Accounting Information system Design

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Accounting Information system Design in educational institute

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  • Hello friends ,
    Today’s topic for discussion is the accounts department software development for educational institutes. The accounts software for an educational institution poses some additional typical challenges in that the traditional system is unable to handle. We shall see them in the slides that will follow.
  • I will be taking up the case study of Accounts Department Computerization Initiative undertaken at the International Institute of Professional Studies, that is, IIPS. IIPS is a premier educational institute located at Indore imparting quality education in the field of Computer Science and Management. It is an autonomous educational Institute of the Devi Ahilya University. The oldest programmes that are running at IIPS are the integrated 6 year Masters in Computer Applications and the 5 year integrated Masters in Management Sciences. Some new programmes have also been started like the MTA , MAPRM and B Com (Hons).
    This presentation will be all about how the accounts software of the IIPS was designed and implemented following the database approach to the design and implementation of information systems.
  • The presentation outline is as follows.
    I will be introducing this presentation in the prologue which will include the aim, the expected audience, the project guide, the team members, the need and requirement of the project and the development methodology used.
    Following this I will shift to the External Schema which will aim at documenting the existing system while simultaneously highlighting the need for a new system and preparing the Enterprise Data Model for the new System.
    The conceptual Schema will take over the documented new system to be implemented and will lead to a model of the new system to be developed. The Entity Relation Diagram will be an outcome of this stage which we will discuss in detail.
    The logical Schema will be a software oriented implementation of the conceptual schema and will lead to the development of the relations that should be implemented. Normalization of such relations identified will be done so as to reduce the anomalies during the implementation.
    The physical schema will highlight the Denormalization of the relations .
    The implementation will show the snapshots of the actual working system. All the menus will be discussed in detail.
    And finally, I will conclude with a cost benefit analysis of the information system developed and benefits that the various stakeholders have achieved by the use of this system.
  • Now let me introduce this presentation to you.
    The aim of this presentation is to demonstrate the analysis with design and development of the Accounts department computerization software at IIPS. I believe the situation will be nearly the same for all educational institutes in India with slight modifications to what has been developed to suit individual needs.
  • The recommended audience for this presentation is ……
  • The project guide is Prof. A. K. Ramani , BE ME PhD , Director of the IIPS , DAVV.
  • The team members for developing this project were Jyandeep Tripathi and myself Vijyendra Singh Niranjan
  • Now let us come to the need for automating the accounting the process. The needs of developing this software are
    a.
    b.
    c.
    The major broad based requirements that were identified from the main stakeholders of this system are
    a.
    b.
    c.
  • In developing this software, the team has followed the Database approach to information systems design and development, the major part of which are :
    1.
    2.
    3.
    4.
    5.
  • Now I will come to the External Schema. The external Schema consists of the following five parts
    1
    2
    3
    4
    5
    We will discuss each of them one by one.
  • The organizational Scenario.
    Before developing any database oriented system, the organization scenario of the automation task is studied and documented in detail. Here are the major points of the organizational scenario that were documented.
    1
    2
    3
  • The accounts department can be divided into the following major sections
    Income
    Expenditure
    Cash Book
    The major disadvantage of the system results from the fact that it is an entirely manual system which is of traditional inheritance. Hence,
    1.
    2.
    3.
    These and many other disadvantages call for a change in the traditional system.
  • Now, we will discuss the strategic planning factors . SPF consists of three parts – the goals , the critical success factors and the problem areas in development of the system.
    The goals
    The Critical Success Factors
    The problem areas are
  • In the corporate planning objects we identify the broad organizational units , the organizational locations – whether a single or a distributed location and the business functions .
  • Entities are any person , place , object or event of interest to the organization .
    The broad level entities that have been identified are as follows.
    These are not the final entities as there may be changes during the system development as we will see shortly.
  • The information systems that are to be developed are documented as follows :--
  • The EDM is the final stage of the External Schema . This EDM identifies how the organization works and how the tasks or the entities are dependent on each other.
    Here we can notice a broad distinction between the income section and the Expenditure section with the Cash Book providing a connection between them.
  • Now let us come to the conceptual schema.
    In conceptual schema we will discuss the entities in detail, following which we will discuss the relationship between the entities. This will lead to the relationship definitions following which the structural and the operational constraints will be identified.
    All this will lead to the development of an Enhanced Entity Relation Model.
  • The entities shown above are the broad level entities that have been identified during the earlier phase of the external schema. But are these enough ? We will find that we require some more entities to map our system.
  • Thus some of the new entities added are shows .
    Login is added because any computerized information system must have a proper authentication mechanism.
  • In the EDM, we had seen that the income and the expenditure entities were separated by the cash book. Here we define the relation amongst the income entities .
    For example – a Student Fees record is for a student .
    a Student belongs to a Category
    a student is enrolled for a Course
  • Similarly we define the relationship amongst the expenditure entities as shown.
    Expenditure is under an Expenditure Head
    Expenditure updates a Ledger
    Expenditure is entered in Cash Book
  • No we come over to the structural constraints . The structural constraints consists of the following three parts
    1.
    2.
    3.
    We will discuss each one of them in the following slides.
  • Definition of Attributes :
    in this step, we define all the attributes irrespective of their entities. Such a definition includes the Name of the attribute , it’s domain, a short description and whether it can hold a null value or not.
    Ex. Enrollment Number has the domain Enrollment Number , this domain will be described shortly – it identifies each and every student of the university uniquely and can never be null for this system.
  • The list of attributes surely increases linearly with the increase in the number of entities in the system.
  • Now, we define the domain constraints for each domain listed in the attribute table. The definition of the domain constraints is given by the Name of domain , the Data type , The allowable characters and the format.
    For example – taking the Enrollment Number domain – the format is predefined for the Devi Ahilya University as being of the format – XX-99-999999 like DC-97-059834
  • The domain constraints are continued.
  • The Operational Constraints :- The operational Constraints identify the constraints that affect the business.
    Let us take the business rule -An entry can be made in the cash book only for an entry in the Daily Fees Collection or in the Expenditure.
    Here the Constrained Object is the CASH BOOK (Entity)
    And the Constraining Object is the DFC and EXPENDITURE (Entities)
  • This is the Enhanced entity relation diagram for the system to be developed.
    /// As in the EDM here also we can see a distinction between the income entities and the expenditure entities.
    As there is a shortage of space, we were not able to fit in the attributes of the entities.
    The EER model marks the end of the conceptual phase. We will use this EER model to develop our system further is the logical and the physical schemas.
    // describe the entities as the model proceeds.
  • In the logical schema, we have the following major points :
    1.
    2.
    3.
    4.
    We will discuss them all in detail in the coming slides.
  • The input / output screens and transactions are shown as follows
    // read ,
  • // read
  • // read
  • In the relational model, we first transfer the ER diagram into relations, following which we identify the functional dependencies between the attributes of relation and then normalize the relations so that there are no dependencies.
    As there are a large number of entities , it is not possible to discuss the above procedure with all of them, so, we will just take an example of each of the process.
  • In the step of the transforming of the entities from the ER into relations, we pick up an entity from the ER diagram. Let us take the Student Fees Record entity. The entity looks like the one described above.
  • Converting the entity to a relation, we get the following relation.
  • Similarly, we can do the same for the entity student.
  • Let us consider the entity DD LIST . This entity has the attributes : DD DATE , DD Number , Bank and Branch , Amount and Print Date .
    We can see that this entity has no partial dependency as all the attributes are fully functionally dependent on the primary key.
  • If we take the case of the entity Student , we find that a partial dependency exists as all fields can be determined by both Roll Number and the Enrollment Number.
    This partial dependency may lead to anomalies.
  • In the normalization process , we break relations that have partial dependencies.
    We can break the relation student into the relations Roll Enroll and Student as shown.
    The process of normalization completed the phase of the Logical Schema.
  • The step of physical design consists of the following three parts
    1.
    2.
    3.
    We will discuss each one of them in detail in the slides that will follow.
  • // read
  • The final relations that are to be implemented are as follows . There are 17 final relations in all that will be required to implement the system under discussion.
  • Indexes are required for faster access of data.
    Considering the entity Daily Fees Collection, we can have an index on the DAtE_DFC of the Receipt Number.
    The process of identifying the final relations and the indexes completes the physical design process.
  • In the implementation section , I will show you the snapshots of the actual working system followed by the hardware and the software requirements for the development of this system.
  • The splash screen and the login screen .
    Only those users who have proper authorization by a user name and a password can use this system.
  • These are the menu options for the income part of the system. The various sub items of the menus and their use is discussed further.
  • Fees receipt is the screen that is used to print a receipt to a student who has paid the fees. The receipt of fees is in the form of a demand draft only.
    After entering the roll number, the information about the student appears on the right hand side. The other details are filled by the operator.
  • This is how the fees receipt looks like.
  • For entering receipts from other persons, this form is used. Here , receipts can also be made for any cash receipts.
  • For reprinting a receipt or for canceling it, only the receipt number is required.
  • For the entry of student record and for modifying it, a multipurpose form has been made which allows the addition of new records, deletion of records and modification of existing records.
  • The fees information entry has a provision for entry of fees for each batch , course , year ( for graduation and post graduation) and the categroy.
  • The fees collected during a particular duration can be seen through the fees collection report
  • The fees collection report also shows fees collected in foreign currency as shown.
  • We also have a provision for providing the list of students who have not deposited their fees as of yet, by entering the batch number and the semester for the fees collection duration.
  • We can also see a list of the students who have paid their fees and in how much quantity.
  • These are the menu items of the expenditure section . We will discuss them one by one.
  • The staff information entry has a provision for entering the details of the staff that is required for the purpose of the accounts . This includes the type of staff , name , designation and the a/c number along with the salary details.
  • The information can also be edited if there is a change in the designation , account number or the salary details.
  • We can enter the various budget heads. There are 47 fixed budged heads and other can be entered from 48th number onwards.
  • The budget head list shows the various budget heads along with the provision and the balance remaining.
  • The cheque issuing register is used for issuing cheques for various expenses of the institute.
  • We have provided a separate section for entering salary . The one shown above is for the visiting faculty salary.
  • For the salary entry , we just provide the month , year and the type of the faculty .---
  • Following which we can iterate through all the staff members of that category of staff
  • If any additional payment is to be provided to the staff , it can be done through the additional salary entry.
  • Advances are given to various persons for carrying out the work of the institute . A record of all the advances given out are maintained.
  • When the advances are settled, the information is entered if any excess expenditure is done and a cheque is issued, else a receipt number is entered verifying that excess amount has been deposited.
  • The salary slips to the staff members are also issued in the format shown.
  • A salary report , Income tax report , Provident Fund report and the individual faculty salary report can also be viewed.
  • The salary report for a particular month for a particular category of staff can be viewed.
  • How much income tax was cut from the salary of the staff members for a particular month can also be displayed.
  • Same is the case with the provident fund.
  • We can also see the salary details of individual staff members regarding all payments made to them till date.
  • This is the format of the cheque issuing report giving details of all expenditure incurred during each particular day.
  • This is the format of the cash book showing the incomes and expenditure for a particular day.
  • The implementation of this system had the following requirements :
    read.
    This marks the end of the implementation phase .
  • Each information to be of benefit to the organization must result in a net monetary benefit. The cost and benefit analysis in monetary terms for this information system can be made as follows.
    Thus , we find that there is a net monetary gain for the organization.
  • There are other benefits apart from the monetary aspect . These are best recollected by the experiences of persons associated with the system ..
    Read
  • No information system can claim to the best in itself and complete. There are always some enhancements that can be made to it. Here are some of them that the development team has identified.
    Read
  • The references :
    1. McFadden , Hoffer and Prescott offer a very interesting reading of the database development process and their process is very simple and good and is a required reading for any database oriented information systems developer.
    2. Korth and associates are a standard reading on the database concepts
    3. Mastering Visual Basic was very helpful along with MSDN library on the nitty gritty aspects of visual basic programming.
    4. Reading Koch and Loney provided a help on the database implementation aspect using oracle.
    5. Understanding SQL is a very simple reading for learning SQL commands and their intricacies.
    6. Some sections of the Accounting Information System provided help on how to develop an automated accounting system
    7. and finally, the most important help was provided by the various stakeholders of the projects – The Director of the institute , the accounts staff , the teachers and students of the IIPS.
  • It is always a good practice to document the lessons learnt during the project and a comprehensive list is built up at the end. The most important lessons that were learnt by the development team during the implementation of the system are as follows
    1.
    2.
    3.
    4.
  • Read.
  • This marks the end of todays discussion. For any furthur queries and comments, please contact at the above addresses. Thank you.
  • Accounting Information system Design

    1. 1. Design of Accounting Systems for Educational Institutes
    2. 2. ADCI @ IIPS ACCOUNTS DEPARTMENT COMPUTERIZATION INITIATIVE AT INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF PROFESIONAL STUDIES a case of
    3. 3. Prologue External Schema Conceptual Schema Logical Schema Physical Schema Implementation Epilogue The Presentation Outline PPROLOGUEROLOGUE EXTERNAL SCHEMA CONCEPTUAL SCHEMA LOGICAL SCHEMA PHYSICAL DESIGN IMPLEMENTATION EPILOGUE
    4. 4. To demonstrate the analysis and development of Accounts Department Computerization Software. Aim PPROLOGUEROLOGUE EXTERNAL SCHEMA CONCEPTUAL SCHEMA LOGICAL SCHEMA PHYSICAL DESIGN IMPLEMENTATION EPILOGUE
    5. 5. Technical Audience PPROLOGUEROLOGUE EXTERNAL SCHEMA CONCEPTUAL SCHEMA LOGICAL SCHEMA PHYSICAL DESIGN IMPLEMENTATION EPILOGUE Programmers / System Analysts / Project Managers / Database Designers / Post Graduate Students / People concerned with Educational Institutions Accounts and all those willing to take up the challenges of Information Systems Design
    6. 6. Dr. A. K. Ramani Prof. & Head, School of Computer Sc., & IT, DEVI AHILYA UNIVERSITY www.scs.dauniv.ac.in Project Guide PPROLOGUEROLOGUE EXTERNAL SCHEMA CONCEPTUAL SCHEMA LOGICAL SCHEMA PHYSICAL DESIGN IMPLEMENTATION EPILOGUE
    7. 7. Jyandeep Tripathi Vijyendra Singh Niranjan The ADCI @ IIPS Team PPROLOGUEROLOGUE EXTERNAL SCHEMA CONCEPTUAL SCHEMA LOGICAL SCHEMA PHYSICAL DESIGN IMPLEMENTATION EPILOGUE
    8. 8. Project Initiation PPROLOGUEROLOGUE EXTERNAL SCHEMA CONCEPTUAL SCHEMA LOGICAL SCHEMA PHYSICAL DESIGN IMPLEMENTATION EPILOGUE Need : a. Accounting work is tedious. b. A huge amount of money is involved. c. Error is not tolerable. Requirement : a. A system which can make the work simple. b. Make the accounting work less error prone. c. Have the reports as fast as possible.
    9. 9. Project Development PPROLOGUEROLOGUE EXTERNAL SCHEMA CONCEPTUAL SCHEMA LOGICAL SCHEMA PHYSICAL DESIGN IMPLEMENTATION EPILOGUE Follow the Database approach to Information Systems Design and Development. • External Schema • Conceptual Schema • Logical Schema • Physical Schema • Implementation
    10. 10. Organizational Scenario Problems with the existing system Functionality of the organization Information Systems Architecture Enterprise Data Model The External Schema PROLOGUE EEXTERNALXTERNAL SSCHEMACHEMA CONCEPTUAL SCHEMA LOGICAL SCHEMA PHYSICAL DESIGN IMPLEMENTATION EPILOGUE
    11. 11. The institute – business entity whose major function is to provide education Accounts Department – Unit of IIPS concerned with all the accounting work (work related to finances) Accounts Department’s zone of influence is institute wide – hence, it’s efficient working is a must as any failure will have institute wide repercussions. Organizational Scenario PROLOGUE EEXTERNALXTERNAL SSCHEMACHEMA CONCEPTUAL SCHEMA LOGICAL SCHEMA PHYSICAL DESIGN IMPLEMENTATION EPILOGUE
    12. 12. Major Divisions in the Accounts Section – Income : mainly fees collection , other sources of income include collection from people other than students, fines, revaluation fees, etc. Expenditure : concerned with any and all kind of expenditure work relating to the institute. Such expenditure includes Electricity and Water Bills, Salaries to staff and Honorarium to Visiting Faculty and Guests, Books, Furniture, Equipment, Computers, etc. Cash Book Maintenance : a daily statement of the income and expenditure. This cash book is a basic compilation of the income and expenditure. Entirely manual A similar entry is made at possible three places (ex. Fees Receipt, Daily Fees Collection and Student Fees Record) The maintenance of these ledgers and proper compilation of data is difficult and cumbersome. There is no timely presentation of facts Organizational Scenario ( contd.) PROLOGUE EEXTERNALXTERNAL SSCHEMACHEMA CONCEPTUAL SCHEMA LOGICAL SCHEMA PHYSICAL DESIGN IMPLEMENTATION EPILOGUE
    13. 13. Strategic Planning Factors Goals Develop a preliminary understanding of the business situation . Develop a model for Fees Collection, Expenditure, salary and cash book Document existing system . Analyze the functions involved in the running of the existing system and their database needs. Develop an application that automates and extends the traditional system Critical Success Factors Ease of operation Minimal need for intervention: Availability of updated records Management Support Problem Areas Fast Response Security Backups and Contingency Plans Maintenance of records Information Systems Architecture PROLOGUE EEXTERNALXTERNAL SSCHEMACHEMA CONCEPTUAL SCHEMA LOGICAL SCHEMA PHYSICAL DESIGN IMPLEMENTATION EPILOGUE
    14. 14. Corporate Planning Objects Organizational Units Income Expenditure Cash Book Maintenance Organizational Locations : single organizational location Business Functions Income Fees Receipts Fines and other receipts Reports – Daily Fees Collection , Student Fees Record , Demand Draft List , No Dues , List of Students who have paid Fees Expenditure Cheque Issuing Register Maintenance of Ledgers for various expenditure heads Salaries for faculty and staff Visiting Faculty Honorarium Maintenance of Cash Book Information Systems Architecture… PROLOGUE EEXTERNALXTERNAL SSCHEMACHEMA CONCEPTUAL SCHEMA LOGICAL SCHEMA PHYSICAL DESIGN IMPLEMENTATION EPILOGUE
    15. 15. STUDENT STUDENT FEES RECORD OTHER INCOME RECORD DAILY FEES COLLECTION STAFF CHEQUE ISSUING REGISTER LEDGER SALARY & INCOME TAX STATEMENT The Entities PROLOGUE EEXTERNALXTERNAL SSCHEMACHEMA CONCEPTUAL SCHEMA LOGICAL SCHEMA PHYSICAL DESIGN IMPLEMENTATION EPILOGUE
    16. 16. Fees Receipt Receipt Generation Daily Fees Collection Book Individual Student Financial Record Foreign Currency Register Expenses Cheque Issuing/Payment Register Head of Expenditure Cash Book Maintenance Salary and Income Tax Slips for IIPS faculty and staff Student Record Maintenance Staff Record Maintenance Login and Registration Services Information Systems PROLOGUE EEXTERNALXTERNAL SSCHEMACHEMA CONCEPTUAL SCHEMA LOGICAL SCHEMA PHYSICAL DESIGN IMPLEMENTATION EPILOGUE
    17. 17. The Enterprise Data Model PROLOGUE EEXTERNALXTERNAL SSCHEMACHEMA CONCEPTUAL SCHEMA LOGICAL SCHEMA PHYSICAL DESIGN IMPLEMENTATION EPILOGUE ExpenditureExpenditure Head Fees Record Daily Fees Collection (DFC) Register entered in generated for Other Receipt Record contains Cash Book entered in Is under entered in entered in StaffSalary Slip Income Tax Slip generated for Ledger updates Visiting Faculty contains
    18. 18. Entities Relationship among Entities Relationship Definitions Structural Constraints Operational Constraints The Conceptual Schema PROLOGUE EXTERNAL SCHEMA CCONCEPTUALONCEPTUAL SSCHEMACHEMA LOGICAL SCHEMA PHYSICAL DESIGN IMPLEMENTATION EPILOGUE
    19. 19. STUDENT STUDENT FEES RECORD OTHER INCOME RECORD DAILY FEES COLLECTION STAFF CHEQUE ISSUING REGISTER LEDGER SALARY & INCOME TAX STATEMENT The Entities Revisited PROLOGUE EXTERNAL SCHEMA CCONCEPTUALONCEPTUAL SSCHEMACHEMA LOGICAL SCHEMA PHYSICAL DESIGN IMPLEMENTATION EPILOGUE
    20. 20. Entities Revisited (contd.) – New Entities Added LOGIN – for user authentication COURSES – information about the various courses and their roll information FCREGISTER – to keep track of Foreign Currency SEMFEES – to note the fees of each batch’s semester, category wise OTHERRECEIPTS – to keep track of Cash incomes HEADS OF EXPENDITURE – which heads of expenditure are allowed PROLOGUE EXTERNAL SCHEMA CCONCEPTUALONCEPTUAL SSCHEMACHEMA LOGICAL SCHEMA PHYSICAL DESIGN IMPLEMENTATION EPILOGUE
    21. 21. Relationship Definitions PROLOGUE EXTERNAL SCHEMA CCONCEPTUALONCEPTUAL SSCHEMACHEMA LOGICAL SCHEMA PHYSICAL DESIGN IMPLEMENTATION EPILOGUEIncome Entities Student Student Fees Record Other Receipts Daily Fees Collection DD List Foreign Currency Register Category Course Sem Fees Cash Book Student is for belongs to enrolle d for Student Fees Record is for entered in alters Other Receipts entered in Daily Fees Collection entered in generates updates DD List generate s Foreign Currency Register alters depends on Category belongs to depends on Course enrolled for depend s on Sem Fees depends on depends on Cash Book updates
    22. 22. Relationship Definitions PROLOGUE EXTERNAL SCHEMA CCONCEPTUALONCEPTUAL SSCHEMACHEMA LOGICAL SCHEMA PHYSICAL DESIGN IMPLEMENTATION EPILOGUE Expenditure Entities Expendit ure Expenditu re Head Visiting Faculty Ledger Staff Salary Slip Income Tax Slip Cash Book Expenditure is for updates entered in Expenditure Head is for contains contains Visiting Faculty contains Ledger update s Staff contains generated for generated for Salary Slip generated for Income Tax Slip generated for Cash Book entered in
    23. 23. Definitions of Attributes Domain Constraints Operational Constraints Structural Constraints PROLOGUE EXTERNAL SCHEMA CCONCEPTUALONCEPTUAL SSCHEMACHEMA LOGICAL SCHEMA PHYSICAL DESIGN IMPLEMENTATION EPILOGUE
    24. 24. Definitions of Attributes PROLOGUE EXTERNAL SCHEMA CCONCEPTUALONCEPTUAL SSCHEMACHEMA LOGICAL SCHEMA PHYSICAL DESIGN IMPLEMENTATION EPILOGUE NAME DOMAIN DESCRIPTION NULL Enrollment Number Enrollment Number Identifies each and every student of the university uniquely No Roll Number Roll Number Identifies each student of the institution uniquely No Program Program Program for which the student is enrolled in the institute No Course Program Program for which the student is enrolled in the institute No ID Identification ( 2 Chars ) Identifies each course by characters (ex. MCA by ‘IC’,etc.) Batch Number The year in which the student has joined Category Category Category of the Student No Name Name Name of the Student No Father’s Name Name Name of the Father of the Student No Permanent Address Address Permanent Address of the Student No Permanent Telephone Number Telephone Number Permanent Telephone Number of the Student Local Address Address Local Address of the Student No
    25. 25. Definitions of Attributes contd… PROLOGUE EXTERNAL SCHEMA CCONCEPTUALONCEPTUAL SSCHEMACHEMA LOGICAL SCHEMA PHYSICAL DESIGN IMPLEMENTATION EPILOGUE Local Telephone Number Telephone Number Local Telephone Number of the Student Caution Money Amount Caution Money that the student has deposited No Caution Money Refund Boolean Indicates whether the caution money has been returned or not No Semester Semester Semester w.r.t. a program No DFC Number Number Number in the Daily Fees collection Register No Fees Amount Indicates the amount of fees No Due/Excess Fees Amount Indicates any due or excess fees Tuition Fees Amount Indicates the amount of tuition fees Caution Money Amount Indicates the amount of Caution Money Library Fees Amount Indicates the amount of Library fees Hostel Fees Amount Indicates the amount of Hostel fees Sports Fees Amount Indicates the amount of Sports fees Placement Fees Amount Indicates the amount of Placement fees University Fees Amount Indicates the amount of University fees
    26. 26. Examination Fees Amount Indicates the amount of Examination fees Misc Fees Amount Indicates the amount of Misc. fees Library Fine Amount Indicates the amount of Library fine collected Hostel Fine Amount Indicates the amount of hostel fine collected Other Fine Amount Indicates the amount of other fine collected Remarks Text Remarks Date Date Indicates a particular date No Serial Number Number The Serial Number of a register No Receipt Number Number The Receipt Number of some fees No Demand Draft Number DD Number The Demand Draft Number for any fees deposited No Demand Draft Date Date Date of issue of the Demand Draft No Bank Name and Branch Bank Name & Branch The name and branch of the bank issuing the demand draft No US$ Fees Amount Fees paid in US $ by any student Total Fees Amount Total Fees paid No Employee Number Identification Identifies every employee uniquely No PROLOGUE EXTERNAL SCHEMA CCONCEPTUALONCEPTUAL SSCHEMACHEMA LOGICAL SCHEMA PHYSICAL DESIGN IMPLEMENTATION EPILOGUE Definitions of Attributes contd…
    27. 27. GpI Amount Amount of Group Insurance deducted IT Amount Amount of Income Tax deducted Loan Inst Amount Amount of Loan Installments deducted Misc Subtractions Amount Amount of misc subtractions Total Salary Amount Amount of total salary payable No Cheque Number Chq Number The Cheque number through which any payments are made No Cheque Date Date Date in which Cheque was issued No Identification Identification Identifies each expenditure head uniquely No Head of Expenditure Text Heads of expenditure No Budget provision Amount Budget provision for that head of expenditure No Balance Amount Balance amount left in the budget provision No Cheque Book Number Number Identifies each Cheque book uniquely No Name of firm/person Text Name of firm/person to whom the Cheque is issued No PROLOGUE EXTERNAL SCHEMA CCONCEPTUALONCEPTUAL SSCHEMACHEMA LOGICAL SCHEMA PHYSICAL DESIGN IMPLEMENTATION EPILOGUE Definitions of Attributes contd…
    28. 28. Purpose Text Purpose of issuing the Cheque No Date of Bill Date Date of the bill No Order Number Number Order Number corresponding to the bill No Voucher Number Number Voucher Number as corresponding to the entry in the cash book No Serial Number Number Serial Number in the cash book entry No Debit Amount Indicates the Debit Amount in Ledger No Credit Amount Indicates the Credit Amount in Ledger No UserName Username User Name of the person No Password Password Password of the person No PROLOGUE EXTERNAL SCHEMA CCONCEPTUALONCEPTUAL SSCHEMACHEMA LOGICAL SCHEMA PHYSICAL DESIGN IMPLEMENTATION EPILOGUE Definitions of Attributes contd…
    29. 29. Domain Constraints PROLOGUE EXTERNAL SCHEMA CCONCEPTUALONCEPTUAL SSCHEMACHEMA LOGICAL SCHEMA PHYSICAL DESIGN IMPLEMENTATION EPILOGUE Name Data Type Allowable Characters Format Enrollment Number Enrollment Number Alphabets and Digits XX-99-999999 Roll Number Roll Number Alphabets and Digits XX-99-999 Program Program None Program can be of any one of the following : 1. M.C.A. 6 yr. 2. M.M.S. 5 yr. 3. M.M.S. 2yr. 4. B. Com. 3 yr. Category Category None Category can be any one of the following 1. Foreign National 2. N.R.I. 3. N.R.I. sponsored 4. Payment 5. Local 6. SC 7. ST 8. OBC 9. Sports 10. DAVV Employee Name String Alphabets Address Address Alphabets and Digits Telephone Number Number 99999……… Amount Amount Digits and decimal point …..999.99 Boolean Boolean Yes / No
    30. 30. Semester Semester None Semester values can range from 1 to 12 depending the program 1.MCA (1-12) 2.MMS 5yr (1-10) 3.MMS 2yr (1-4) 4.B. Com. (1-6) Number Number Digits 99999….. Fees Item Fees Item None Fees Item can be any one of the following : 1.Tuition Fees 2.Caution Money 3.Library 4.Hostel Fees 5.Sports 6.Placement 7.University Fees 8.Miscellaneous Date Date Digits DD/MM/YYYY Text String Alphabets and Digits DD Number Number Digits Bank Name and Branch String Alphabets and Digits Identification Number Digits Salary Grade Grade Digits and - Class Class 1 – 4 Account Number Number Digits Month Number Digits 1 – Year12 Year Year Digits 9999 Cheque Number Number Digits PROLOGUE EXTERNAL SCHEMA CCONCEPTUALONCEPTUAL SSCHEMACHEMA LOGICAL SCHEMA PHYSICAL DESIGN IMPLEMENTATION EPILOGUE Domain Constraints (contd.)
    31. 31. • Business Rule: An entry can be made in the cash book only for an entry in the Daily Fees Collection or in the Expenditure. Constrained Object: CASH BOOK (Entity) Constraining Object: DFC and EXPENDITURE (Entities) • Business Rule: Monthly Salary and Income Tax slip is not generated for Visiting Staff. Constrained Object: Post (Attribute of Staff) Constraining Object: MONTHLY SALARY SLIP and INCOME TAX SLIP (Entities). • Business Rule: Expenditure can only be for a stated Expenditure Head. Constrained Object: EXPENDITURE (Entity) Constraining Object: EXPENDITURE HEAD (Entity). Operational Constraints PROLOGUE EXTERNAL SCHEMA CCONCEPTUALONCEPTUAL SSCHEMACHEMA LOGICAL SCHEMA PHYSICAL DESIGN IMPLEMENTATION EPILOGUE
    32. 32. LOGIN STUDENT FEES RECORD DAILY FEES COLLECTION STUDENT OTHER RECEIPTS FOREIGN CURRENCY REGISTER SEM FEES COURSE CATEGORY ente rs fees enters collectio n alte r depend s on is for depend s on belong s to enrolle d for enter ed in enter ed in DD LIST generate s CASH BOOK update s VISITING FACULTY LEDGER STAFF EXPENDITURE entered in EXPENDITURE HEAD is und er update scontai ns contai ns SALARY SLIP generate d for generate d for INCOME TAX SLIP R R R Post R R Operational Constraints EER Model
    33. 33. Input Output Screens Transactions that will be run on the system Entity Identification and description Relational Schema The Logical Schema PROLOGUE EXTERNAL SCHEMA CONCEPTUAL SCHEMA LLOGICALOGICAL SSCHEMACHEMA PHYSICAL DESIGN IMPLEMENTATION EPILOGUE
    34. 34. Fees Receipt Input Screen – will provide an interface to the user to enter the details of the fees. Transactions – The system should perform the necessary checks from the various relations about the data , make entries into the tables concerned ( SFR, DFC, and Cash Book). Fees Receipt Output– will be in the form of a printed receipt which will show the details and amount of fees paid. Salary Slip and Income Tax Slip Generation Input Screen – to enter the details of the salary and income tax of various staff members Transactions – enter the details in the database (MSS,ITS) Output – will be in the form of a printed salary and income tax slip Input / Output Screens and Transactions PROLOGUE EXTERNAL SCHEMA CONCEPTUAL SCHEMA LLOGICALOGICAL SSCHEMACHEMA PHYSICAL DESIGN IMPLEMENTATION EPILOGUE
    35. 35. PROLOGUE EXTERNAL SCHEMA CONCEPTUAL SCHEMA LLOGICALOGICAL SSCHEMACHEMA PHYSICAL DESIGN IMPLEMENTATION EPILOGUE Expenditure Input Screen – to enter the details of expenditure like the name of firm , particulars , Cheque number, etc. Transactions – entry into required fields in the database. Output – No such printed output is generated for every transaction. Output may be seen in the form of reports. Record Entry – Record Entry is to provide an interface to enter the details of persons connected with the system in any way. Such persons are Students, Staff Members and authorized users of the system. Once the details of a Student or Staff have been entered, it requires no further entering in the system. Input / Output Screens and Transactions
    36. 36. PROLOGUE EXTERNAL SCHEMA CONCEPTUAL SCHEMA LLOGICALOGICAL SSCHEMACHEMA PHYSICAL DESIGN IMPLEMENTATION EPILOGUE Reports – The accounts department has to generate a number of reports either daily, monthly, yearly, or at any given time. Such reports include Daily Fees Collection Report – The DFC report include a list of the fees collected on a daily basis. It contains all the records of the fees that have been collected on one single day. Details of Bank Draft Paid – On a daily basis, the drafts are organized on three basis Drafts of State Bank of Indore, Bhanvarkuan Branch Drafts of State Bank of Indore, any other Branch Drafts of other Banks These have to be recorded separately and a list has to be prepared. Daily Expenditure Report – The Daily Expenditure Report includes the details of all the cheques paid (expenditure is only through cheques) to any person/firm on the given particular day. Cash Book – The cash book is to be prepared on a daily basis having the entries of the incomes and expenditures of that particular day. Input / Output Screens and Transactions
    37. 37. Transforming ER into relations Functional Dependencies Normalization Relational Model PROLOGUE EXTERNAL SCHEMA CONCEPTUAL SCHEMA LLOGICALOGICAL SSCHEMACHEMA PHYSICAL DESIGN IMPLEMENTATION EPILOGUE
    38. 38. Transforming ER into Relations Taking an entity from the EER Diagram STUDENT FEES RECORD Roll Se m Receipt Number Old Receipt Number Tuition Fees Cautio n Money Library Fees Hoste l Fees Sports Fees Placement Fees Examination Fees Universit y Fees Total Fees Paid Pound Fees USD Fees Misc Fees Bank Branch Due/Exces s DD Date DD Number PROLOGUE EXTERNAL SCHEMA CONCEPTUAL SCHEMA LLOGICALOGICAL SSCHEMACHEMA PHYSICAL DESIGN IMPLEMENTATION EPILOGUE
    39. 39. Transforming ER into Relations The relation that can be made from the entity ROLL SEM RECEIPTNUMBER OLDRCPTNO TUITION_FEES CAUTION_MONEY LIBRARY_FEES HOSTEL_FEES SPORTS_FEES PLACEMENT_FEES UNIVERSITY_FEES EXAMINATION_FEES MISC USD_FEES POUND_FEES TOTAL_FEES_PAID DUE_EXCESS DDNUMBER DDDATE BANKBRANCH STUDENT FEES RECORD PROLOGUE EXTERNAL SCHEMA CONCEPTUAL SCHEMA LLOGICALOGICAL SSCHEMACHEMA PHYSICAL DESIGN IMPLEMENTATION EPILOGUE
    40. 40. Similarly, for the entity Student ROLL NUMBER ENROLLMENT NUMBER PROGRAM NAME FATHER’S NAME PERMANENT ADDRESS PER. TELEPHONE NUMBER LOCAL ADDRESS LOCAL TELEPHONE NUMBER CATEGORY CAUTION MONEY CMONEYREFUND DDNUMBER DDDATE STUDENT Transforming ER into Relations (contd.) PROLOGUE EXTERNAL SCHEMA CONCEPTUAL SCHEMA LLOGICALOGICAL SSCHEMACHEMA PHYSICAL DESIGN IMPLEMENTATION EPILOGUE Similarly, other Entities have been mapped in to relation.
    41. 41. Functional Dependencies PROLOGUE EXTERNAL SCHEMA CONCEPTUAL SCHEMA LLOGICALOGICAL SSCHEMACHEMA PHYSICAL DESIGN IMPLEMENTATION EPILOGUE DD LIST Example Entity : DD LIST DD DATE DD NUMBER BANKBRANCH AMOUNT PRINTDATE No Partial Dependency
    42. 42. Functional Dependencies (contd.) PROLOGUE EXTERNAL SCHEMA CONCEPTUAL SCHEMA LLOGICALOGICAL SSCHEMACHEMA PHYSICAL DESIGN IMPLEMENTATION EPILOGUE ROLL NUMBER ENROLLMENT NUMBER PROGRAM NAME FATHER’S NAME PERMANENT ADDRESS PER. TELEPHONE NUMBER LOCAL ADDRESS LOCAL TELEPHONE NUMBER CATEGORY CAUTION MONEY CMONEYREFUND DDNUMBER DDDATE STUDENT The Student relation Partial Dependency exists. All fields can be determined from both Roll Number and Enrollment Number. Removed through Normalization. Total 4 relations contain dependencies.
    43. 43. Normalization PROLOGUE EXTERNAL SCHEMA CONCEPTUAL SCHEMA LLOGICALOGICAL SSCHEMACHEMA PHYSICAL DESIGN IMPLEMENTATION EPILOGUE Only those relations Normalized that have dependencies. Consider the case of Student as previously given. ROLL NUMBER ENROLLMENT NUMBER FATHER’S NAME PERMANENT ADDRESS PER. TELEPHONE NUMBER LOCAL ADDRESS LOCAL TELEPHONE NUMBER CATEGORY CAUTION MONEY CMONEYREFUND DDNUMBER DDDATE STUDENT ROLL NUMBER PROGRAM NAME ROLL ENROLL Similarly for all those relations , normalization was done . Number of relations became 20
    44. 44. Designing Physical Records and Denormalization Final Relations Indexes The Physical Design PROLOGUE EXTERNAL SCHEMA CONCEPTUAL SCHEMA LOGICAL SCHEMA PPHYSICALHYSICAL DDESIGNESIGN IMPLEMENTATION EPILOGUE
    45. 45. Designing Physical Records Denormalization Physical Records is a group of fields stored in adjacent memory locations and retrieved together as a unit. Denormalization is the process of transforming normalized relations into unnormalized physical record specifications. PROLOGUE EXTERNAL SCHEMA CONCEPTUAL SCHEMA LOGICAL SCHEMA PPHYSICALHYSICAL DDESIGNESIGN IMPLEMENTATION EPILOGUE Consider the same entity Student that was Normalized earlier. Just for removing the dependency, should we store Enrollment Number separately whereas Enrollment Number is stored for being printed on the reports ? Hence, we recombine both the relations back to form the relation STUDENT Denormalization reduced the number of relations to 17
    46. 46. Final Relations PROLOGUE EXTERNAL SCHEMA CONCEPTUAL SCHEMA LOGICAL SCHEMA PPHYSICALHYSICAL DDESIGNESIGN IMPLEMENTATION EPILOGUE CATEGORY COURSES SEM FEES STUDENT STUDENT FEES RECORD OTHER RECEIPTS DAILY FEES COLLECTION DD LIST FOREIGN CURRENCY REGISTER CASH BOOK STAFF EXPENDITURE EXPENDITURE HEAD VISTING FACULTY LEDGER SALARY SLIP INCOME TAX SLIP 17 Final Relations that are to be implemented.
    47. 47. Sample Indexes PROLOGUE EXTERNAL SCHEMA CONCEPTUAL SCHEMA LOGICAL SCHEMA PPHYSICALHYSICAL DDESIGNESIGN IMPLEMENTATION EPILOGUE Entity : Daily Fees Collection Index : Date_DFC or ReceiptNumber Justification : It can be inferred that the transactions with this relation will take place in the serial order of the above attributes. Entity : Student Index : Roll Number Justification :The records of students are entered as per their roll numbers. The system will normally use the latest entry of the roll numbers.
    48. 48. • Snapshots of the working system • Hardware and Software Requirements Implementation PROLOGUE EXTERNAL SCHEMA CONCEPTUAL SCHEMA LOGICAL SCHEMA PHYSICAL DESIGN IIMPLEMENTATIONMPLEMENTATION EPILOGUE
    49. 49. Implementation The splash screen The Login screen PROLOGUE EXTERNAL SCHEMA CONCEPTUAL SCHEMA LOGICAL SCHEMA PHYSICAL DESIGN IIMPLEMENTATIONMPLEMENTATION EPILOGUE
    50. 50. Implementation The menu options after a successful login PROLOGUE EXTERNAL SCHEMA CONCEPTUAL SCHEMA LOGICAL SCHEMA PHYSICAL DESIGN IIMPLEMENTATIONMPLEMENTATION EPILOGUE
    51. 51. Implementation The Fees collection PROLOGUE EXTERNAL SCHEMA CONCEPTUAL SCHEMA LOGICAL SCHEMA PHYSICAL DESIGN IIMPLEMENTATIONMPLEMENTATION EPILOGUE
    52. 52. Implementation The Fees collection PROLOGUE EXTERNAL SCHEMA CONCEPTUAL SCHEMA LOGICAL SCHEMA PHYSICAL DESIGN IIMPLEMENTATIONMPLEMENTATION EPILOGUE
    53. 53. Implementation PROLOGUE EXTERNAL SCHEMA CONCEPTUAL SCHEMA LOGICAL SCHEMA PHYSICAL DESIGN IIMPLEMENTATIONMPLEMENTATION EPILOGUE
    54. 54. Implementation Reprint and Canceling PROLOGUE EXTERNAL SCHEMA CONCEPTUAL SCHEMA LOGICAL SCHEMA PHYSICAL DESIGN IIMPLEMENTATIONMPLEMENTATION EPILOGUE
    55. 55. Implementation Student Record Entry PROLOGUE EXTERNAL SCHEMA CONCEPTUAL SCHEMA LOGICAL SCHEMA PHYSICAL DESIGN IIMPLEMENTATIONMPLEMENTATION EPILOGUE
    56. 56. Implementation Fees information Entry PROLOGUE EXTERNAL SCHEMA CONCEPTUAL SCHEMA LOGICAL SCHEMA PHYSICAL DESIGN IIMPLEMENTATIONMPLEMENTATION EPILOGUE
    57. 57. Implementation Fees Collection Report PROLOGUE EXTERNAL SCHEMA CONCEPTUAL SCHEMA LOGICAL SCHEMA PHYSICAL DESIGN IIMPLEMENTATIONMPLEMENTATION EPILOGUE
    58. 58. Implementation Fees Collection Report PROLOGUE EXTERNAL SCHEMA CONCEPTUAL SCHEMA LOGICAL SCHEMA PHYSICAL DESIGN IIMPLEMENTATIONMPLEMENTATION EPILOGUE
    59. 59. Implementation Fees Collection Report – Foreign Currency Report PROLOGUE EXTERNAL SCHEMA CONCEPTUAL SCHEMA LOGICAL SCHEMA PHYSICAL DESIGN IIMPLEMENTATIONMPLEMENTATION EPILOGUE
    60. 60. Implementation PROLOGUE EXTERNAL SCHEMA CONCEPTUAL SCHEMA LOGICAL SCHEMA PHYSICAL DESIGN IIMPLEMENTATIONMPLEMENTATION EPILOGUE
    61. 61. Implementation PROLOGUE EXTERNAL SCHEMA CONCEPTUAL SCHEMA LOGICAL SCHEMA PHYSICAL DESIGN IIMPLEMENTATIONMPLEMENTATION EPILOGUE
    62. 62. Implementation PROLOGUE EXTERNAL SCHEMA CONCEPTUAL SCHEMA LOGICAL SCHEMA PHYSICAL DESIGN IIMPLEMENTATIONMPLEMENTATION EPILOGUE
    63. 63. Implementation PROLOGUE EXTERNAL SCHEMA CONCEPTUAL SCHEMA LOGICAL SCHEMA PHYSICAL DESIGN IIMPLEMENTATIONMPLEMENTATION EPILOGUE
    64. 64. Implementation PROLOGUE EXTERNAL SCHEMA CONCEPTUAL SCHEMA LOGICAL SCHEMA PHYSICAL DESIGN IIMPLEMENTATIONMPLEMENTATION EPILOGUE
    65. 65. Implementation PROLOGUE EXTERNAL SCHEMA CONCEPTUAL SCHEMA LOGICAL SCHEMA PHYSICAL DESIGN IIMPLEMENTATIONMPLEMENTATION EPILOGUE
    66. 66. Implementation PROLOGUE EXTERNAL SCHEMA CONCEPTUAL SCHEMA LOGICAL SCHEMA PHYSICAL DESIGN IIMPLEMENTATIONMPLEMENTATION EPILOGUE
    67. 67. Implementation PROLOGUE EXTERNAL SCHEMA CONCEPTUAL SCHEMA LOGICAL SCHEMA PHYSICAL DESIGN IIMPLEMENTATIONMPLEMENTATION EPILOGUE
    68. 68. Implementation PROLOGUE EXTERNAL SCHEMA CONCEPTUAL SCHEMA LOGICAL SCHEMA PHYSICAL DESIGN IIMPLEMENTATIONMPLEMENTATION EPILOGUE
    69. 69. Implementation PROLOGUE EXTERNAL SCHEMA CONCEPTUAL SCHEMA LOGICAL SCHEMA PHYSICAL DESIGN IIMPLEMENTATIONMPLEMENTATION EPILOGUE
    70. 70. Implementation PROLOGUE EXTERNAL SCHEMA CONCEPTUAL SCHEMA LOGICAL SCHEMA PHYSICAL DESIGN IIMPLEMENTATIONMPLEMENTATION EPILOGUE
    71. 71. Implementation PROLOGUE EXTERNAL SCHEMA CONCEPTUAL SCHEMA LOGICAL SCHEMA PHYSICAL DESIGN IIMPLEMENTATIONMPLEMENTATION EPILOGUE
    72. 72. Implementation PROLOGUE EXTERNAL SCHEMA CONCEPTUAL SCHEMA LOGICAL SCHEMA PHYSICAL DESIGN IIMPLEMENTATIONMPLEMENTATION EPILOGUE
    73. 73. Implementation PROLOGUE EXTERNAL SCHEMA CONCEPTUAL SCHEMA LOGICAL SCHEMA PHYSICAL DESIGN IIMPLEMENTATIONMPLEMENTATION EPILOGUE
    74. 74. Implementation PROLOGUE EXTERNAL SCHEMA CONCEPTUAL SCHEMA LOGICAL SCHEMA PHYSICAL DESIGN IIMPLEMENTATIONMPLEMENTATION EPILOGUE
    75. 75. Implementation PROLOGUE EXTERNAL SCHEMA CONCEPTUAL SCHEMA LOGICAL SCHEMA PHYSICAL DESIGN IIMPLEMENTATIONMPLEMENTATION EPILOGUE
    76. 76. Implementation PROLOGUE EXTERNAL SCHEMA CONCEPTUAL SCHEMA LOGICAL SCHEMA PHYSICAL DESIGN IIMPLEMENTATIONMPLEMENTATION EPILOGUE
    77. 77. Implementation PROLOGUE EXTERNAL SCHEMA CONCEPTUAL SCHEMA LOGICAL SCHEMA PHYSICAL DESIGN IIMPLEMENTATIONMPLEMENTATION EPILOGUE
    78. 78. Implementation PROLOGUE EXTERNAL SCHEMA CONCEPTUAL SCHEMA LOGICAL SCHEMA PHYSICAL DESIGN IIMPLEMENTATIONMPLEMENTATION EPILOGUE
    79. 79. Implementation PROLOGUE EXTERNAL SCHEMA CONCEPTUAL SCHEMA LOGICAL SCHEMA PHYSICAL DESIGN IIMPLEMENTATIONMPLEMENTATION EPILOGUE
    80. 80. Implementation PROLOGUE EXTERNAL SCHEMA CONCEPTUAL SCHEMA LOGICAL SCHEMA PHYSICAL DESIGN IIMPLEMENTATIONMPLEMENTATION EPILOGUE
    81. 81. Implementation PROLOGUE EXTERNAL SCHEMA CONCEPTUAL SCHEMA LOGICAL SCHEMA PHYSICAL DESIGN IIMPLEMENTATIONMPLEMENTATION EPILOGUE
    82. 82. Intel Pentium 3 1 GHz 128 MB RAM 20 GB Hard Disk Drive other standard Components Microsoft Windows 2000 Professional Oracle 8i Enterprise Edition Microsoft Visual Basic 6.0 Enterprise Edition Microsoft Word 2000 Microsoft PowerPoint 2000 Hardware and Software Requirements PROLOGUE EXTERNAL SCHEMA CONCEPTUAL SCHEMA LOGICAL SCHEMA PHYSICAL DESIGN IIMPLEMENTATIONMPLEMENTATION EPILOGUE
    83. 83. • Preprinted Stationary – Rs. 3000 /-* ( for 6 months ) • Blank Stationary – approx. Rs. 300 /-* per month • Manpower – already existent • Other costs - negligible Cost vs. Benefit OPERATIONAL COSTS • Approx Rs. 1 cr.* deposited one month earlier. • Interest savings (earnings ?) for 6 months • = 1cr. * 10% * 1/12 • = approx. Rs. 88,000 /-* approx. BENEFITS Total = Rs. 4,800/-* Total = Rs. 88,000 /-* FIXED COSTS • Computer – Rs. 50,000 /-* • Printer – Rs. 12,000 /-* BENEFIT IN 1st YEAR = 1,76,000 – 71600 = 1,04,400 /-* BENEFIT IN 2nd YEAR onwards =1,76,000 –9600 = 1,66,400/-* * Monetary values are approximate and may not correspond with actuals. PROLOGUE EXTERNAL SCHEMA CONCEPTUAL SCHEMA LOGICAL SCHEMA PHYSICAL DESIGN IMPLEMENTATION EEPILOGUEPILOGUE
    84. 84. Other Benefits ‘My job has been made easier. I don’t have to do same entry n number of times’ - Bhupendra Verma , Accountant ‘This is the first time that I can exactly state how much fees has been collected on a daily basis and I know that there are three students as of now who have not paid their fees till date’ - Dr. A. K. Ramani , Director ‘Receipt looks nice’ - Vivek Thakore , MCA X Sem ‘It’s good to know that something that we have done is of benefit to our institute.’ - Jyandeep Tripathi and Vijyendra , Development Team PROLOGUE EXTERNAL SCHEMA CONCEPTUAL SCHEMA LOGICAL SCHEMA PHYSICAL DESIGN IMPLEMENTATION EEPILOGUEPILOGUE
    85. 85. Payment of fees through various counters – seems nice, but does the current system require it ? Data Warehousing and Implementation for Decision Support Systems Mobile Version Implementation – let parents know whether their wards have paid the fees or not . Depends on technological advancement. A far fetched idea. Providing a web based interface for depositing fees as well as viewing other financial information. Future Enhancements and known issues PROLOGUE EXTERNAL SCHEMA CONCEPTUAL SCHEMA LOGICAL SCHEMA PHYSICAL DESIGN IMPLEMENTATION EEPILOGUEPILOGUE
    86. 86. References PROLOGUE EXTERNAL SCHEMA CONCEPTUAL SCHEMA LOGICAL SCHEMA PHYSICAL DESIGN IMPLEMENTATION EEPILOGUEPILOGUE • Understanding SQL By Martin Gruber Sybex BPB Publications ISBN : 81-7029-644-7 • Oracle 8 The Complete Reference By George Koch , Kevin Loney Tata McGraw Hill ( Oracle Press Edition ) ISBN : 00-7463-229-9 • Database Systems Concepts ( Third Edition ) By Abraham Silberschatz , Henry F. Korth , S. Sudarshan The McGraw Hill Companies Inc. ISBN : 00-7044-756-X • Mastering Visual Basic Evangelos Petrousos BPB Sybex Publications ISBN : 81-7656-031-6 • Modern Database Management ( Fifth Edition ) By Fred R. McFadden , Jeffrey A. Hoffer , Mary B. Prescott Addison Wesley Longman , Pearson Education Asia ISBN : 81-7808-085-0 • Accounting information Systems By Martin Gruber Sybex BPB Publications ISBN : 81-7029-644-7 • Interaction with the accounts department personnel , staff members and students of the institute.
    87. 87. Lessons Learned PROLOGUE EXTERNAL SCHEMA CONCEPTUAL SCHEMA LOGICAL SCHEMA PHYSICAL DESIGN IMPLEMENTATION EEPILOGUEPILOGUE Always commit to what the user wants – you may have a better and technically more sound idea, but customer is the king. Avoid Scope Creep. – know the requirements beforehand and have a sign off before developing the product. Find if training is to be provided – develop help manuals and delegate this task to someone who can do it better. Have a good knowledge of the tools that are anticipated to be used in the software development. ,etc.
    88. 88. Skills Discussion PROLOGUE EXTERNAL SCHEMA CONCEPTUAL SCHEMA LOGICAL SCHEMA PHYSICAL DESIGN IMPLEMENTATION EEPILOGUEPILOGUE After successfully implementing Database Projects , the following skills can be said to have been developed Business Systems Understanding ( knowing that a change is required and it will be a positive change) . Business Systems Modeling ( understanding the current systems, understanding the alterations / modifications and properly documenting the proposed system ) Using computer based tools to map the business model Overseeing the implementation Providing training to personnel Additional skills attained Project Management Skills. Intelligence , tact , communications , etc. Proper understanding of the tools that will be used for developing the system The art of making the consumer happy.
    89. 89. Thank You International Institute of Professional Studies Devi Ahilya University Khandwa Road Campus, Indore – 452001, M.P., India www.davv.ac.in http://dauniv.ac.in www.iips.edu iipsedu@sancharnet.in
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