CONTENTS2IntroductionApplications of sensor networksFactors influencing sensor network designCommunication architecture of sensor networksConclusion
Introduction3A sensor network is composed of a large numberof sensor nodes, which are densely deployedeither inside the phenomenon or very close to it.Random deploymentCooperative capabilities
Applications of sensor networks4TemperatureHumidityVehicular movementLightning conditionPressureSoil makeupNoise levelsThe presence or absence of certain kinds of objectsMechanical stress levels on attached objectsThe current characteristics such as speed, direction, andsize of an object
Applications of sensor networks6Military applicationsMonitoring friendly forces, equipment andammunitionBattlefield surveillanceReconnaissance of opposing forces and terrainBattle damage assessmentNuclear, biological and chemical attack detectionand reconnaissance
Applications of sensor networks7Environmental applicationsForest fire detectionFlood detectionPrecision agriculture
Applications of sensor networks8Health applicationsTele monitoring of human physiological dataTracking and monitoring patients and doctors insidea hospitalDrug administration in hospitalsHome applicationsHome automationSamrt environment
Factors influencing sensor network design9Fault tolerance Fault tolerance is the ability to sustain sensornetwork functionalities without any interruptiondue to sensor node failures. The fault tolerance level depends on theapplication of the sensor networksScalability Scalability measures the density of the sensornodes.
Factors influencing sensor network design10Production costsThe cost of a single node is very important tojustify the overall cost of the networks.The cost of a sensor node is a very challengingissue given the amount of functionalities with aprice of much less than a dollar.
Factors influencing sensor network design12Sensor network topologyPre-deployment and deployment phasePost-deployment phaseRe-deployment of additional nodes phase
Factors influencing sensor network design13Transmission mediaIn a sensor network, communicating nodes arelinked by a wireless medium. To enable globaloperation, the chosen transmission mediummust be available worldwide. Radio infrared optical media
Communication architecture of sensor networks15
Communication architecture of sensor networks16
Communication architecture of sensor networks17Application layerThe three possible application layer protocols are -Sensor management protocol (SMP)Task assignment and data advertisement protocol(TADAP)Sensor query and data dissemination protocol(SQDDP)
Communication architecture of sensor networks18Transport layerThis layer is especially needed when the system isplanned to be accessed through Internet or otherexternal networks.No attempt thus far to propose a scheme or todiscuss the issues related to the transport layer of asensor network in literature.
Communication architecture of sensor networks19Network layerPower efficiency is always an importantconsideration.Data aggregation is useful only when it does nothinder the collaborative effort of the sensor nodes.An ideal sensor network has attribute-basedaddressing and location awareness.
Communication architecture of sensor networks20Data aggregation
Communication architecture of sensor networks21Data link layerThe data link layer is responsible for the mediumaccess and error control. It ensures reliable point-to-point and point-to-multipoint connections in acommunication network.Medium access controlCreation of the network infrastructureFairly and efficiently share communication resourcesbetween sensor nodes
Communication architecture of sensor networks22Power saving modes of operationOperation in a power saving mode is energy efficientonly if the time spent in that mode is greater than acertain threshold.Error controlForward Error Correction (FEC)Automatic Repeat Request (ARR)Simple error control codes with low-complexityencoding and decoding might present the bestsolutions for sensor networks.
Communication architecture of sensor networks23Physical layerThe physical layer is responsible for frequency selection,frequency generation, signal detection, modulation anddata encryption.CONCULSIONFlexibility and fault tolerance create exciting newapplications for remote sensingIn future the wide range of applications will make sensornetworks an integral part of our livesTHANK YOU