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Electrical consumtion in india
Electrical consumtion in india
Electrical consumtion in india
Electrical consumtion in india
Electrical consumtion in india
Electrical consumtion in india
Electrical consumtion in india
Electrical consumtion in india
Electrical consumtion in india
Electrical consumtion in india
Electrical consumtion in india
Electrical consumtion in india
Electrical consumtion in india
Electrical consumtion in india
Electrical consumtion in india
Electrical consumtion in india
Electrical consumtion in india
Electrical consumtion in india
Electrical consumtion in india
Electrical consumtion in india
Electrical consumtion in india
Electrical consumtion in india
Electrical consumtion in india
Electrical consumtion in india
Electrical consumtion in india
Electrical consumtion in india
Electrical consumtion in india
Electrical consumtion in india
Electrical consumtion in india
Electrical consumtion in india
Electrical consumtion in india
Electrical consumtion in india
Electrical consumtion in india
Electrical consumtion in india
Electrical consumtion in india
Electrical consumtion in india
Electrical consumtion in india
Electrical consumtion in india
Electrical consumtion in india
Electrical consumtion in india
Electrical consumtion in india
Electrical consumtion in india
Electrical consumtion in india
Electrical consumtion in india
Electrical consumtion in india
Electrical consumtion in india
Electrical consumtion in india
Electrical consumtion in india
Electrical consumtion in india
Electrical consumtion in india
Electrical consumtion in india
Electrical consumtion in india
Electrical consumtion in india
Electrical consumtion in india
Electrical consumtion in india
Electrical consumtion in india
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Electrical consumtion in india

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  • 1. ELECTRICITY SECTOR IN INDIAThe electricity sector in India had an installed capacity of 207.85 Gigawatt (GW) as of September 2012,the worlds fifth largest.[1] Captive power plants generate an additional 31.5 GW. Thermal power plants constitute 66% of theinstalled capacity, hydroelectric about 19% and rest being a combination of wind, small hydro, biomass,waste-to-electricity, and nuclear. India generated 855 BU (855 000 MU i.e. 855 TWh[2] ) electricity during 2011-12 fiscal.In terms of fuel, coal-fired plants account for 56% of Indias installed electricity capacity, compared toSouth Africas 92%; Chinas 77%; and Australias 76%. After coal, renewal hydropower accounts for 19%,renewable energy for 12% and natural gas for about 9%.[3][4]In December 2011, over 300 million Indian citizens had no access to electricity. Over one third of Indiasrural population lacked electricity, as did 6% of the urban population. Of those who did have access toelectricity in India, the supply was intermittent and unreliable. In 2010, blackouts and power sheddinginterrupted irrigation and manufacturing across the country.[5][6]The per capita average annual domestic electricity consumption in India in 2009 was 96 kWh in ruralareas and 288 kWh in urban areas for those with access to electricity, in contrast to the worldwide percapita annual average of 2600 kWh and 6200 kWh in the European Union.[7] Indias total domestic, agricultural and industrial per capita energy consumption estimate varydepending on the source. Two sources place it between 400 to 700kWh in 2008–2009.[8][9] As of January2012, one report found the per capita total consumption in India to be 778 kWh.[5]India currently suffers from a major shortage of electricity generation capacity, even though it is theworlds fourth largest energy consumer after United States, China and Russia.[10] The International Energy Agency estimates India needs an investment of at least $135 billion toprovide universal access of electricity to its population.The International Energy Agency estimates India will add between 600 GW to 1200 GW of additionalnew power generation capacity before 2050.[6] This added new capacity is equivalent to the 740 GW of total power generation capacity of EuropeanUnion (EU-27) in 2005. The technologies and fuel sources India adopts, as it adds this electricitygeneration capacity, may make significant impact to global resource usage and environmental issues
  • 2. .[11]Indias electricity sector is amongst the worlds most active players in renewable energy utilization,especially wind energy.[12] As of December 2011, India had an installed capacity of about 22.4 GW ofrenewal technologies-based electricity, exceeding the total installed electricity capacity in Austria by alltechnologies.Indias network losses exceeded 32% in 2010 including non-technical losses, compared to world averageof less than 15%. Both technical and non-technical factors contribute to these losses, but quantifyingtheir proportions is difficult. But the Government pegs the national T&D losses at around 24% for theyear 2011 & has set a target of reducing it to 17.1% by 2017 & to 14.1% by 2022. Some experts estimatethat technical losses are about 15% to 20%, A high proportion of non‐technical losses are caused byillegal tapping of lines, but faulty electric meters that underestimate actual consumption alsocontribute to reduced payment collection. A case study in Kerala estimated that replacing faulty meterscould reduce distribution losses from 34% to 29%.[6]Key implementation challenges for Indias electricity sector include new project management andexecution, ensuring availability of fuel quantities and qualities, lack of initiative to develop large coaland natural gas resources present in India, land acquisition, environmental clearances at state andcentral government level, and training of skilled manpower to prevent talent shortages for operatinglatest technology plants.[8]
  • 3. CONTENTS1 History2 Demand3 Electricity Consumption4 Generation o 4.1 Thermal power o 4.2 Hydro power o 4.3 Nuclear power5 Other renewable energy o 5.1 Solar power o 5.2 Wind power o 5.3 Biomass power o 5.4 Geothermal energy o 5.5 Tidal wave energy6 Problems with Indias power sector7 Resource potential in electricity sector8 Rural electrification9 Human resource development10 Trading11 Regulation and administration12 See also13 References14 External links
  • 4. HISTORYThe first demonstration of electric light in Calcutta was conducted on 24 July 1879 by P W Fleury&Co.OnJanuary 7, 1897, Kilburn & Co secured the Calcutta electric lighting licence as agents of the IndianElectric Co, which was registered in London on January 15, 1897.A month later, the company was renamed the Calcutta Electric Supply Corporation. The control of thecompany was transferred from London to Calcutta only in 1970.Enthused by the success of electricity in Calcutta, power was thereafter introduced in Bombay.[13]Mumbai saw electric lighting demonstration for the first time in 1882 at Crawford Market, and BombayElectric Supply & Tramways Company (B.E.S.T.) set up a generating station in 1905 to provide electricityfor the tramway.[14]The first hydroelectric installation in India was installed near a tea estate at Sidrapong for the DarjeelingMunicipality in 1897.[15]The first electric train ran between Bombays Victoria Terminus and Kurla along the Harbour Line, in1925.[16]In 1931, electrification of the meter gauge track between Madras Beach and Tambaram was started.[17]DEMANDDemand drivers
  • 5. Satellite pictures of India show thick haze and black carbon smoke above India and other Asiancountries. This problem is particularly severe along the Ganga Basin in northern India. Majorsources of particulate matter and aerosols are believed to be smoke from biomass burning inrural parts of India, and air pollution from large cities in northern India."Expanding access to energy means including 2.4 billion people: 1.4 billion that still has noaccess to electricity (87% of whom live in the rural areas) and 1 billion that only has accessto unreliable electricity networks. We need smart and practical approaches because energy,as a driver of development, plays a central role in both fighting poverty and addressing climatechange. The implications are enormous: families forego entrepreneurial endeavors, childrencannot study after dark, health clinics do not function properly, and women are burdened withtime consuming chores such as pounding grain or hauling water, leaving them with less time toengage in income generating activities. Further, it is estimated that kitchen smoke leads toaround 1.5 million premature deaths every year, more than the number of deaths from malariaeach year. After gaining access to energy, households generate more income, are moreproductive and are less hungry, further multiplying the Millenium Development Goals progress." — RebecaGrynspan, UNDP Associate Administrator and Under Secretary General, Bloomberg New Energy Summit, April 7, 2011[18]Of the 1.4 billion people of the world who have no access to electricity in the world, Indiaaccounts for over 300 million.Some 800 million Indians use traditional fuels – fuelwood, agricultural waste and biomass cakes– for cooking and general heating needs. These traditional fuels are burnt in cook stoves, knownas chulah or chulha in some parts of India.[19][20] Traditional fuel is inefficient source of energy, its burning releases high levels of smoke,PM10 particulate matter, NOX, SOX, PAHs, polyaromatics, formaldehyde, carbon monoxideand other air pollutants.[21][22][23][24]Some reports, including one by the World Health Organization, claim 300,000 to 400,000 peoplein India die of indoor air pollution and carbon monoxide poisoning every year because ofbiomass burning and use of chullahs.[25] Traditional fuel burning in conventional cook stoves releases unnecessarily large amounts ofpollutants, between 5 to 15 times higher than industrial combustion of coal, thereby affectingoutdoor air quality, haze and smog, chronic health problems, damage to forests, ecosystemsand global climate.
  • 6. Burning of biomass and firewood will not stop, these reports claim, unless electricity or cleanburning fuel and combustion technologies become reliably available and widely adopted in ruraland urban India.The growth of electricity sector in India may help find a sustainable alternative to traditional fuelburning.In addition to air pollution problems, a 2007 study finds that discharge of untreated sewage issingle most important cause for pollution of surface and ground water in India. There is a large gap between generation and treatment of domestic wastewater in India. Theproblem is not only that India lacks sufficient treatment capacity but also that the sewagetreatment plants that exist do not operate and are not maintained. Majority of the government-owned sewage treatment plants remain closed most of the time inpart because of the lack of reliable electricity supply to operate the plants. The wastewater generated in these areas normally percolates in the soil or evaporates. Theuncollected wastes accumulate in the urban areas cause unhygienic conditions, release heavymetals and pollutants that leaches to surface and groundwater.[26][27] Almost all rivers, lakes and water bodies are severely polluted in India. Water pollutionalso adversely impacts river, wetland and ocean life. Reliable generation and supply of electricity is essential for addressing Indias water pollutionand associated environmental issues.Other drivers for Indias electricity sector are its rapidly growing economy, rising exports,improving infrastructure and increasing household incomes.Demand trendsElectricity transmission grid in eastern India.As in previous years, during the year 2010–11, demand for electricity in India far outstrippedavailability, both in terms of base load energy and peak availability.
  • 7. Base load requirement was 861,591 (MU[2]) against availability of 788,355 MU, a 8.5% deficit.During peak loads, the demand was for 122 GW against availability of 110 GW, a 9.8%shortfall.[28]In a May 2011 report, Indias Central Electricity Authority anticipated, for 2011–12 year, a baseload energy deficit and peaking shortage to be 10.3% and 12.9% respectively.The peaking shortage would prevail in all regions of the country, varying from 5.9% in theNorth-Eastern region to 14.5% in the Southern Region. India also expects all regions to faceenergy shortage varying from 0.3% in the North-Eastern region to 11.0% in the Western region.Indias Central Electricity Authority expects a surplus output in some of the states of NorthernIndia, those with predominantly hydropower capacity, but only during the monsoon months.In these states, shortage conditions would prevail during winter season.[28]According to this report, the five states with largest power demand and availability, as of May2011, were Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh andGujarat.In late 2011 newspaper articles, Gujarat was declared a power surplus state, with about 2–3GW more power available than its internal demand.The state was expecting more capacity to become available.It was expecting to find customers, sell excess capacity to meet power demand in other statesof India, thereby generate revenues for the state.[29][30]Despite an ambitious rural electrification program,[31] some 400 million Indians lose electricityaccess during blackouts.[32]While 80% of Indian villages have at least an electricity line, just 52.5% of rural householdshave access to electricity.In urban areas, the access to electricity is 93.1% in 2008. The overall electrification rate in Indiais 64.5% while 35.5% of the population still live without access to electricity.[33]According to a sample of 97,882 households in 2002, electricity was the main source of lightingfor 53% of rural households compared to 36% in 1993.[34]The 17th electric power survey of India report claims:[35] Over 2010–11, Indias industrial demand accounted for 35% of electrical power requirement, domestic household use accounted for 28%, agriculture 21%, commercial 9%, public lighting and other miscellaneous applications accounted for the rest.
  • 8. The electrical energy demand for 2016–17 is expected to be at least 1392 Tera Watt Hours, with a peak electric demand of 218 GW. The electrical energy demand for 2021–22 is expected to be at least 1915 Tera Watt Hours, with a peak electric demand of 298 GW.If current average transmission and distribution average losses remain same (32%), India needsto add about 135 GW of power generation capacity, before 2017, to satisfy the projecteddemand after losses.McKinsey claims[36] that Indias demand for electricity may cross 300 GW, earlier than mostestimates. To explain their estimates, they point to four reasons: Indias manufacturing sector is likely to grow faster than in the past Domestic demand will increase more rapidly as the quality of life for more Indians improve About 125,000 villages are likely to get connected to Indias electricity grid Currently blackouts and load shedding artificially suppresses demand; this demand will be sought as revenue potential by power distribution companiesA demand of 300GW will require about 400 GW of installed capacity, McKinsey notes. The extracapacity is necessary to account for plant availability, infrastructure maintenance, spinningreserve and losses.In 2010, electricity losses in India during transmission and distribution were about 24%, whilelosses because of consumer theft or billing deficiencies added another 10–15%.[37]According to two studies published in 2004, theft of electricity in India, amounted to a nationwideloss of $4.5 billion.[38][39] This led several states of India to enact and implement regulatory, and institutionalframework; develop a new industry and market structure; and privatize distribution.The state of Andhra Pradesh, for example, enacted an electricity reform law; unbundled theutility into one generation, one transmission, and four distribution and supply companies; andestablished an independent regulatory commission responsible for licensing, setting tariffs, andpromoting efficiency and competition. Some state governments amended the Indian Electricity Act of 1910 to make electricity theft acognizable offense and impose stringent penalties.
  • 9. A separate law, unprecedented in India, provided for mandatory imprisonment and penalties foroffenders, allowed constitution of special courts and tribunals for speedy trial, and recognizedcollusion by utility staff as a criminal offense.The state government made advance preparations and constituted special courts and appellatetribunals as soon as the new law came into force. High quality metering and enhanced auditinformation flow was implemented. Such campaigns have made a big difference in the Indianutilities‘ bottom line.Monthly billing has increased substantially, and the collection rate reached more than 98%.Transmission and distribution losses were reduced by 8%.Power cuts are common throughout India and the consequent failure to satisfy the demand forelectricity has adversely effected Indias economic growth.[40][41]ELECTRICITY CONSUMPTIONThe Per capita Consumption(kWh) in 2009-10 was as follows: STATE PER CAPITA CONSUMPTION(KWH)GOA 2004.77PUDUCHERRY 1864.5PUNJAB 1663.01GUJARAT 1558.58HARYANA 1491.37DELHI 1447.72CHANDIGARH 1238.51
  • 10. STATE PER CAPITA CONSUMPTION(KWH)TAMIL NADU 1210.81HIMACHAL PRADESH 1144.94MAHARASHTRA 1054.1ANDHRA PRADESH 1013.74JAMMU & KASHMIR 968.47UTTARAKHAND 930.41KARNATAKA 873.05SIKKIM 845.4ORISSA 837.55RAJASTHAN 811.12JHARKHAND 750.46MADHYA PRADESH 618.1MEGHALAYA 613.36
  • 11. STATE PER CAPITA CONSUMPTION(KWH)KERALA 536.78WEST BENGAL 515.08ANDAMAN AND NICOBAR ISLANDS 506.13ARUNACHAL PRADESH 503.27MIZORAM 429.31LAKSHADWEEP 428.81UTTAR PRADESH 386.93NAGALAND 242.39TRIPURA 223.78ASSAM 209.2MANIPUR 207.15BIHAR 117.48This information was given by the Minister of State for Power Shri K.C.Venugopalina, written reply to a [42question in LokSabha on 18-05-2012
  • 12. GENERATIONTehri Hydroelectric Power stations lake in Uttarakhand. Tehri is worlds 7th tallest dam.[43] With acapacity of 2.4 GW, it is Indias largest hydroelectric power generation installation.Power development in India was first started in 1897 in Darjeeling, followed by commissioningof a hydropower station at Sivasamudram in Karnataka during 1902.Indias electricity generation capacity additions from 1950 to 1985 were very low whencompared to developed nations. Since 1990, India has been one of the fastest growing marketsfor new electricity generation capacity.The countrys annual electricity generation capacity has increased in last 20 years by about 120GW, from about 66 GW in 1991[44] to over 100 GW in 2001,[45] to over 185 GW in 2011.[46] Indias Power Finance Corporation Limited projects that current and approved electricitycapacity addition projects in India are expected to add about 100 GW of installed capacitybetween 2012 and 2017. This growth makes India one the fastest growing markets for electricity infrastructureequipment.[47][48] Indias installed capacity growth rates are still less than those achieved by China, andshort of capacity needed to ensure universal availability of electricity throughout India by 2017.State-owned and privately owned companies are significant players in Indias electricity sector,with the private sector growing at a faster rate. Indias central government and state governments jointly regulate electricity sector in India.
  • 13. As of August 2011, the states and union territories of India with power surplus were HimachalPradesh, Sikkim, Tripura, Gujarat,Delhi and Dadra and Nagar Haveli.[28][29]Major economic and social drivers for Indias push for electricity generation include Indias goalto provide universal access, the need to replace current highly polluting energy sources in usein India with cleaner energy sources, a rapidly growing economy, increasing householdincomes, limited domestic reserves offossil fuels and the adverse impact on the environment ofrapid development in urban and regional areas.[49]The table below presents the electricity generation capacity, as well as availability to Indias enduser and their demand.The difference between installed capacity and availability is the transmission, distribution andconsumer losses.The gap between availability and demand is the shortage India is suffering. This shortage insupply ignores the effects of waiting list of users in rural, urban and industrial customers; it alsoignores the demand gap from Indias unreliable electricity supply. Electricity sector capacity and availability in India (excludes effect of blackouts / power- shedding) Item Value Date reported Reference [1][50]Total installed capacity (GW) 201.64 April 2012 [46]Available base load supply (MU) 837374 May 2011 [46]Available peak load supply (GW) 118.7 May 2011 [46]Demand base load (MU) 933741 May 2011 [46]Demand peak load (GW) 136.2 May 2011According to Indias Ministry of Power, about 14.1 GW of new thermal power plants underconstruction are expected to be put in use by December 2012, so are 2.1 GW capacity
  • 14. hydropower plants and a 1 GW capacity nuclear power plant.[46] Indias installed generationcapacity should top 200 GW in 2012.In 2010, the five largest power companies in India, by installed capacity, in decreasing order,were the state-owned NTPC, state-owned NHPC, followed by three privately owned companies:Tata Power, Reliance Power and Adani Power.In Indias effort to add electricity generation capacity over 2009–2011, both central governmentand state government owned power companies have repeatedly failed to add the capacitytargets because of issues with procurement of equipment and poor project management.Private companies have delivered better results.[51][edit]Thermal powerA super thermal power plant in Rajasthan
  • 15. A thermal power plant in MaharashtraThermal power plants convert energy rich fuel into electricity and heat. Possible fuels includecoal, natural gas, petroleum products, agricultural waste and domestic trash / waste.Other sources of fuel include landfill gas and biogases.In some plants, renewal fuels such as biogas are co-fired with coal.Coal and lignite accounted for about 57% of Indias installed capacity. However, since windenergy depends on wind speed, and hydropower energy on water levels, thermal power plantsaccount for over 65% of Indias generated electricity.Indias electricity sector consumes about 80% of the coal produced in the country.India expects that its projected rapid growth in electricity generation over the next couple ofdecades is expected to be largely met by thermal power plants.Fuel constraintsA large part of Indian coal reserve is similar to Gondwana coal. It is of low calorific value andhigh ash content. The iron content is low in Indias coal, and toxic trace element concentrationsare negligible. The natural fuel value of Indian coal is poor. On average, the Indian power plantsusing Indias coal supply consume about 0.7 kg of coal to generate a kWh, whereas UnitedStates thermal power plants consume about 0.45 kg of coal per kWh. This is because of thedifference in the quality of the coal, as measured by the Gross Calorific Value (GCV). Onaverage, Indian coal has a GCV of about 4500 Kcal/kg, whereas the quality elsewhere in theworld is much better; for example, in Australia, the GCV is 6500 Kcal/kg approximately.[52]The high ash content in Indias coal affects the thermal power plants potential emissions.Therefore, Indias Ministry of Environment & Forests has mandated the use of beneficiatedcoals whose ash content has been reduced to 34% (or lower) in power plants in urban,ecologically sensitive and other critically polluted areas, and ecologically sensitive areas. Coalbenefaction industry has rapidly grown in India, with current capacity topping 90 MT.Thermal power plants can deploy a wide range of technologies. Some of the major technologiesinclude: Steam cycle facilities (most commonly used for large utilities); Gas turbines (commonly used for moderate sized peaking facilities);
  • 16. Cogeneration and combined cycle facility (the combination of gas turbines or internal combustion engines with heat recovery systems); and Internal combustion engines (commonly used for small remote sites or stand-by power generation).India has an extensive review process, one that includes environment impact assessment, priorto a thermal power plant being approved for construction and commissioning. The Ministry ofEnvironment and Forests has published a technical guidance manual to help project proposersand to prevent environmental pollution in India from thermal power plants.[53]Installed thermal power capacityThe installed capacity of Thermal Power in India, as of June 30, 2011, was 115649.48 MWwhich is 65.34%[54] of total installed capacity. Current installed base of Coal Based Thermal Power is 96,743.38 MW which comes to 54.66% of total installed base. Current installed base of Gas Based Thermal Power is 17,706.35 MW which is 10.00% of total installed capacity. Current installed base of Oil Based Thermal Power is 1,199.75 MW which is 0.67% of total installed capacity.The state of Maharashtra is the largest producer of thermal power in the country.Hydro powerMain article: Hydroelectric power in IndiaIndira Sagar Dam partially completed in 2008
  • 17. NagarjunaSagar Dam and hydroelectric power plant on the Krishna River. It is the worldslargest masonry dam, with an installed capacity of 800MW. The dam also irrigates about 1.4million acres of previously drought-prone land.In this system of power generation, the potential of the water falling under gravitational force isutilized to rotate a turbine which again is coupled to a Generator, leading to generation ofelectricity. India is one of the pioneering countries in establishing hydro-electric power plants.The power plants at Darjeeling and Shimsha (Shivanasamudra) were established in 1898 and1902 respectively and are among the first in Asia.India is endowed with economically exploitable and viable hydro potential assessed to be about84,000 MW at 60% load factor. In addition, 6,780 MW in terms of installed capacity from Small,Mini, and Micro Hydel schemes have been assessed. Also, 56 sites for pumped storageschemes with an aggregate installed capacity of 94,000 MW have been identified. It is the mostwidely used form of renewable energy. India is blessed with immense amount of hydro-electricpotential and ranks 5th in terms of exploitable hydro-potential on global scenario.The present installed capacity as of 30 June 2011 is approximately 37,367.4 MW which is21.53% of total electricity generation in India.[55] The public sector has a predominant share of97% in this sector.[56] National Hydroelectric Power Corporation (NHPC), Northeast ElectricPower Company (NEEPCO), Satlujjalvidyutnigam (SJVNL), Tehri Hydro DevelopmentCorporation, NTPC-Hydro are a few public sector companies engaged in development ofhydroelectric power in India.Bhakra Beas Management Board (BBMB), illustrative state-owned enterprise in north India, hasan installed capacity of 2.9 GW and generates 12000-14000 MU[2] per year. The cost ofgeneration of energy after four decades of operation is about 20 paise/kWh.[citation needed] BBMB isa major source of peaking power and black start to the northern grid in India. Large reservoirsprovide operational flexibility. BBMB reservoirs annually supply water for irrigation to 125 lac
  • 18. (12.5 million) acres of agricultural land of partner states, enabling northern India in its greenrevolution.[edit]Nuclear powerMain article: Nuclear power in IndiaKudankulam Nuclear Power Plant under construction in 2009. It was 96% complete as of March2011, with first phase expected to be in use in 2012. With initial installed capacity of 2 GW, thisplant will be expanded to 6.8 GW capacity.As of 2011, India had 4.8 GW of installed electricity generation capacity using nuclear fuels.Indias Nuclear plants generated 32455 million units or 3.75% of total electricity produced inIndia.[57]Indias nuclear power plant development began in 1964.India signed an agreement with General Electric of the United States for the construction andcommissioning of two boiling water reactors at Tarapur.In 1967, this effort was placed under Indias Department of Atomic Energy. In 1971, India set upits first pressurised heavy water reactors with Canadian collaboration in Rajasthan. In 1987,India created Nuclear Power Corporation of India Limited to commercialize nuclear power.Nuclear Power Corporation of India Limited is a public sector enterprise, wholly owned by theGovernment of India, under the administrative control of its Department of Atomic Energy.Its objective is to implement and operate nuclear power stations for Indias electricity sector.The state-owned company has ambitious plans to establish 63 GW generation capacity by2032, as a safe, environmentally benign and economically viable source of electrical energy tomeet the increasing electricity needs of India.[58]Indias nuclear power generation effort satisfies many safeguards and oversights, such asgetting ISO-14001 accreditation for environment management system and peer review by WorldAssociation of Nuclear Operators including a pre-start up peer review.
  • 19. Nuclear Power Corporation of India Limited admits, in its annual report for 2011, that its biggestchallenge is to address the public and policy maker perceptions about the safety of nuclearpower, particularly after the Fukushima incident in Japan.[57]In 2011, India had 18 pressurized heavy water reactors in operation, with another four projectsof 2.8 GW capacity launched. The country plans to implement fast breeder reactors, usingplutonium based fuel. Plutonium is obtained by reprocessing spent fuel of first stage reactors.India successfully launched its first prototype fast breeder reactor of 500 MW capacity in TamilNadu, and now operates two such reactors.India has nuclear power plants operating in the following states: Maharashtra, Gujarat,Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh, Tamil Nadu and Karnataka. These reactors have an installedelectricity generation capacity between 100 to 540 MW each. New reactors with installedcapacity of 1000 MW per reactor are expected to be in use by 2012.In 2011, The Wall Street Journal reported the discovery of uranium in a new mine in India, thecountrys largest ever. The estimated reserves of 64,000 tonnes, could be as large as 150,000tonnes (making the mine one of the worlds largest). The new mine is expected to provide Indiawith a fuel that it currently imports. Nuclear fuel supply constraints had limited Indias ability togrow its nuclear power generation capacity. The newly discovered ore, unlike those in Australia,is of slightly lower grade. This mine is expected to be in operation in 2012.[59]Indias share of nuclear power plant generation capacity is just 1.2% of worldwide nuclear powerproduction capacity, making it the 15th largest nuclear power producer. Nuclear power provided3% of the countrys total electricity generation in 2011.India aims to supply 9% of it electricity needs with nuclear power by 2032.[57]Indias largest nuclear power plant project under implementation is at Jaitapur, Maharashtra inpartnership with Areva, France.[edit]Other renewable energyMain article: Renewable energy in IndiaRenewable energy in India is a sector that is still in its infancy.As of December 2011, India had an installed capacity of about 22.4 GW of renewaltechnologies-based electricity, about 12% of its total.[60] For context, the total installed capacityfor electricity in Switzerland was about 18 GW in 2009. The table below provides the capacitybreakdown by various technologies.
  • 20. Renewal energy installed capacity in India (as of June 30, 2012) Type[61] Technology Installed capacity (in MW)Grid connected power Wind 17644 Small hydro 3411 Biomass 1182 Bagasse Cogeneration 2046 Waste-to-Energy (WtE) 93 Solar 1030Off-grid, captive power Waste to Energy-Urban 105 Biomass non-bagasse cogen 391 Biomass Gasifiers - Rural 16
  • 21. Biomass Gasifiers - Industrial 136 SPV Systems (>1 kW) 85 Aerogen/Hybrids 1.74As of August 2011, India had deployed renewal energy to provide electricity in 8846 remotevillages, installed 4.4 million family biogas plants, 1800 microhydel units and 4.7 million squaremeters of solar water heating capacity. India anticipates to add another 3.6 GW of renewalenergy installed capacity by December 2012.[61]India plans to add about 30 GW of installed electricity generation capacity based on renewalenergy technologies, by 2017.[60]Renewable energy projects in India are regulated and championed by the centralgovernments Ministry of New and Renewable Energy.Solar powerMain article: Solar power in IndiaSolar resource map for India.The western states of the country are naturally gifted with high solar incidence.
  • 22. India is bestowed with solar irradiation ranging from 4 to 7 kWh/square meter/day across thecountry, with western and southern regions having higher insolation.[62]India is endowed with rich solar energy resource.India receives the highest global solar radiation on a horizontal surface.[citation needed]With its growing electricity demand, India has initiated steps to develop its large potential forsolar energy based power generation.In November 2009, the Government of India launched its Jawaharlal Nehru National SolarMission under the National Action Plan on Climate Change.Under this central government initiative, India plans to generate 1 GW of power by 2013 and upto 20 GW grid-based solar power, 2 GW of off-grid solar power and cover 20 million squaremetres with solar energy collectors by 2020.[63] India plans utility scale solar power generation plants through solar parks with dedicatedinfrastructure by state governments, among others, the governments of Gujarat andRajasthan.[62]The Government of Gujarat taking advantage of the national initiative and high solar irradiationin the state, launched the Solar Power Policy in 2009 and proposes to establish a number oflarge-scale solar parks starting with the Charanka solar park in Patan district in the sparselypopulated northern part of the state.The development of solar parks will streamline the project development timeline by lettinggovernment agencies undertake land acquisition and necessary permits, and provide dedicatedcommon infrastructure for setting up solar power generation plants largely in the private sector.This approach will facilitate the accelerated installation of private sector solar power generationcapacity reducing costs by addressing issues faced by stand alone projects.Common infrastructure for the solar park include site preparation and leveling, powerevacuation, availability of water, access roads, security and services. In parallel with the centralgovernments initiative, the Gujarat Electricity Regulatory Commission has announced feed-in-tariff to mainstream solar power generation which will be applied for solar power generationplants in the solar park.Gujarat Power Corporation Limited is the responsible agency for developing the solar park of500 megawatts and will lease the lands to the project developers to generate solar power.
  • 23. Gujarat Energy Transmission Corporation Limited will develop the transmission evacuationfrom the identified interconnection points with the solar developer. This project is beingsupported, in part, by the Asian Development Bank.[62]The first Indian solar thermal power project (2X50MW) is in progress in Phalodi (Rajasthan),and is constructed by CORPORATE ISPAT ALLOY LTD.[citation needed]The Indian Solar Loan Programme, supported by the United Nations EnvironmentProgramme has won the prestigious Energy Globe World award for Sustainability for helping toestablish a consumer financing program for solar home power systems.Over the span of three years more than 16,000 solar home systems have been financedthrough 2,000 bank branches, particularly in rural areas of South India where the electricitygrid does not yet extend. Launched in 2003, the Indian Solar Loan Programme was a four-yearpartnership between UNEP, the UNEP Risoe Centre, and two of Indias largest banks, theCanara Bank and Syndicate Bank.[64][65]Land acquisition is a challenge to solar farm projects in India. Some state governments areexploring means to address land availability through innovation; for example, by exploringmeans to deploy solar capacity above their extensive irrigation canal projects, therebyharvesting solar energy while reducing the loss of irrigation water by solar evaporation.Wind powerMain article: Wind power in IndiaWind farm in Rajasthan.
  • 24. Wind turbines midst Indias agricultural farms.Wind farms midst paddy fields in India.India has the fifth largest installed wind power capacity in the world.[66] In 2010, wind poweraccounted for 6% of Indias total installed power capacity, and 1.6% of the countrys poweroutput.The development of wind power in India began in the 1990s by Tamil Nadu Electric Boardnear Tuticorin, and has significantly increased in the last few years. Suzlon is the leading Indiancompany in wind power, with an installed generation capacity of 6.2 GW in India. Vestas isanother major company active in Indias wind energy initiative.[67]
  • 25. As December 2011, the installed capacity of wind power in India was 15.9 GW, spread acrossmany states of India.[60][66] The largest wind power generating state was Tamil Nadu accountingfor 30% of installed capacity, followed in decreasing order by Maharashtra, Gujarat, Karnataka,andRajasthan.[68] It is estimated that 6 GW of additional wind power capacity will be installed inIndia by 2012.[69] In Tamil Nadu, wind power is mostly harvested in the southern districts suchas Kanyakumari, Tirunelveli and Tuticorin.The state of Gujarat is estimated to have the maximum gross wind power potential in India, witha potential of 10.6 GW.[67][edit]Biomass powerIn this system biomass, bagasse, forestry and agro residue & agricultural wastes are used asfuel to produce electricity.[70]BIOMASS GASIFIERIndia has been promoting biomass gasifier technologies in its rural areas, to utilize surplusbiomass resources such as rice husk, crop stalks, small wood chips, other agro-residues. Thegoal was to produce electricity for villages with power plants of up to 2 MW capacities. During2011, India installed 25 rice husk based gasifier systems for distributed power generation in 70remote villages of Bihar. The Largest Biomass based power plant in India is at SIrohi, Rajasthanhaving the capacity of 20 MW.i.e. Sambhav Energy Limited. In addition, gasifier systems arebeing installed at 60 rice mills in India. During the year, biomass gasifier projects of 1.20 MW inGujarat and 0.5 MW in Tamil Nadu were successfully installed.[60]BiogasThis pilot program aims to install small scale biogas plants for meeting the cooking energyneeds in rural areas of India. During 2011, some 45000 small scale biogas plants were installed.Cumulatively, India has installed 4.44 million small scale biogas plants.In 2011, India started a new initiative with the aim to demonstrate medium size mixed feedbiogas-fertilizer pilot plants. This technology aims for generation, purification/enrichment,bottling and piped distribution of biogas. India approved 21 of these projects with aggregatecapacity of 37016 cubic meter per day, of which 2 projects have been successfullycommissioned by December 2011.[60]India has additionally commissioned 158 projects under its Biogas based Distributed/Grid PowerGeneration programme, with a total installed capacity of about 2 MW.India is rich in biomass and has a potential of 16,881MW (agro-residues and plantations),5000MW (bagasse cogeneration) and 2700MW (energy recovery from waste). Biomass power
  • 26. generation in India is an industry that attracts investments of over INR 600 crores every year,generating more than 5000 million units of electricity and yearly employment of more than 10million man-days in the rural areas.[citation needed]As of 2010, India burnt over 200 million tonnes of coal replacement worth of traditional biomassfuel every year to meet its energy need for cooking and other domestic use. This traditionalbiomass fuel – fuelwood, crop waste and animal dung – is a potential raw material for theapplication of biomass technologies for the recovery of cleaner fuel, fertilizers and electricitywith significantly lower pollution.Biomass available in India can and has been playing an important role as fuel for sugar mills,textiles, paper mills, and small and medium enterprises (SME). In particular there is a significantpotential in breweries, textile mills, fertilizer plants, the paper and pulp industry, solventextraction units, rice mills, petrochemical plants and other industries to harness biomasspower.[71][edit]GEOTHERMAL ENERGYIndias geothermal energy installed capacity is experimental. Commercial use is insignificant.India has potential resources to harvest geothermal energy. The resource map for India hasbeen grouped into six geothermal provinces:[72] Himalayan Province – Tertiary Orogenic belt with Tertiary magmatism Areas of Faulted blocks – Aravalli belt, Naga-Lushi, West coast regions and Son-Narmada lineament. Volcanic arc – Andaman and Nicobar arc. Deep sedimentary basin of Tertiary age such as Cambay basin in Gujarat. Radioactive Province – Surajkund, Hazaribagh, Jharkhand. Cratonic province – Peninsular IndiaIndia has about 340 hot springs spread over the country. Of this, 62 are distributed along thenorthwest Himalaya, in the States of Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh and Uttarakhand.They are found concentrated along a 30-50-km wide thermal band mostly along the rivervalleys. Naga-Lusai and West Coast Provinces manifest a series of thermal springs. Andamanand Nicobar arc is the only place in India where volcanic activity, a continuation of theIndonesian geothermal fields, and can be good potential sites for geothermal energy. Cambaygraben geothermal belt is 200 km long and 50 km wide with Tertiary sediments. Thermalsprings have been reported from the belt although they are not of very high temperature anddischarge. During oil and gas drilling in this area, in recent times, high subsurface temperature
  • 27. and thermal fluid have been reported in deep drill wells in depth ranges of 1.7 to 1.9 km. Steamblowout have also been reported in the drill holes in depth range of 1.5 to 3.4 km. The thermalsprings in Indias peninsular region are more related to the faults, which allow down circulationof meteoric water to considerable depths. The circulating water acquires heat from the normalthermal gradient in the area, and depending upon local condition, emerges out at suitablelocalities. The area includes Aravalli range, Son-Narmada-Tapti lineament, Godavari andMahanadi valleys and South Cratonic Belts.[72]In a December 2011 report, India identified six most promising geothermal sites for thedevelopment of geothermal energy. These are, in decreasing order of potential: Tattapani in Chhattisgarh Puga in Jammu & Kashmir Cambay Graben in Gujarat Manikaran in Himachal Pradesh Surajkund in Jharkhand Chhumathang in Jammu & KashmirIndia plans to set up its first geothermal power plant, with 2–5 MW capacity at Puga in Jammuand Kashmir.[73]TIDAL WAVE ENERGYTidal energy technologies harvest energy from the seas. The potential of tidal wave energybecomes higher in certain regions by local effects such as shelving, funneling, reflection andresonance.India is surrounded by sea on three sides, its potential to harness tidal energy is significant.Energy can be extracted from tides in several ways. In one method, a reservoir is createdbehind a barrage and then tidal waters pass through turbines in the barrage to generateelectricity. This method requires mean tidal differences greater than 4 meters and also favorabletopographical conditions to keep installation costs low. One report claims the most attractivelocations in India, for the barrage technology, are the Gulf of Khambhat and the Gulf of Kutch onIndias west coast where the maximum tidal range is 11 m and 8 m with average tidal range of6.77 m and 5.23 m respectively. The Ganges Delta in the Sunderbans, West Bengal is anotherpossibility, although with significantly less recoverable energy; the maximum tidal range inSunderbans is approximately 5 m with an average tidal range of 2.97 m. The report claims,barrage technology could harvest about 8 GW from tidal energy in India, mostly in Gujarat. Thebarrage approach has several disadvantages, one being the effect of any badly engineered
  • 28. barrage on the migratory fishes, marine ecosystem and aquatic life. Integrated barragetechnology plants can be expensive to build.In December 2011, the Ministry of New & Renewable Energy, Government of India and theRenewable Energy Development Agency of Govt. of West Bengal jointly approved and agreedto implement Indias first 3.75 MW Durgaduani mini tidal power project.Indian government believes that tidal energy may be an attractive solution to meet the localenergy demands of this remote delta region.[73]Another tidal wave technology harvests energy from surface waves or from pressurefluctuations below the sea surface.A report from the Ocean Engineering Centre, Indian Institute of Technology, Chennai estimatesthe annual wave energy potential along the Indian coast is between 5 MW to 15 MW per meter,suggesting a theoretical maximum potential for electricity harvesting from Indias 7500 kilometercoast line may be about 40 GW.However, the realistic economical potential, the report claims, is likely to be considerablyless.[74] A significant barrier to surface energy harvesting is the interference of its equipment tofishing and other sea bound vessels, particularly in unsettled weather. India built its first seassurface energy harvesting technology demonstration plant in Vizhinjam, nearThiruruvananthpuram.The third approach to harvesting tidal energy consists of ocean thermal energy technology. Thisapproach tries to harvest the solar energy trapped in ocean waters into usable energy.Oceans have a thermal gradient, the surface being much warmer than deeper levels of ocean.This thermal gradient may be harvested using modified Rankine cycle.Indias National Institute of Ocean Technology (NIOT) attempted this approach over the last 20years, but without success. In 2003, with Saga University of Japan, NIOT attempted to build anddeploy a 1 MW demonstration plant.[75] However, mechanical problems prevented success.After initial tests near Kerala, the unit was scheduled for redeployment and further developmentin the Lakshadweep Islands in 2005.The demonstration projects experience have limited follow-on efforts with ocean thermal energytechnology in India.
  • 29. PROBLEMS WITH INDIAS POWER SECTORIndias electricity sector faces many issues. Some are:[5][24][76][77] Government giveaways such as free electricity for farmers, partly to curry political favor, have depleted the cash reserves of state-run electricity-distribution system. This has financially crippled the distribution network, and its ability to pay for power to meet the demand. This situation has been worsened by government departments of India that do not pay their bills. Shortages of fuel: despite abundant reserves of coal, India is facing a severe shortage of coal. The country isnt producing enough to feed its power plants. Some plants do not have reserve coal supplies to last a day of operations. Indias monopoly coal producer, state- controlled Coal India, is constrained by primitive mining techniques and is rife with theft and corruption; Coal India has consistently missed production targets and growth targets. Poor coal transport infrastructure has worsened these problems. To expand its coal production capacity, Coal India needs to mine new deposits. However, most of Indias coal lies under protected forests or designated tribal lands. Any mining activity or land acquisition for infrastructure in these coal-rich areas of India, has been rife with political demonstrations, social activism and public interest litigations. Poor pipeline connectivity and infrastructure to harness Indias abundant coal bed methane and shale gas potential. The giant new offshore natural gas field has delivered less fuel than projected. India faces a shortage of natural gas. Hydroelectric power projects in Indias mountainous north and northeast regions have been slowed down by ecological, environmental and rehabilitation controversies, coupled with public interest litigations. Indias nuclear power generation potential has been stymied by political activism since the Fukushima disaster in Japan. Average transmission, distribution and consumer-level losses exceeding 30%. Over 300 million people in India have no access to electricity. Of those who do, almost all find electricity supply intermittent and unreliable. Lack of clean and reliable energy sources such as electricity is, in part, causing about 800 million people in India to continue using traditional biomass energy sources – namely fuelwood, agricultural waste and livestock dung – for cooking and other domestic needs.[19] Traditional fuel combustion is the primary source of indoor air pollution in India, causes between 300,000 to 400,000 deaths per year and other chronic health issues.
  • 30. India‘s coal-fired, oil-fired and natural gas-fired thermal power plants are inefficient and offer significant potential for greenhouse gas (CO2) emission reduction through better technology. Compared to the average emissions from coal-fired, oil-fired and natural gas- fired thermal power plants in European Union (EU-27) countries, India‘s thermal power plants emit 50 to 120 percent more CO2 per kWh produced.[78]The July 2012 blackout, affecting the north of the country, was the largest power grid failure inhistory by number of people affected.[edit]RESOURCE POTENTIAL IN ELECTRICITY SECTORAccording to Oil and Gas Journal, India had approximately 38 trillion cubic feet (Tcf) of provennatural gas reserves as of January 2011, world‘s 26th largest. United States Energy InformationAdministration estimates that India produced approximately 1.8 Tcf of natural gas in 2010, whileconsuming roughly 2.3 Tcf of natural gas.The electrical power and fertilizer sectors account for nearly three-quarters of natural gasconsumption in India. Natural gas is expected to be an increasingly important component ofenergy consumption as the country pursues energy resource diversification and overall energysecurity.[79][80]Until 2008, the majority of Indias natural gas production came from the Mumbai High complex inthe northwest part of the country. Recent discoveries in the Bay of Bengal have shifted thecenter of gravity of Indian natural gas production.The country already produces some coalbed methane and has major potential to expand thissource of cleaner fuel. According to a 2011 Oil and Gas Journal report, India is estimated tohave between 600 to 2000 Tcf of shale gas resources (one of the world‘s largest). Despite itsnatural resource potential, and an opportunity to create energy industry jobs, India has yet tohold a licensing round for its shale gas blocks. It is not even mentioned in Indias centralgovernment energy infrastructure or electricity generation plan documents through 2025. Thetraditional natural gas reserves too have been very slow to develop in India because regulatoryburdens and bureaucratic red tape severely limit the country‘s ability to harness its natural gasresources.[5][78][81]
  • 31. RURAL ELECTRIFICATIONMain article: Rural Electrification Corporation LimitedIndias Ministry of Power launched Rajiv Gandhi GrameenVidyutikaranYojana as one of itsflagship programme in March 2005 with the objective of electrifying over one lakh (100,000) un-electrified villages and to provide free electricity connections to 2.34 crore (23.4 million) ruralhouseholds. This free electricity program promises energy access to Indias rural areas, but is inpart creating problems for Indias electricity sector.[5][edit]Human resource developmentRapid growth of electricity sector in India demands that talent and trained personnel becomeavailable as Indias new installed capacity adds new jobs. India has initiated the process torapidly expand energy education in the country, to enable the existing educational institutions tointroduce courses related to energy capacity addition, production, operations and maintenance,in their regular curriculum. This initiative includes conventional and renewal energy.A Ministry of Renewal and New Energy announcement claims State Renewable EnergyAgencies are being supported to organize short-term training programmes for installation,operation and maintenance and repair of renewable energy systems in such places whereintensive RE programme are being implemented. Renewable Energy Chairs have beenestablished in IIT Roorkee and IIT Kharagpur.[60]Education and availability of skilled workers is expected to be a key challenge in Indias effort torapidly expand its electricity sector.
  • 32. REGULATION AND ADMINISTRATIONThe Ministry of Power is Indias apex central government body regulating the electrical energysector in India. This ministry was created on 2 July 1992. It is responsible for planning, policyformulation, processing of projects for investment decisions, monitoring project implementation,training and manpower development, and the administration and enactment of legislation inregard to thermal, hydro power generation, transmission and distribution. It is also responsiblefor the administration of Indias Electricity Act (2003), the Energy Conservation Act (2001) and toundertake such amendments to these Acts, as and when necessary, in conformity with theIndian governments policy objectives.[83]Effective 31 July 2012, the Union Minister of Power is VeerappaMoily.Electricity is a concurrent subject at Entry 38 in List III of the seventh Schedule of theConstitution of India. In Indias federal governance structure this means that both the centralgovernment and Indias state governments are involved in establishing policy and laws for itselectricity sector. This principle motivates central government of India and individual stategovernments to enter into memorandum of understanding to help expedite projects and reformelectricity sector in respective state.[84]GOVERNMENT OWNED POWER COMPANIESIndias Ministry of Power administers central government owned companies involved in thegeneration of electricity in India. These include National Thermal Power Corporation, DamodarValley Corporation, National Hydroelectric Power Corporation and Nuclear Power Corporationof India. ThePower Grid Corporation of India is also administered by the Ministry; it isresponsible for the inter-state transmission of electricity and the development of national grid.The Ministry works with various state governments in matters related to state governmentowned corporations in Indias electricity sector. Examples of state corporations include AndhraPradesh Power Generation Corporation Limited, Assam Power Generation CorporationLimited Tamil Nadu Electricity Board, Maharashtra State Electricity Board, Kerala StateElectricity Board, and Gujarat UrjaVikas Nigam Limited.Funding of power infrastructure
  • 33. Indias Ministry of Power administers Rural Electrification Corporation Limited and PowerFinance Corporation Limited. These central government owned public sector enterprisesprovide loans and guarantees for public and private electricity sector infrastructure projects inIndia.THE ENDSee also Energy portal Energy policy of India[edit]References a b 1. ^ "ALL INDIA REGIONWISE GENERATING INSTALLED CAPACITY OF POWER". Central Electricity Authority, Ministry of Power, Government of India. June 2012. a b c 2. ^ "Get enlightened about electricity - India ((1 MU = 1 Million Units in India = 1 GWhr))". The Financial Express. December 20, 2004. 3. ^ "Power sector at a glance: All India data". Ministry of Power, Government of India. June 2012. 4. ^ World Coal Institute – India "The coal resource, a comprehensive overview of coal". World Coal Institute. March 2009. a b c d e 5. ^ "For India, a Power Failure Looms". The Wall Street Journal. 2 January 2012. a b c 6. ^ UweRemme et al. (February 2011). "Technology development prospects for the Indian power sector". International Energy Agency France; OECD. 7. ^ "World Energy Outlook 2011: Energy for All". International Energy Agency. October 2011. a b 8. ^ "Power Sector in India: White paper on Implementation Challenges and Opportunities". KPMG. January 2010. 9. ^ "The World Factbook". CIA. 2008. Retrieved December, 2011. 10. ^ "India: Overview, Data & Analysis". U.S. Energy Information Administration. 2011. 11. ^ "Analysis of the energy trends in the European Union & Asia to 2030". Centre for Energy‐Environment Resources Development, Thailand. January 2009. 12. ^ Winds of change come to country plagued by power blackouts. Guardian. 30 December 2008. Retrieved on 2012-01-13. 13. ^ "Let there be light". The Telegraph. April 26, 2009.
  • 34. 14. ^ Electricity arrives in Mumbai15. ^ Darjeeling Hydro Power System16. ^ Relic of India‘s first electric railway to be dismantled17. ^ Indian Railways History 1900-194718. ^ "Introductory remarks at the Roundtable Day on Energy Access and Climate Finance in Association with UN-Energy". United Nations Development Programme. 2011. a b19. ^ The Partnership for Clean Indoor Air – Sierra Club. Pciaonline.org. Retrieved on 2012-01-13.20. ^ Atmanand et al. (2009). "Energy and Sustainable Development-An Indian Perspective". World Academy of Science.21. ^ Ganguly et al (2001). "INDOOR AIR POLLUTION IN INDIA – A MAJOR ENVIRONMENTAL AND PUBLIC HEALTH CONCERN". Indian Council of Medical Research, New Delhi.22. ^ David Pennise and Kirk Smith. "Biomass Pollution Basics". The World Health Organization.23. ^ "The Asian Brown Cloud: Climate and Other Environmental Impacts". United Nations Environmental Programme. 2002. a b24. ^ "Indoor air pollution and household energy". WHO and UNEP. 2011.25. ^ "Green stoves to replace chullahs". The Times of India. December 3, 2009.26. ^ "Status of Sewage Treatment in India". Central Pollution Control Board, Ministry of Environment & Forests, Govt of India. 2005.27. ^ "Evaluation Of Operation And Maintenance Of Sewage Treatment Plants In India-2007". Central Pollution Control Board, Ministry of Environment & Forests. 2008. a b c28. ^ "Load Generation Balance Report 2011-12". Central Electricity Authority, Government of India Ministry of Power. May 2011. Retrieved 2011-11-26. a b29. ^ "Gujarat solar park likely to produce 300MW by the end of December". The Live Mint &The Wall Street Journal. August 16, 2011.30. ^ "Gujarat govt sets aside Tatas demand for power price hike". The Times of India. December 18, 2011. [dead link]31. ^ Rural electrification in India32. ^ Revkin, Andrew C. (9 April 2008). "Money for Indias ‗Ultra Mega Coal Plants Approved".The New York Times. Retrieved 1 May 2010.33. ^ The Electricity Access Database. iea.org34. ^ "Housing condition in India: Household amenities and other characteristics (July – September 2002)". Government of India.35. ^ "Report on 17th electric power survey of India". Central Electricity Authority, Ministry of Power. 2007.36. ^ "Powering India: The Road to 2017". McKinsey. 2008.
  • 35. 37. ^ YoginderAlagh, Former Minister of Power and Science Technology of India (2011)."Transmission and Distribution of Electricity in India Regulation, Investment and Efficiency". OECD.38. ^ "India struggles with power theft". BBC. 15 March 2006. Retrieved 3 January 2010.39. ^ "Reforming the Power Sector: Controlling Electricity Theft and Improving Revenue" (PDF). The World Bank.40. ^ Electricity and power shortage holding India back. Free-press-release.com (2007-06-20). Retrieved on 2012-01-13.41. ^ Range, Jackie. (2008-10-28) India Faulted for Failure to Improve Power Supply. Online.wsj.com. Retrieved on 2012-01-13.42. ^ Press Information Bureau, India. "Error: no |title= specified when using {{Cite web}}". http://pib.nic.in/newsite/erelease.aspx?relid=84201.43. ^ Basistha Raj Adhikari (July 2009). "Tehri Dam: An Engineering Marvel". Hydro Nepal 5.doi:10.3126/hn.v5i0.2481.44. ^ "Annual Report 1991-1992". Department of Power, Govt of India. 1992.45. ^ "Annual Report 2002-2003". Department of Power, Govt of India. 2003. a b c d e f46. ^ "Load Generation and Balance Report". Central Electricity Authority, Ministry of Power, Government of India. 2011.47. ^ "Annual Report 2010-2011". Power Finance Corporation Ltd, India – A Govt of India entity. 2011.48. ^ "Boom time for power equipment companies". Business Standard. September 2009.49. ^ Ravi Krishnan (March 2010). "Power Report – India: Can she make the most of her opportunities?". Power Engineering International (PennWell): 16–20.50. ^ "Ministry of Power". Powermin.nic.in. 2011-03-22. Retrieved 2012-08-14.51. ^ "Private firms overtake government enterprises in power production, adds about 84% of the target". The Economic Times. July 27, 2011.52. ^ "Economics of Coal and Gas Based Energy". Third Wave Solutions. 2012.53. ^ "TECHNICAL EIA GUIDANCE MANUAL FOR THERMAL POWER PLANTS". Ministry of Environment and Forests, Government of India. 2009.54. ^ Power Sector at a Glance ALL INDIA. Powermin.nic.in. Retrieved on 2012-01-13.55. ^ "Highlights of Power Sector during month". Cea.nic.in. Retrieved 2010-08-26.56. ^ Hydropower Development in India: A Sector Assessment a b c57. ^ "NPCIL Annual Report, 2010–2011". Nuclear Power Corporation of India Limited. 2011.58. ^ "NPCIL Annual Report, 2009–2010". Nuclear Power Corporation of India Limited. 2010.59. ^ "India Steps Up Uranium Exploration After Record Discovery". The Wall Street Journal. July 21, 2011. a b c d e f60. ^ "Year End Review – 2011". Press Information Bureau, Government of India. December 2011.
  • 36. a b 61. ^ "NEW & RENEWABLE ENERGY, Cumulative deployment of various Renewable Energy Systems as on 30/06/2012". Ministry of New and Renewable Energy, Government of India. June 2012. a b c 62. ^ "Gujarat Solar Power Transmission Project: India". Asian Development Bank. September 2011. 63. ^ Sethi, Nitin (November 18, 2009). "India targets 1,000mw solar power in 2013". Times of India. 64. ^ Consumer financing program for solar home systems in southern India. Energyglobe.info. Retrieved on 2012-01-13. 65. ^ UNEP wins Energy Globe award. Renewable-energy-world.com. Retrieved on 2012-01-13. a b 66. ^ "World Wind Energy Report 2010" (PDF). Report. World Wind Energy Association. February 2011. a b 67. ^ "Facts & Figures, India". Wind Power India. 2011. 68. ^ State-wise Wind Power Installed Capacity In India. windpowerindia.com 69. ^ India to add 6,000 mw wind power by 2012; but below target. Business-standard.com. Retrieved on 2012- 01-13. 70. ^ "Biomass for power generation and CHP". International Energy Agency. 2007. 71. ^ "India, Biofuels Annual 2011". United States Department of Agriculture: Global Agricultural Information Network. July 2011. a b 72. ^ "Geothermal fields of India". Geological Survey of India. 2001. a b 73. ^ "Development of 3.75 MW Durgaduani Mini Tidal Power Project, Sunderbans, West Bengal". NHPC Limited – A Government of India Enterprise. December 2011. 74. ^ "Tidal Energy in India". Energy Alternatives India. 2008. 75. ^ "Survey of Energy Resources". World Energy Council. 2007. pp. 575–576. 76. ^ Chris Gascoyne and Alexis Aik (February 2011). "Unconventional Gas and Implications for the LNG Market FACTS Global Energy". Pacific Energy Summit. 77. ^ Amol Sharma and MeghaBahree (1 July 2012). "Grinding Energy Shortage Takes Toll on Indias Growth". The Wall Street Journal. a b 78. ^ "CO2 EMISSIONS FROM FUEL COMBUSTION HIGHLIGHTS, 2011 Edition". International Energy Agency, France. 2011. 79. ^ "Natural Gas - Proved Reserves". CIA World Factbook. Retrieved January 2012. 80. ^ "Country Analysis Brief: India". U.S. Energy Information Administration. 2011. 81. ^ "India starts testing shale-gas plays". Oil and Gas Journal. December 5, 2011. 82. ^ "MCX move to launch electricity future faces legal hurdle". The Financial Express. 83. ^ "Ministry of Power". Government of India. Retrieved December 2011. 84. ^ "REFORM PROGRAMME OF GUJARAT". Ministry of Power, Government of India. January 2001.[edit]External links
  • 37. Macro Patterns in the Use of Traditional Biomass Fuels – A Stanford/TERI report on energy sectorand human historyElectricity industry in the Public Sector in IndiaIndias Energy Policy and Electricity Production―Electricity online trading in India‖―Energy resources in India‖
  • 38. ELECTRICITY SECTOR IN ASIA Afghanistan Armenia Azerbaijan Bahrain Bangladesh Bhutan Brunei Burma (Myanmar) CambodiaSovereign Peoples Republic of China states Cyprus East Timor (Timor-Leste) Egypt Georgia India Indonesia Iran Iraq Israel
  • 39. JapanJordanKazakhstanNorth KoreaSouth KoreaKuwaitKyrgyzstanLaosLebanonMalaysiaMaldivesMongoliaNepalOmanPakistanPhilippinesQatarRussia
  • 40. Saudi Arabia Singapore Sri Lanka Syria Tajikistan Thailand Turkey Turkmenistan United Arab Emirates Uzbekistan Vietnam Yemen Abkhazia Nagorno-KarabakhStates with limited Northern Cyprus recognition Palestine South Ossetia
  • 41. Taiwan British Indian Ocean Territory Christmas IslandDependencies and Cocos (Keeling) Islands other territories Hong Kong Macau [show] V T E
  • 42. WHAT IS DIFFERENCE BETWEEN THE MCB ,MCCB, ELCB ANDRCCB.MCB (Miniature Circuit Breaker)AR AC TE R ISTIC S Rated current not more than 100 A. Trip characteristics normally not adjustable. Thermal or thermal-magnetic operation.
  • 43. What is the difference between MCB, MCCB, ELCB, andRCCBPosted O CT 25 2011 by JI GUPARM AR in ENERGY AND PO WER with 9 CO MM ENTSTranslate »Get PDF »MCB (Miniature Circuit Breaker)C HAR AC TE R ISTI C S Rated current not more than 100 A. Trip characteristics normally not adjustable. Thermal or thermal-magnetic operation. TopMCCB (Moulded Case Circuit Breaker)
  • 44. C HAR AC TE R ISTI C S Rated current up to 1000 A. Trip current may be adjustable. Thermal or thermal-magnetic operation. TopAir Circuit BreakerC HAR AC TE R ISTI C S Rated current up to 10,000 A. Trip characteristics often fully adjustable including configurable trip thresholds and delays. Usually electronically controlled—some models are microprocessor controlled. Often used for main power distribution in large industrial plant, where the breakers are arranged in draw-out enclosures for ease of maintenance. TopVacuum Circuit BreakerC HAR AC TE R ISTI C S With rated current up to 3000 A, These breakers interrupt the arc in a vacuum bottle. These can also be applied at up to 35,000 V. Vacuum circuit breakers tend to have longer life expectancies between overhaul than do air circuit breakers. Top
  • 45. RCD (Residual Current Device / RCCB(Residual CurrentCircuit Breaker)C HAR AC TE R ISTI C S Phase (line) and Neutral both wires connected through RCD. It trips the circuit when there is earth fault current. The amount of current flows through the phase (line) should return through neutral . It detects by RCD. any mismatch between two currents flowing through phase and neutral detect by -RCD and trip the circuit within 30Miliseconed. If a house has an earth system connected to an earth rod and not the main incoming cable, then it must have all circuits protected by an RCD (because u mite not be able to get enough fault current to trip a MCB) RCDs are an extremely effective form of shock protectionThe most widely used are 30 mA (milliamp) and 100 mA devices. A current flow of 30 mA (or 0.03amps) is sufficiently small that it makes it very difficult to receive a dangerous shock. Even 100 mA is arelatively small figure when compared to the current that may flow in an earth fault without suchprotection (hundred of amps)A 300/500 mA RCCB may be used where only fire protection is required. eg., on lighting circuits, wherethe risk of electric shock is small. TopLimitation of RCCB Standard electromechanical RCCBs are designed to operate on normal supply waveformsand cannot be guaranteed to operate where none standard waveforms are generated by loads. The most common is the half wave rectified waveform sometimes called pulsating dc generated by speed control devices, semi conductors, computers and even dimmers. Specially modified RCCBs are available which will operate on normal ac and pulsating dc.
  • 46. RCDs don’t offer protection against current overloads: RCDs detect an imbalance in the live and neutral currents. A current overload, however large, cannot be detected. It is a frequent cause of problems with novices to replace an MCB in a fuse box with an RCD. This may be done in an attempt to increase shock protection. If a live-neutral fault occurs (a short circuit, or an overload), the RCD won’t trip, and may be damaged. In practice, the main MCB for the premises will probably trip, or the service fuse, so the situation is unlikely to lead to catastrophe; but it may be inconvenient. It is now possible to get an MCB and and RCD in a single unit, called an RCBO (see below). Replacing an MCB with an RCBO of the same rating is generally safe. Nuisance tripping of RCCB: Sudden changes in electrical load can cause a small, brief current flow to earth, especially in old appliances. RCDs are very sensitive and operate very quickly; they may well trip when the motor of an old freezer switches off. Some equipment is notoriously `leaky’, that is, generate a small, constant current flow to earth. Some types of computer equipment, and large television sets, are widely reported to cause problems. RCD will not protect against a socket outlet being wired with its live and neutral terminalsthe wrong way round. RCD will not protect against the overheating that results when conductors are not properly screwed into their terminals. RCD will not protect against live-neutral shocks, because the current in the live and neutral is balanced. So if you touch live and neutral conductors at the same time (e.g., both terminals of a light fitting), you may still get a nasty shock. TopELCB (Earth Leakage Circuit Breaker)C HAR AC TE R ISTI C S Phase (line), Neutral and Earth wire connected through ELCB.
  • 47. ELCB is working based on Earth leakage current. Operating Time of ELCB: The safest limit of Current which Human Body can withstand is 30ma sec. Suppose Human Body Resistance is 500Ω and Voltage to ground is 230 Volt. The Body current will be 500/230=460mA. Hence ELCB must be operated in 30maSec/460mA = 0.65msec TopRCBO (Residual Circuit Breaker with OverLoad) It is possible to get a combined MCB and RCCB in one device (Residual Current Breaker with Overload RCBO), the principals are the same, but more styles of disconnection are fitted into one package TopDifference between ELCB and RCCB ELCB is the old name and often refers to voltage operated devices that are no longer available and it is advised you replace them if you find one. RCCB or RCD is the new name that specifies current operated (hence the new name to distinguish from voltage operated). The new RCCB is best because it will detect any earth fault. The voltage type only detects earth faults that flow back through the main earth wire so this is why they stopped being used. The easy way to tell an old voltage operated trip is to look for the main earth wire connected through it. RCCB will only have the line and neutral connections. ELCB is working based on Earth leakage current. But RCCB is not having sensing or connectivity of Earth, because fundamentally Phase current is equal to the neutral current in single phase. That’s why RCCB can trip when the both currents are deferent and it withstand up to both the currents are same. Both the neutral and phase currents are different that means current is flowing through the Earth. Finally both are working for same, but the thing is connectivity is difference. RCD does not necessarily require an earth connection itself (it monitors only the live and neutral).In addition it detects current flows to earth even in equipment without an earth of its own. This means that an RCD will continue to give shock protection in equipment that has a faulty earth. It is these properties that have made the RCD more popular than its rivals. For ex ample, earth-leakage circuit breakers (ELCBs) were widely used about ten years ago. These devices measured the voltage on the earth conductor; if this voltage was not zero this indicated a current leakage to earth. The problem is that ELCBs need a sound earth connection, as does the equipment it protects. As a result, the use of ELCBs is no longer recommended. Top
  • 48. MCB Selection The first characteristic is the overload which is intended to prevent the accidental overloading of the cable in a no fault situation. The speed of the MCB tripping will vary with the degree of the overload. This is usually achieved by the use of a thermal device in the MCB. The second characteristic is the magnetic fault protection, which is intended to operate when the fault reaches a predetermined level and to trip the MCB within one tenth of a second. The level of this magnetic trip gives the MCB its type characteristic as follows: Type Tripping Current Operating Time Type B 3 To 5 time full load current 0.04 To 13 Sec Type C 5 To 10 times full load current 0.04 To 5 Sec Type D 10 To 20 times full load current 0.04 To 3 Sec The third characteristic is the short circuit protection, which is intended to protect against heavy faults maybe in thousands of amps caused by short circuit faults. The capability of the MCB to operate under these conditions gives its short circuit rating in Kilo amps (KA). In general for consumer units a 6KA fault level is adequate whereas for industrial boards 10KA fault capabilities or above may be required. TopFuse and MCB characteristics Fuses and MCBs are rated in amps. The amp rating given on the fuse or MCB body is the amount of current it will pass continuously. This is normally called the rated current or nominal current. Many people think that if the current exceeds the nominal current, the device will trip, instantly. So if the rating is 30 amps, a current of 30.00001 amps will trip it, right? This is not true. The fuse and the MCB, even though their nominal currents are similar, have very different properties. For example, For 32Amp MCB and 30 Amp Fuse, to be sure of tripping in 0.1 seconds, the MCB requires a current of 128 amps, while the fuse requires 300 amps. The fuse clearly requires more current to blow it in that time, but notice how much bigger boththese currents are than the ’30 amps’ marked current rating. There is a small likelihood that in the course of, say, a month, a 30-amp fuse will trip when carrying 30 amps. If the fuse has had a couple of overloads before (which may not even have been noticed) this is much more likely. This explains why fuses can sometimes ‘blow’ for no obvious reason
  • 49. If the fuse is marked ’30 amps’, but it will actually stand 40 amps for over an hour, how can wejustify calling it a ’30 amp’ fuse? The answer is that the overload characteristics o f fuses aredesigned to match the properties of modern cables. For example, a modern PVC -insulated cablewill stand a 50% overload for an hour, so it seems reasonable that the fuse should as well.
  • 50. DIFFERENCE BETWEEN THE POWER TRANSFORMER ANDDISTRIBUTIONTRANSFORMERPower transformers are used in transmission network of higher voltages for step-up and step downapplication (400 kV, 200 kV, 110 kV, 66 kV, 33kV) and are generally rated above 200MVA.Distribution transformers are used for lower voltage distribution networks as a means to end userconnectivity. (11kV, 6.6 kV, 3.3 kV, 440V, 230V) and are generally rated less than 200 MVA.Transformer Size / Insulation Level:Power transformer is used for the transmission purpose at heavy load, high voltage greater than 33KV & 100% efficiency. It also having a big in size as compare to distribution transformer, it used ingenerating station and Transmission substation .high insulation level.The distribution transformer is used for the distribution of electrical energy at low voltage as lessthan 33KV in industrial purpose and 440v-220v in domestic purpose. It work at low efficiency at 50-70%, small size, easy in installation, having low magnetic losses & it is not always fully loaded.
  • 51. Iron Losses and Copper LossesPower Transformers are used in Transmission network so they do not directly connect to theconsumers, so load fluctuations are very less. These are loaded fully during 24 hr’s a day, so Culosses & Fe losses takes place throughout day the specific weight i.e. (iron weight)/(cu weight) is veryless .the average loads are nearer to full loaded or full load and these are designed in such a way thatmaximum efficiency at full load condition. These are independent of time so in calculating the efficiencyonly power basis is enough.Power Transformers are used in Distribution Network so directly connected to the consumer so loadfluctuations are very high. these are not loaded fully at all time so iron losses takes place 24hr a dayand cu losses takes place based on load cycle. the specific weight is more i.e. (iron weight)/(cuweight).average loads are about only 75% of full load and these are designed in such a way that maxefficiency occurs at 75% of full load. As these are time dependent the all day efficiency i s defined inorder to calculate the efficiency.Power transformers are used for transmission as a step up devices so that the I2r loss can beminimized for a given power flow. These transformers are designed to utilize the core to maximum andwill operate very much near to the knee point of B-H curve (slightly above the knee point value).Thisbrings down the mass of the core enormously. Naturally these transformers have the matched ironlosses and copper losses at peak load (i.e. the maximum efficiency point where both the losses match).Distribution transformers obviously cannot be designed like this. Hence the all-day-efficiency comesinto picture while designing it. It depends on the typical load cycle for which it has to supply. DefinitelyCore design will be done to take care of peak load and as well as all-day-efficiency. It is a bargainbetween these two points.Power transformer generally operated at full load. Hence, it is designed such that copper losses areminimal. However, a distribution transformer is always online and operated at loads less than full loadfor most of time. Hence, it is designed such that core losses are minimal.In Power Transformer the flux density is higher than the distribution transformer.Maximum EfficiencyThe main difference between power and distribution transformer is distribution transformer is designedfor maximum efficiency at 60% to 70% load as normally doesn’t operate at full load all the time. Its loaddepends on distribution demand. Whereas power transformer is designed for maximum efficiency at100% load as it always runs at 100% load being near to generating station.Distribution Transformer is used at the distribution level where voltages tend to be lower .Thesecondary voltage is almost always the voltage delivered to the end consumer. Because of voltagedrop limitations, it is usually not possible to deliver that secondary voltage over great distances.
  • 52. As a result, most distribution systems tend to involve many ‘clusters’ of loads fed from distributiontransformers, and this in turn means that the thermal rating of distribution transformers doesn’t have tobe very high to support the loads that they have to serve..All day efficiency = (Output in KWhr) / (Input in KWhr) in 24 hrs which is always less than pow erefficiency.http://www.greenpeace.org/india/en/Multimedia/Brikesh-arrives-at-the-tree-house/LOAD TRANSMISION LINE STRUCTURE
  • 53. Loads on Transmission Line StructureLoads are calculated on the structures in three directions: vertical, transverse, and longitudinal. Thetransverse load is perpendicular to the line and the longitudinal loads act parallel to the lineVertical LoadsThe vertical load on supporting structures consists of the weight of the structure plus the superim-posedweight, including all wires, ice coated where specified. Vertical load of wireVwin. (lb/ft) is given by thefollowing equations:Transverse LoadsTransverse loads are caused by wind pressure on wires and structure, and the transverse component ofthelinetensionat anglesWind Load on WiresThe transverse load due to wind on the wire is given by the following equations:
  • 54. Transverse Load Due to Line AngleWhere a line changes direction, the total transverse load on the structure is the sum of the transversewind load and the transverse component of the wire tension. The transverse component of the tensionmay be of significant magnitude, especially for large angle structures. To calculate the total load, a winddirection should be used which will give the maximum resultant load considering the effects on the wiresand structure. The transverse component of wire tension on the structure is given by the followingequation:Wind Load on StructuresIn addition to the wire load, structures are subjected to wind loads acting on the exposed areasof the structure. The wind force coefficients on lattice towers depend on shapes of member sections,solidity ratio, angle of incidence of wind (face-on wind or diagonal wind), and shielding. Methods forcalculating wind loads on transmission structures are given in the ASCE Guide as well the NESC codeLongitudinal LoadingThere are several conditions under which a structure is subjected to longitudinal loading: DeadendStructures—These structures are capable of withstanding the full tension of the conductors and shieldwires or combinations thereof, on one side of the structure. Stringing— Longitudinal load may occur atany one phase or shield wire due to a hang-up in the blocks during stringing. The longitudinal load istaken as the stringing tension for the complete phase (i.e., all subconductors strung simultaneously) or ashield wire. In order to avoid any prestressing of the conductors, stringing tension is typically limited to theminimum tension required to keep the conductor from touching the ground or any obstructions. Based oncommon practice and according to the IEEE ―Guide to the Installation of Overhead Transmission LineConductors‖ , stringing tension is generally about one-half of thesaggingtension. Therefore, thelongitudinal stringing load is equal to 50% of the initial, unloaded tension at 60 F. LongitudinalUnbalanced Load—Longitudinal unbalanced forces can develop at the structures due to variousconditions on the line. In rugged terrain, large differentials in adjacent span lengths, combined with
  • 55. inclined spans, could result in significant longitudinal unbalanced load under ice and wind conditions.Non-uniform loading of adjacent spans can also produce longitudinal unbalanced loads. This load isbased on an ice shedding condition where ice is dropped from one span and not the adjacent spans.Reference includes a software that is commonly used for calculating unbalanced loads on the structure.EXAMPLEDetermine the wire loads on a small angle structure in accordance with the data given below. UseNESC medium district loading and assume all intact conditions. Given Data:SolutionNESC Medium District Loading
  • 56. Reference: ―Transmission Structures‖ Structural EngineeringHandbook by Fang, S.J.; Roy, S. andKramer, J.Article Tags: #Loads on Transmission #Vertical Loads #Transverse Loads #Wind Load on Wires #LineAngle #Transverse Load #Wind Load on Structures #Longitudinal Loading#Loads on Transmission LineStructure #Transmission Line Structure

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