RESEARCHRESEARCH
An OverviewAn Overview
A tutorial PowerPoint presentation by:A tutorial PowerPoint presentation by:
Rames...
DefinitionsDefinitions
• ““A careful investigation or inquiry specially throughA careful investigation or inquiry speciall...
DefinitionsDefinitions
• ““Research is a systematize efforts to gain newResearch is a systematize efforts to gain new
know...
DefinitionsDefinitions
• ““Scientific research is a systematic and objectiveScientific research is a systematic and object...
DefinitionsDefinitions
• ““Scientific research is systemic, controlled,Scientific research is systemic, controlled,
empiri...
Features of ResearchFeatures of Research
• Always directed towards solution of theAlways directed towards solution of the
...
Types of ResearchTypes of Research
• Applied Research:Applied Research:
– To study cause effect relation.To study cause ef...
Types of ResearchTypes of Research
• Basic Research:Basic Research:
– Called pure/fundamental research as well.Called pure...
Types of ResearchTypes of Research
• Action Research:Action Research:
– To improve quality of decisions and actions.To imp...
Types of ResearchTypes of Research
• Exploratory Research:Exploratory Research:
– Research of unfamiliar problem.Research ...
Types of ResearchTypes of Research
• Evaluative Research:Evaluative Research:
– Feasibility study/evaluation.Feasibility s...
Types of ResearchTypes of Research
• Descriptive Research:Descriptive Research:
– To test hypothesis.To test hypothesis.
–...
Steps of ResearchSteps of Research
• PROBLEM STATEMENT, PURPOSES,PROBLEM STATEMENT, PURPOSES,
BENEFITSBENEFITS
– What exac...
Steps of ResearchSteps of Research
• THEORY, ASSUMPTIONS, BACKGROUNDTHEORY, ASSUMPTIONS, BACKGROUND
LITERATURELITERATURE
–...
Steps of ResearchSteps of Research
• VARIABLES AND HYPOTHESESVARIABLES AND HYPOTHESES
– What will I take as given in the e...
Steps of ResearchSteps of Research
• OPERATIONAL DEFINITIONS ANDOPERATIONAL DEFINITIONS AND
MEASUREMENTMEASUREMENT
– What ...
Steps of ResearchSteps of Research
• RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODOLOGYRESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY
– What is my overall s...
Steps of ResearchSteps of Research
• SAMPLINGSAMPLING
– How will I choose my sample of persons or events?How will I choose...
Steps of ResearchSteps of Research
• INSTRUMENTATIONINSTRUMENTATION
– How will I get the data I need to test myHow will I ...
Steps of ResearchSteps of Research
• DATA COLLECTION AND ETHICALDATA COLLECTION AND ETHICAL
CONSIDERATIONSCONSIDERATIONS
–...
Steps of ResearchSteps of Research
• DATA ANALYSISDATA ANALYSIS
– What combinations of analytical and statisticalWhat comb...
Steps of ResearchSteps of Research
• CONCLUSIONS, INTERPRETATIONS,CONCLUSIONS, INTERPRETATIONS,
RECOMMENDATIONSRECOMMENDAT...
THANK YOUTHANK YOU
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Research an overview: A Tutorial PowerPoint Presentation by Ramesh Adhikari

  1. 1. RESEARCHRESEARCH An OverviewAn Overview A tutorial PowerPoint presentation by:A tutorial PowerPoint presentation by: Ramesh Adhikari
  2. 2. DefinitionsDefinitions • ““A careful investigation or inquiry specially throughA careful investigation or inquiry specially through search for new facts in any branch of knowledge”search for new facts in any branch of knowledge” - Advance Learner’s Dictionary of Current English- Advance Learner’s Dictionary of Current English ““The manipulation of things, concepts or symbols forThe manipulation of things, concepts or symbols for the purpose of generalizing to extend correct, verifythe purpose of generalizing to extend correct, verify knowledge whether that knowledge aids inknowledge whether that knowledge aids in construction of theory or in the practice of an art”construction of theory or in the practice of an art” - D. Slesinger & M. Stephenson in The Encyclopedia of Social Sciences- D. Slesinger & M. Stephenson in The Encyclopedia of Social Sciences
  3. 3. DefinitionsDefinitions • ““Research is a systematize efforts to gain newResearch is a systematize efforts to gain new knowledge.”knowledge.” - L.V. Redman & A. V. H. Morry- L.V. Redman & A. V. H. Morry ““ Research may be defined as the systemic andResearch may be defined as the systemic and objective analysis and recording of controlledobjective analysis and recording of controlled observations that may lead to the developments ofobservations that may lead to the developments of generalizations principles or theories, resulting ingeneralizations principles or theories, resulting in prediction and possibly ultimate control of events.”prediction and possibly ultimate control of events.” - John W. Best- John W. Best
  4. 4. DefinitionsDefinitions • ““Scientific research is a systematic and objectiveScientific research is a systematic and objective attempt to provide answers to certain questions.”attempt to provide answers to certain questions.” -Arun Kumar singh-Arun Kumar singh ““Research in this age or time means searching forResearch in this age or time means searching for a theory for testing theory or for solving aa theory for testing theory or for solving a problem.”problem.” - Consuelo Gt. Sevilla et all- Consuelo Gt. Sevilla et all
  5. 5. DefinitionsDefinitions • ““Scientific research is systemic, controlled,Scientific research is systemic, controlled, empirical and critical investigation of hypotheticalempirical and critical investigation of hypothetical proposition about the presumed relations amongproposition about the presumed relations among natural phenomena.”natural phenomena.” - F.N. Kerlinger- F.N. Kerlinger
  6. 6. Features of ResearchFeatures of Research • Always directed towards solution of theAlways directed towards solution of the problem.problem. • Based on empirical evidence.Based on empirical evidence. • Systematic, objective, controlled and logical.Systematic, objective, controlled and logical. • A never ending process.A never ending process. • Involves the quest for answers to unsolvedInvolves the quest for answers to unsolved problems.problems.
  7. 7. Types of ResearchTypes of Research • Applied Research:Applied Research: – To study cause effect relation.To study cause effect relation. – To retest old theories.To retest old theories. – To find solutions of certain problems.To find solutions of certain problems.
  8. 8. Types of ResearchTypes of Research • Basic Research:Basic Research: – Called pure/fundamental research as well.Called pure/fundamental research as well. – Basically for knowledge purpose.Basically for knowledge purpose. – To establish new theories in the society.To establish new theories in the society.
  9. 9. Types of ResearchTypes of Research • Action Research:Action Research: – To improve quality of decisions and actions.To improve quality of decisions and actions. – To initiate new projects/programs.To initiate new projects/programs. – Focus on problems and solutions.Focus on problems and solutions. – For qualitative improvement.For qualitative improvement.
  10. 10. Types of ResearchTypes of Research • Exploratory Research:Exploratory Research: – Research of unfamiliar problem.Research of unfamiliar problem.
  11. 11. Types of ResearchTypes of Research • Evaluative Research:Evaluative Research: – Feasibility study/evaluation.Feasibility study/evaluation. – Periodic evaluation.Periodic evaluation. – Terminal evaluation.Terminal evaluation. – Impact study.Impact study.
  12. 12. Types of ResearchTypes of Research • Descriptive Research:Descriptive Research: – To test hypothesis.To test hypothesis. – Collects data and present the detailedCollects data and present the detailed report/explanations.report/explanations. – Uses various methods of researchUses various methods of research
  13. 13. Steps of ResearchSteps of Research • PROBLEM STATEMENT, PURPOSES,PROBLEM STATEMENT, PURPOSES, BENEFITSBENEFITS – What exactly do I want to find out?What exactly do I want to find out? – What is a researchable problem?What is a researchable problem? – What are the obstacles in terms of knowledge, dataWhat are the obstacles in terms of knowledge, data availability, time, or resources?availability, time, or resources? – Do the benefits outweigh the costs?Do the benefits outweigh the costs?
  14. 14. Steps of ResearchSteps of Research • THEORY, ASSUMPTIONS, BACKGROUNDTHEORY, ASSUMPTIONS, BACKGROUND LITERATURELITERATURE – What does the relevant literature in the field indicateWhat does the relevant literature in the field indicate about this problem?about this problem? – To which theory or conceptual framework can ITo which theory or conceptual framework can I link it?link it? – What are the criticisms of this approach, or howWhat are the criticisms of this approach, or how does it constrain the research process?does it constrain the research process? – What do I know for certain about this area?What do I know for certain about this area? – What is the history of this problem that others needWhat is the history of this problem that others need to know?to know?
  15. 15. Steps of ResearchSteps of Research • VARIABLES AND HYPOTHESESVARIABLES AND HYPOTHESES – What will I take as given in the environment?What will I take as given in the environment? – Which are the independent and which are theWhich are the independent and which are the dependent variables?dependent variables? – Are there control variables?Are there control variables? – Is the hypothesis specific enough to be researchableIs the hypothesis specific enough to be researchable yet still meaningful?yet still meaningful? – How certain am I of the relationship(s) betweenHow certain am I of the relationship(s) between variables?variables?
  16. 16. Steps of ResearchSteps of Research • OPERATIONAL DEFINITIONS ANDOPERATIONAL DEFINITIONS AND MEASUREMENTMEASUREMENT – What is the level of aggregation?What is the level of aggregation? – What is the unit of measurement? How will theWhat is the unit of measurement? How will the research variables be measured?research variables be measured? – What degree of error in the findings is tolerable?What degree of error in the findings is tolerable? – Will other people agree with my choice ofWill other people agree with my choice of measurement operations?measurement operations?
  17. 17. Steps of ResearchSteps of Research • RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODOLOGYRESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY – What is my overall strategy for doing this research?What is my overall strategy for doing this research? – Will this design permit me to answer the researchWill this design permit me to answer the research question?question? – What other possible causes of the relationship betweenWhat other possible causes of the relationship between the variables will be controlled for by this design?the variables will be controlled for by this design? – What are the threats to internal and external validity?What are the threats to internal and external validity?
  18. 18. Steps of ResearchSteps of Research • SAMPLINGSAMPLING – How will I choose my sample of persons or events?How will I choose my sample of persons or events? – Am I interested in representativeness?Am I interested in representativeness? – If so, of whom or what, and with what degree ofIf so, of whom or what, and with what degree of accuracy or level of confidence?accuracy or level of confidence?
  19. 19. Steps of ResearchSteps of Research • INSTRUMENTATIONINSTRUMENTATION – How will I get the data I need to test myHow will I get the data I need to test my hypothesis?hypothesis? – What tools or devices will I use to make or recordWhat tools or devices will I use to make or record observations?observations? – Are valid and reliable instruments available, or mustAre valid and reliable instruments available, or must I construct my own?I construct my own?
  20. 20. Steps of ResearchSteps of Research • DATA COLLECTION AND ETHICALDATA COLLECTION AND ETHICAL CONSIDERATIONSCONSIDERATIONS – Are there multiple groups, time periods,Are there multiple groups, time periods, instruments, or situations that will need to beinstruments, or situations that will need to be coordinated as steps in the data collection process?coordinated as steps in the data collection process? – Will interviewers, observers, or analysts need to beWill interviewers, observers, or analysts need to be trained?trained? – What level of inter-rater reliability will I accept?What level of inter-rater reliability will I accept? – Do multiple translations pose a potential problem?Do multiple translations pose a potential problem? – Can the data be collected and subjects' rights stillCan the data be collected and subjects' rights still preserved?preserved?
  21. 21. Steps of ResearchSteps of Research • DATA ANALYSISDATA ANALYSIS – What combinations of analytical and statisticalWhat combinations of analytical and statistical process will be applied to the data?process will be applied to the data? – Which will allow me to accept or reject myWhich will allow me to accept or reject my hypotheses?hypotheses? – Do the finding show numerical differences, and areDo the finding show numerical differences, and are those differences important?those differences important?
  22. 22. Steps of ResearchSteps of Research • CONCLUSIONS, INTERPRETATIONS,CONCLUSIONS, INTERPRETATIONS, RECOMMENDATIONSRECOMMENDATIONS – Was my initial hypothesis supported?Was my initial hypothesis supported? – What if my findings are negative?What if my findings are negative? – What are the implications of my findings for theWhat are the implications of my findings for the theory base, for the background assumptions, ortheory base, for the background assumptions, or relevant literature?relevant literature? – What recommendations can I make for publicWhat recommendations can I make for public policies or programs in this area?policies or programs in this area? – What suggestions can I make for further research onWhat suggestions can I make for further research on this topic?this topic?
  23. 23. THANK YOUTHANK YOU

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