Blu ray disks by.raman sanoria

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  • 1. Submitted ByRaman sanoria 1
  • 2. Blu_Ray DisksISE, SCE 2 2
  • 3. Blu_Ray Disks• Introduction• History & Evolution• Features• Working• Implementation• Future & Commercial Market• Conclusion• References ISE, SCE 3
  • 4.  Blu-ray disc (BD) is appropriately named after the blue laser used to write the data  A Blu-ray Disc (also known as BD or Blu-Ray) is an optical disc storage medium designed to supersede the standard DVD format.  The disc has the same physical dimensions as standard DVDs and CDs  Takes up about five times more bandwidth and therefore requires a disc with about five times more storage.  Blu-ray is the next-generation digital video disc. It can record, store and play back high-definition video and digital audio, as well as computer data. The advantage to Blu-ray is the sheer amount of information it can hold.ISE, SCE 4 4
  • 5.  A single-layer Blu-ray disc, which is roughly the same size as a DVD, can hold up to 25GB of data -- thats more than two hours of high-definition video or about 13 hours of standard video. A double-layer Blu-ray disc can store up to 50 GB, enough to hold about 4.5 hours of high-definition video or more than 20 hours of standard video. Users will be able to connect to the Internet and instantly download subtitles and other interactive movie features. 5
  • 6.  1st GENERATION: Compact disc (CD): --- 650/700 MB It is with us for over 20 years. Wavelength of laser which reads data: 780 nm Color of laser: Red 2nd GENERATION: Digital versatile disc (DVD): --- 4.7 GB It offers high quality sound and video than CD. Wavelength of laser which reads data: 650 nm Color of laser: Red 3rd GENERATION: Blue-ray disc (BD): --- 25/50 GB1. Developed by blue-ray disc association (which includes Apple, Hitachi, HP, LG, Panasonic, Pioneer, Philips, Samsung, Sharp, Sony)2. Wavelength of laser which reads data: 405 nm3. Color of laser: Blue-violet which was developed by SHUJI NAKAMURA at NICHIA CORPORATION 6
  • 7. •Record high-definition television (HDTV) without any quality loss •Instantly skip to any spot on the disk •Record one program while watching another on the disc •Create playlists •Edit or reorder programs recorded on the disc •Automatically search for an empty space on the disc to avoid recording over a program •Access the Web to download subtitles and other extra featuresISE, SCE 7 7
  • 8. •Discs store digitally encoded video and audio information in pits -- spiral grooves that run from the center of the disc to its edges. • A laser reads the other side of these pits -- the bumps -- to play the movie or program that is stored on the DVD. •The more data that is contained on a disc, the smaller and more closely packed the pits must be. • The smaller the pits , the more precise the reading laser must be. •Unlike current DVDs, Blu-ray uses a blue laser . A blue laser has a shorter wavelength (405 nanometers) than a red laser (650 nanometers). •The smaller beam focuses more precisely, enabling it to read information recorded in pits that are only 0.15 microns (µm) this is more than twice as small as the pits on a DVD. •Blu-ray has reduced the track pitch from 0.74 microns to 0.32 microns. The smaller pits, smaller beam and shorter track pitch together enable a single- layer Blu-ray disc to hold more than 25 GB of informationISE, SCE 8 8
  • 9. Pits : spiral grooves that run from the centre of the disc to its edgesBumps : other sides of these edges.Track pitch : it is the distance between the two tracks (of pits) on the surface.-----------------------------Disc store digitally encoded data in PITS. 9
  • 10. So, in blu-ray disc:Pit size – 0.15 microns ( more than twice as small as the pits on DVD )Track-pitch is : 0.32 micronsLaser needed : blue-violet laser (405 nm)Data transfer rate : 36 Mbps 10
  • 11. Each Blu-ray disc is about the same thickness (1.2millimeters) as a DVD. But the two types of discs store datadifferently 11
  • 12. How it’s MadeThe Blu-ray disc overcomes DVD-reading issues by placing the data on top of a 1.1-mm-thick polycarbonate layer. Having the data on top prevents birefringence andtherefore prevents readability problems. And, with the recording layer sitting closerto the objective lens of the reading mechanism, the problem of disc tilt is virtuallyeliminated. Because the data is closer to the surface, a hard coating is placed on theoutside of the disc to protect it from scratches and fingerprints. The design of the Blu-ray discs saves on manufacturing costs. Traditional DVDs are built by injection molding the two 0.6-mm discs between which the recording layer is sandwiched. The process must be done very carefully to prevent birefringence. The two discs are molded. The recording layer is added to one of the discs. The two discs are glued together. Blu-ray discs only do the injection-molding process on a single 1.1-mm disc, which reduces cost. 12
  • 13. BLU-RAY DISKS DENSITY ADVANTAGE  Higher density enables better data seek times  Shorter to travel for same amount of data results in faster data seek  Better for random access of data 13
  • 14. DUAL LAYER 14
  • 15. 15
  • 16. LASER AND OPTICS• Blu-ray Disc uses a "blue" (technically violet) laser, operating at awavelength of 405 nm, to read and write data. The diodes are InGaN (IndiumGallium Nitride) lasers that produce 405 nm photons directly, that is, withoutfrequency doubling or other nonlinear optical mechanisms. Conventional DVDsand CDs use red and near-infrared lasers, at 650 nm and 780 nm, respectively.• The blue-violet lasers shorter wavelength makes it possible to store moreinformation on a 12 cm CD/DVD-size disc. The minimum "spot size" on which alaser can be focused is limited by diffraction, and depends on the wavelength ofthe light and the numerical aperture of the lens used to focus it. By decreasingthe wavelength, increasing the numerical aperture from 0.60 to 0.85, andmaking the cover layer thinner to avoid unwanted optical effects, the laser beamcan be focused to a smaller spot. This allows more information to be stored inthe same area. For Blu-ray Disc, the spot size is 580 nm. In addition to theoptical improvements, Blu-ray Discs feature improvements in data encoding thatfurther increase the capacity. 16
  • 17. Recording speed Theoretical Write time for Blu- Data rateDrive ray Disc (minutes)speed Mbit MB Single-Layer Dual-Layer /s /s 1 36 4.5 90 180 2 72 9 45 90 4 144 18 22.5 45 6 216 27 15 30 8 288 36 11.25 22.5 12 ] 432 54 7.5 15 17
  • 18. Software standardsCodecsThe BD-ROM specification mandates certain codec compatibilitiesfor both hardware decoders (players) and movie software.VideoFor video, all players are required to support MPEG-2 Part 2,H.264/MPEG-4 AVC, and SMPTE VC-1.MPEG-2 is the codec usedAudioFor audio, BD-ROM players are required to support Dolby Digital(AC-3), DTS, and linear PCM. 18
  • 19.  Java is used to implement interactive menus on Blu-ray Discs, as opposed to the method used on DVD video discs. Inclusion of a Java Virtual Machine, as well as network connectivity in some BD devices, will allow updates to Blu-ray Discs via the Internet, adding content such as additional subtitle languages and promotional features not included on the disc at pressing time. This Java Version is called BD-J Most Blu-ray Discs that have BD-J menus do not allow a Blu-ray Disc player to automatically resume a movie from the point at which it was stopped. ISE, SCE 19 19
  • 20. Ongoing development•Although the Blu-ray Disc specification has been finalized, engineers continueto work on advancing the technology. Quad-layer (100 GB) discs have beendemonstrated on a drive with modified optics•JVC has developed a three-layer technology that allows putting bothstandard-definition DVD data and HD data on a BD/(standard) DVDcombination. If successfully commercialized, this would enable the consumer topurchase a disc that can be played on current DVD players•In December 2008, Pioneer Corporation unveiled a 400 GB (containing 16data layers, 25 GB each) and a 500 GB (containing 20 layers) Blu-ray Disc thatwill be compatible with current players after a firmware update. Its plannedlaunch is in the 2009–10 time frame for ROM and 2010–13 for rewritable discs.Ongoing development is under way to create a 1 TB (1,000GB) Blu-ray Disc assoon as 2013. 20
  • 21.  Expect the BD to become more prevalent once the HDTV market establishes its presence. Audio and video will reach higher qualities with larger storage space. Look for BD with more than two layers as the technology is further refined. Sony has made the Disc with size 200GB already. Pioneer announced on August 5, 2008 , that they have got success in making BD with increased Disc Size of 500GB. 21
  • 22.  More capacity, Density and Performance More Industry Support/Consumer Reach (BDA has 140+ members) More Durable More Interactive User Experience More Flexible Content Protection: AAC, BD+ Renewability Technology and ROM Mark AVMON for Distributed Systems 22
  • 23.  http://www.digitaljournal.com/article/254136 http://www.blu-ray.com/news/?id=1616, http://www.docstoc.com/docs/424938/White-paper-General-Blu-ray- Disc-Format http://allfreedownloadlinks.com/free-softwares/free-multimedia- software/blu-ray- to-dvd-pro-v120/ http://reviews.cnet.com/1770-9991_7-0.html?query= blu+ray+disc&searchtype=products&tag=ltcol;narrow http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Blu-ray_Disc# Technical_specifications http://www.thefreelibrary.com/_/search/Search.aspx? SearchBy=0&Word=blu+ray+disc&By=0 23