System Development Life Cycle
The main idea of the SDLC has been “to pursue the development
of information systems in a very deliberate structured and
methodical way, requiring each stage of the life cycle from
inception of the idea to delivery of the final system, to be carried
out rigidly and sequentially”
• An organizational process of developing and maintaining
• Helps in establishing a system project plan
(as it gives overall list
of processes and sub processes required for developing a system)
• SDLC is a combination of various activities
• Oldest formalized methodology framework for building
• In SAD terminology, SDLC means Software Development Life
• In a system the different components are
connected with each other and they are
• Objective: it demands that some output is
produced as a result of processing the suitable
• Uses: To develop large scale functional business
systems in an age of large scale business firms.
Phases of Software Development Cycle
1. Problem Definition
2. System Study
3. Feasibility Study
4. System Analysis
5. System Design
9. Post Implementation
• SDLC Methodology is a framework that is used to
Structure, Plan, and Control the process of
developing an information system
• Different Software Development Approaches
Waterfall : A linear framework
Prototyping : An iterative framework
Incremental : A combined linear iterative framework
Spiral : A combined linear iterative framework
Rapid Application Development (RAD) : An iterative
– Extreme Programming
On the basis of result of the initial study, feasibility study
• Defn : The feasibility study is basically the test of
the proposed system in the light of its
Workability, meeting user’s Requirements,
effective use of Resources and its Cost
• The main goal of feasibility study is not to solve
the problem but to achieve the scope
• In the process of feasibility study, the cost and
benefits are estimated with greater accuracy.
Uses of Feasibility Analysis
• Guide organizations to make decisions
• Identifies risks associated with the proposed
• Assessing Project Feasibility
1. Technical Feasibility
• Can we build the system?
• Familiarity with application and technology. Less
familiarity generates more risk.
• Project Size: Large projects have more risk
• Compatibility: The harder to integrate the system
with the company’s exists technology, higher the
2. Economic Feasibility
• Should we build the system?
• Also called cost benefit analysis.
• More concern with costs:
– Development Costs
– Annual operating costs
– Annual benefits (cost and revenue)
– Intangible costs and benefits
3. Organizational Feasibility
• Is the project strategically aligned with the business
• To understand how well the goals of the project
align with business objectives
• Most affected groups in introducing new system:
1. Project Champion
2. Senior Management
4. Other stakeholders
Initiates the project
Promotes the project
Allocates time to the project
• Organizational Management
– Know about the project
– Budget enough money for the project
– Encourage users to accept and use the system
• System Users
– Make decisions that influence the system
– Perform hand on activities for the project
– Determine whether the project success or not
4. Operational Feasibility
• When it is found that the project is both economic
and technical feasible, the next step is to determine
whether it is operationally feasible or not.
• Will the system operate in a way that user wants.
• Operational feasibility depends upon human
resources for the development and implementation
of the system
• User involvement is more required.
5. Social Feasibility
• Social feasibility is a determination of whether a
project will be acceptable to the people or not.
• This determination examines the probability of
the project being accepted by the group directly
affected by the proposed system change.
6. Management Feasibility
• It is a determination of whether a proposed
project will be acceptable to management.
• If management does not accept a project or
gives a negligible support to it, the analyst will
tend to view the project as a non feasible one.
7. Legal Feasibility
• Legal feasibility is a determination of whether a
proposed project infringes on known Acts,
Statuses, as well as any pending legislation.
• In some instances the project might appear
sound, on closer investigation it may be found to
infringe in several legal areas.
8. Time Feasibility
• Is a determination of whether a proposed
project can be implemented fully within a
stipulated time frame.
• If a project takes too much time it is likely to
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