n) 40 Households from each selected village (n=343 men of Household reproductive ages interviewed) Out of 28 villages, 10 villages were selected by systematic random sampling after arranging then in ascending order by distance from the villages to the nearest PHC. From each village, 40 households selected after stratification by principal occupation and male of reproductive age selected.
The Study Area JAMMU & KASHMIR N HIMACHAL PRADESH PUNJAB CHANDIGARH UTTARANCHAL HARYANA ARUNACHAL PRADESH DELHI SIKKIM RAJASTHAN UTTAR PRADESH ASSAM NAGALAND BIHAR MEGHALAYA MANIPUR TRIPURA JHARKHAND MIZORAM WEST BENGAL GUJARAT MADHYA PRADESH CHHATTISGARH DAMAN & DIUDADRA & NAGAR HAVELI ORISSA MAHARASHTRA ANDHRA PRADESH GOA KARNATAKA Villupuram district, Tamil Nadu TAMIL NADU KERALA
Methodology Bivariate Analysis Multivariate Analysis Logistic Regression Model
Predictor variables Explanatory variables• Premarital sexual activities • Religion• Awareness of emergency • Caste contraception • Men’s education • Occupation of men • Standard of living • Age of men • Marital status • Age at first marriage • Travel from one place to other place • Number of usual members • Number of films seen (in month) • Exposed to mass media • Distance of village from district HQ • Frequency of bus services • Availability of school facility • Availability of health facility
Premarital Sex among men, Tamil Nadu, IndiaPercentage of men has premarital sex Percentage of men has premarital sex wth
Awareness of Emergency Contraception among men, Tamil Nadu, India
Men Aware of Different Locations to Get Condom Location Percentage At least one location 84.8 Public hospital 48.7 Medical shop 59.5 Non-governmental organisation (NGO) 0.9 Other 49.9 Number of Men 343
Bivariate analysis for premarital sex and awareness of ECBackground Characteristics Premarital sex Awareness of ECReligion Hindu MarginalCaste SC/ST MarginalMen’s education Illiterate 11 + years of schoolingOccupation of men Agriculture AgricultureStandard of living High HighAge of men Marginal 40 +Marital status Marginal Never marriedAge at first marriage 21-23 24 +Travel from one place to other place Marginal DailyNumber of usual members Marginal MarginalNumber of films seen 1+ 1+Exposed to mass media Full exposure Full exposureDistance of village from district HQ 51 + 51 +Frequency bus services 6+ MarginalAvailability of school facility Marginal MarginalAvailability of health facility With no health Marginal facility Table: Premarital Table: EC
Results of Logistic Regression for Influence of Socio-Economic and Demographic and Community Factors on Premarital sex Has significant effect of • Premarital sex is more likely among SC/ST than OBC, Occupation of men (agriculture labourers and cultivators) than other workers, men in the age group of 40 and above than 30-39 years, those watch cinema at least once in a month than who do not watch cinema. No significant effect of • Religion, men’s education, standard of living, marital status/age at first marriage, travel from one place to other place, number of usual members, exposed to mass media, distance of villages from districts HQ, frequency of bus services, availability of school facility, and availability of health facility. Table: Premarital_multi
Results of Logistic Regression for Influence of Socio-Economic andDemographic and Community Factors on awareness of emergency contraception among men Has significant effect of • Awareness of emergency contraception is more likely among Men’s education (6-10 and 11+ years of schooling) than illiterate, high standard of living than low, those living in the village with < 25 and 26-50 than 51+, those living in the village with secondary and above school than up to middle school. • Men in the age group of 40 and above than 30-39 are less likely to be aware of emergency contraception. No significant effect of • Religion, Caste, occupation of men, marital status/age at first marriage, travel from one place to other place, number of usual members, exposed to mass media, frequency of bus services, and availability of health facility. Table: EC_multi
Conclusions• High reporting of premarital sexual experience among men in the study area. Among those who had reported about premarital sex, majority of men had relations with commercial sex workers, unknown girl or women, and relatives.• The study is also observed levels of awareness of emergency contraception is very high.• The likelihood to have premarital sex is high among SC/ST men, those who are cultivator or engaged as agriculture labourers, men in the age of 40 and above years, and those who watch cinema at least once in a month.• Men with 6 and above years of schooling and with high standard of living have significantly high awareness of emergency contraceptives.
Ways forward• More attention must be given on informed choice of family planning, quality of care and information regarding safe sex. Behavioural change can be possible only through proper advocacy and counceling through public health system.• The focus should be paid more to socially marginalized and illiterate population in the rural area who are neglected in health care services.• More than half of men do not aware of condom is available at public health facilities, whereas condom is available free at public health facilities. The reproductive and child health programme should be provide awareness of family planning including condom among men through development and dissemination of BCC-IEC materials by grass root level health workers .