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TABLE OF CONTENTS
Chapter 1: INTRODUCTION ..........................................................................................1
1: OBJECTIVES.........................................................................................................1
2: EE113 AND EE122 - A WINNING COMBINATION...............................................1
3: COURSE INFORMATION......................................................................................2
4: OUTLINE OF THE COURSE.................................................................................3
Chapter 2: BASIC CONCEPTS......................................................................................5
1: OBJECTIVES.........................................................................................................5
2: SOURCES .............................................................................................................5
3: SIGNALS ...............................................................................................................6
4: AMPLIFIERS..........................................................................................................8
5: NOISE.................................................................................................................. 11
6: DISTORTION....................................................................................................... 12
7: AMPLIFIER POWER SUPPLIES & EFFICIENCY ............................................... 14
8: LARGE AND SMALL SIGNALS ..........................................................................15
9: TRANSFER FUNCTIONS.................................................................................... 16
10: BODE PLOTS .................................................................................................... 20
Chapter 3: BJT REVIEW..............................................................................................25
1: OBJECTIVES.......................................................................................................25
2: TYPES OF BIPOLAR JUNCTION TRANSISTORS............................................. 25
3: DC ANALYSIS (LARGE-SIGNAL) .......................................................................27
4: ANALYSIS OF BIASING ..................................................................................... 29
5: DC LOAD LINES..................................................................................................31
6: SMALL-SIGNAL BEHAVIOR ...............................................................................32
7: HYBRID-π MODEL FOR (AC) SMALL SIGNALS ................................................ 33
8: SCALING RESISTANCES BETWEEN BASE AND EMITTER ............................ 35
9: AC LOAD LINES ..................................................................................................36
Chapter 4: Operational Amplifiers ............................................................................. 38
1: OBJECTIVES.......................................................................................................38
2: OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIERS CONCEPTS ........................................................ 39
3: BASIC OP-AMP CIRCUITS ................................................................................. 40
3.1 VOLTAGE FOLLOWER................................................................................. 40
3.2 INVERTING AMPLIFIER ............................................................................... 41
3.3 LOGARITHMIC AMPLIFIER..........................................................................42
3.4 EXPONENTIAL AMPLIFIER.......................................................................... 42
3.5 NON-INVERTING AMPLIFIER...................................................................... 43
3.6 SUMMING AMPLIFIER ................................................................................. 43
3.7 INTEGRATOR ............................................................................................... 44
3.8 DIFFERENTIATOR........................................................................................ 45
4: “REAL” VERSUS “IDEAL” OP-AMPS .................................................................. 46
5: FREQUENCY RESPONSE OF OP-AMPS.......................................................... 47
6: THE GUTS OF REAL OP-AMP CHIPS ............................................................... 50
7: A PREVIEW OF FEEDBACK .............................................................................. 53
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Chapter 5: SINGLE-STAGE BJT AMPLIFIERS AND THE COMMON EMITTER
AMPLIFIER .................................................................................................................... 54
1: OBJECTIVES.......................................................................................................54
2: OVERVIEW OF SINGLE-STAGE BJT AMPLIFIERS .......................................... 54
3: THE COMMON-EMITTER AMPLIFIER ............................................................... 56
4: CLASSIC BIASING SCHEME FOR CE AMPLIFIERS.........................................59
5: BASE CIRCUIT DESIGN STRATEGY - THE BASICS ........................................ 59
6: LOCAL FEEDBACK THROUGH AN EMITTER RESISTOR................................. 60
7: BASE CIRCUIT ANALYSIS STRATEGY............................................................. 61
8: UN-BYPASSED EMITTER RESISTANCE FOR AC AND DC FEEDBACK......... 62
9: EMITTER DEGENERATION................................................................................ 66
10: THE BOTTOM LINE ON DESIGN OF CE AMPLIFIERS ...................................71
11: THE ART OF CE DESIGN (AN INTRO) ............................................................ 72
12: BIAS CIRCUITRY DESIGN................................................................................ 74
13: REVISITING THE LOAD LINES ........................................................................ 75
14: DESIGN EXAMPLE #1: METHOD OF SEDRA & SMITH................................. 79
Chapter 6: BJT FREQUENCY RESPONSE ................................................................84
1: OBJECTIVES.......................................................................................................84
2: JUNCTION CAPACITANCES OF BJT’S .............................................................84
3: DIFFUSION CAPACITANCE ............................................................................... 87
4: COMPLETE HYBRID-p MODEL..........................................................................88
5: GAIN (β) VERSUS FREQUENCY FOR BJT'S .................................................... 89
6: COMMON-EMITTER CONFIGURATION AND MILLER CAPACITANCE ...........93
7: USING THE MILLER IDEA UP FRONT............................................................... 95
Chapter 7: GENERAL AMPLIFIER FREQUENCY RESPONSE ................................. 97
1: OBJECTIVES.......................................................................................................97
2: GENERALIZED CAPACITOR-COUPLED AMPLIFIER FREQUENCY RESPONSE
.............................................................................................................................98
3: DOMINANT POLES............................................................................................. 99
4: SHORT-CIRCUIT AND OPEN-CIRCUIT TIME CONSTANT METHODS FOR ......
APPROXIMATING THE RESPONSE OF AMPLIFIERS......................................... 100
4.1 OPEN-CIRCUIT TIME CONSTANTS FOR UPPER CUT-OFF FREQUENCY
APPROXIMATION.............................................................................................101
4.2 SHORT-CIRCUIT TIME CONSTANTS FOR LOWER CUT-OFF FREQUENCY
APPROXIMATION.............................................................................................101
5: FREQUENCY RESPONSE OF THE CE AMPLIFIER ......................................102
5.1 LOW FREQUENCY RESPONSE................................................................ 103
5.2 MID-FREQUENCY RESPONSE .................................................................108
5.3 HIGH-FREQUENCY RESPONSE ...............................................................109
6: EXAMPLE FREQUENCY RESPONSE ANALYSIS........................................... 112
6.1 MID-BAND GAIN CALCULATION ...............................................................112
6.2 LOW-FREQUENCY RESPONSE................................................................ 113
Chapter 8: THE COMMON BASE AMPLIFIER .........................................................117
1: OBJECTIVES.....................................................................................................117
2: THE COMMON BASE CIRCUIT ........................................................................118
3: MID-BAND GAIN CALCULATIONS................................................................... 118
4: LOW-FREQUENCY RESPONSE ......................................................................121
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5: HIGH-FREQUENCY RESPONSE .....................................................................122
6: CASCODE AMPLIFIERS = CE + CB.................................................................126
Chapter 9: THE COMMON COLLECTOR AMPLIFIER .............................................127
1: OBJECTIVES.....................................................................................................127
2: COMMON COLLECTOR CIRCUIT....................................................................128
3: PRACTICAL CC CIRCUIT .................................................................................130
4: THE PHASE SPLITTER CIRCUIT .....................................................................132
5: QUICK LOOK AT CC FREQUENCY RESPONSE ............................................133
6: DESIGN OF CC STAGES..................................................................................134
Chapter 10: CASCADED AND CASCODE AMPLIFIERS.........................................135
1: OBJECTIVES.....................................................................................................135
2: AMPLIFIERS IN SERIES (CASCADED)............................................................136
3: THE CASCODE AMPLIFIER .............................................................................138
4: PRACTICAL CASCODE AMPLIFIER CIRCUIT................................................. 140
5: CASCODE EXAMPLE .......................................................................................146
6: CASCODE AMPLIFIER DESIGN EXAMPLE #2 ...............................................148
Chapter 11: DIFFERENTIAL AMPLIFIERS ...............................................................153
1: OBJECTIVES.....................................................................................................153
2: DIFFERENTIAL AMPLIFIER BASIC CONCEPTS.............................................154
3: MODES OF OPERATION OF THE DIFFERENTIAL PAIR................................ 155
3.1 COMMON-MODE OPERATION..................................................................156
3.2 “LARGE” SIGNAL DIFFERENTIAL-MODE OPERATION ........................... 157
3.3 SMALL-SIGNAL DIFFERENTIAL-MODE OPERATION..............................158
4: DETAILS OF SMALL-SIGNAL OPERATION.....................................................159
5: HALF-CIRCUIT MODEL OF DIFFERENTIAL PAIR ..........................................166
6: HALF-CIRCUIT MODEL AND COMMON-MODE OPERATION........................168
7: COMMON-MODE REJECTION RATIO............................................................. 170
8: FREQUENCY RESPONSE OF THE DIFFERENTIAL AMPLIFIER................... 171
9: SUMMARY OF DIFFERENTIAL PAIR SMALL-SIGNAL OPERATION ............. 182
10: OTHER IMPERFECTIONS OF “REALISTIC” DIFFERENTIAL AMPLIFIERS. 183
10.1 INPUT OFFSET VOLTAGE...................................................................... 183
10.2 INPUT BIAS AND OFFSET CURRENTS................................................. 186
Chapter 12: CURRENT SOURCES ...........................................................................188
1: OBJECTIVES.....................................................................................................188
2: THE DIODE-CONNECTED TRANSISTOR ....................................................... 189
3: THE CURRENT MIRROR.................................................................................. 190
4: A SIMPLE (LOUSY) CURRENT SOURCE........................................................ 191
5: THE WIDLAR CURRENT SOURCE ..................................................................192
6: CURRENT MIRRORS........................................................................................193
7: NON-IDEALITIES OF BJT CURRENT SOURCES............................................194
7.1 EFFECTS OF ro ON CURRENT SOURCE PERFORMANCE..................... 195
Chapter 13: MULTI-STAGE AMPLIFIERS ................................................................ 197
1: OBJECTIVE .......................................................................................................197
2: ANALYSIS OF AN EXAMPLE AMPLIFIER........................................................197
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Chapter 14: FEEDBACK............................................................................................203
1: OBJECTIVES.....................................................................................................203
2: INTRODUCTION TO FEEDBACK .....................................................................204
2.1 PROPERTIES OF NEGATIVE FEEDBACK............................................... 204
2.2 THE BASIC FEEDBACK CIRCUIT..............................................................205
3: HOW FEEDBACK AFFECTS BANDWIDTH......................................................207
4: FROM BASIC BLOCK DIAGRAM TO ACTUAL FEEDBACK CIRCUITS .......... 209
4.1 REMINDER: TYPES OF AMPLIFIERS ......................................................209
4.2 BASIC STRUCTURE OF THE CIRCUIT.................................................... 211
4.3 TYPES OF MIXER......................................................................................212
4.4 TYPES OF SAMPLER................................................................................212
5: SERIES-SHUNT FEEDBACK -> VOLTAGE AMP.............................................215
6: SHUNT-SERIES FEEDBACK -> CURRENT AMP ............................................ 219
7: SERIES-SERIES FEEDBACK -> TRANSCONDUCTANCE AMPLIFIER.......... 221
8: SHUNT-SHUNT FEEDBACK -> TRANSRESISTANCE AMPLIFIER ................ 223
9: FEEDBACK ANALYSIS IN REALISTIC CIRCUITS........................................... 224
9.1 SUMMARY OF STEPS YOU WILL USE.................................................... 224
10: SERIES-SHUNT FEEDBACK.......................................................................... 225
11: RULES FOR SERIES-SERIES (TRANSCONDUCTANCE AMPLIFIER) ........235
12: RULES FOR SHUNT-SHUNT (TRANSRESISTANCE AMPLIFIER) ...............236
13: RULES FOR SHUNT-SERIES (CURRENT AMPLIFIER)................................237
14: RULES FOR SERIES-SHUNT (VOLTAGE AMPLIFIER) ................................238
15: STABILITY AND POLE LOCATION.................................................................239
15.1 SINGLE POLE WITH FEEDBACK ...........................................................240
15.2 TWO POLES WITH FEEDBACK..............................................................241
15.3 THREE OR MORE POLES WITH FEEDBACK........................................ 243
15.4 STABILITY................................................................................................244
16: COMPENSATION............................................................................................ 245
17: "TENT" MODEL FOR VISUALIZING POLES AND ZEROS ............................ 246
18: LINEAR OSCILLATORS (VERY BRIEFLY!).................................................... 247
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