Published on

Review the concept of TAVI
Evaluation of patients considered for TAVI
Review of evidence
Identify future applications

Published in: Health & Medicine


  1. 1. TAVIDr Vijay Amaranath,DM NIMS,Hyderabad.
  2. 2. Bird’s Eye View Review the concept of TAVI Evaluation of patients considered for TAVI Review of evidence Identify future applications
  3. 3. Introduction Rising life expectancy results in an increase of degenerative aortic stenosis most frequent acquired heart valve disease and if untreated is associated with high mortality.
  4. 4. Operative Mortality for AVR AVR in octogenarians STS2001 UKCSR EHS • 220 pts (%) 1999-2001 2001 • Op mortality 13% if AVR (%) (%) • Op mortality 24% if AVR + CABG AVR • Morbidity 60% 3.7 3.1 2.7 • Survival 85%, 80%, 73% (1,3,5 yrs) AVR + CABG 6.3 7 4.3 Benefits of AVR in octogenarians • 81% no/mild disability for daily activities • 93% feel less disabled • 93% reassured to have access to treatment despite their ageEur J Cardio Thorac Surg 2007;31:600-606. Eur J CardioThorac Surg 2007;31: 1099-1105. Euro J Cardiothorac Surg2006; 30: 722-727
  5. 5. Many patients are not surgically treated! Severe AS* - Percent of Patients TreatedJ Heart Valve Dis2006;15:312-321; Circulation 2005; European Heart Journal 2003;24:1231-1243; Heart 1999;82:143-148
  6. 6. Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation (TAVI)• 1993: Andersen – First description of valve sutured in stent – Animal model – Encountered major limitations • Obstruction of coronary ostia
  7. 7. First human implantation: Alain Cribier April 16, 2002 ( France) Bovine pericardium valve 23mm in diameter
  8. 8. balloon-expandable valves first generation : Cribier-Edwards valve Second generation Edwards SAPIEN THV bovine pericardium that is firmly mounted within a tubular, slotted, stainless steel balloon-expandable stent
  9. 9. ‘Sapien’ device• ‘Sapien XT’ device Balloon deployment • Fewer rows and columns• Transapical deployment also • Shorter stent size• Leaflets in open • More radial strength grater mode, more chance durability for AR • More closed form, less chance for AR
  10. 10. CoreValve Revalving device first implantation in 2005 - Grube et al• first-generation : bovine pericardial tissue and was constrained with 25F delivery catheter.• second-generation : porcine pericardial tissue within a 21 F catheter .
  11. 11. multi-level self-expanding Nitinol frame• upper third - low radial force : sits prosthesis in the aortic root• middle third - high hoop strength ,valve leaflets are attached ,avoid impinging the coronaries.• lower third - high radial force and sits within the left ventricular outflow tract.
  12. 12. Procedure & Hardware
  13. 13. IndicationsLogistic EuroSCORE >20% or STS Score > 10. Logistic EuroSCORE >20% or STS Score > 10.
  14. 14. Work upRole of imaging in pre-procedural and post procedural assessment
  15. 15. oversizing relative to the aortic annulus(I)Anchoring to prevent migration(II) sealing to prevent paravalvular aortic regurgitation(III)proper valve functioning to prevent patient-prosthesis mismatch
  16. 16. Patient Evaluation• CT Angiogram – Arterial calcification – Arterial tortuosity – Minimal luminal diameter
  17. 17. • Vascular access – Sites • Transfemoral • Transapical – Left ant. thoracotomy – More direct, shorter catheter – Septal hypertrophy – Ascendra2, Sapien valve Percutaneous Percutaneous • Transaortic or Cut-down or Cut-down – Upper partial sternotomy technique technique – Mini-sternotomy 2/3 RICS – Aorta 5 cm above valve – Less painful, familiar approach – Manipulation of ascending aorta • Subclavian
  18. 18. Approaches
  19. 19. BAV• Balloon aortic valvuloplasty: 20x30 mm (for # 23) or 23x30 mm (for # 26)• Appropriate angiographic projection in line with the plane of annulus [LAO200/Cran200]• midpoint of balloon at the annular level PACE INFLATE CHECK DEFLATE stop pacing
  20. 20. Transfemoral Approach Sapien Valve RetroFlex 3 Delivery SystemEdwards SAPIEN THV RetroFlex Balloon Catheter RetroFlex 3 introducer Sheath Set Atrion Inflation Device Crimper RetroFlex Dilator Kit 41
  21. 21. HardwareDilator set Inflation device Crimper
  22. 22. Hardware
  23. 23. Transfemoral Approach Valve DeploymentRV pacing: 200/min Aortic Pressure
  24. 24. Edwards SAPIEN implantation
  25. 25. Edwards SAPIEN implantation
  26. 26. Ascendra™ Transapical Approach Ascendra™ Introducer Sheath Set Edwards SAPIEN™ THV Ascendra™ Delivery SystemAtrion Inflation Device Ascendra™ Valvuloplasy Catheter Crimper 47
  27. 27. Transapical ApproachDirect leftventricular puncture
  28. 28. Transapical ApproachPlacement and valvedeployment
  29. 29. Transapical Approach
  30. 30. three stages of CoreValve deployment.
  31. 31. transfemoral approach
  32. 32. Subclavian approach
  33. 33. closure device such as Prostar XLTM(Abbott
  34. 34. Occlusive iliac dissection
  35. 35. Iliac artery rupture…
  36. 36. …repaired with a covered stent
  37. 37. Transapical Approach lung injury, pneumothorax, or pleural bleeding respiratory compromise and prolonged ventilation cardiac tamponade
  38. 38. Complications & ManagementCauses of hypotension after TAVI ••Vascularcomplications—iliac rupture Vascular complications—iliac rupture ••Ventricularrupture Ventricular rupture ••Acutevalve dysfunction Acute valve dysfunction ••Coronaryartery obstruction Coronary artery obstruction ••Multiplerapid pacing episodes in pts with poor LV function Multiple rapid pacing episodes in pts with poor LV function ••‘Suicidal’LV in severe LVH [After removing AV obstruction LV ‘Suicidal’ LV in severe LVH [After removing AV obstruction LV decompresses to such an extent that the subvalvular hypertrophy decompresses to such an extent that the subvalvular hypertrophy obstructs outflow] treated with fluids & avoiding diuretics obstructs outflow] treated with fluids & avoiding diuretics
  39. 39. Coronary obstruction • Displacing an unusually bulky, calcified native leaflet over a coronary ostium • height of the coronary ostia, and dimensions of the sinus of Valsalva. ostia should be minimally located 14 mm away from the leaflets insertion.
  40. 40. Complications & Management Left main stem compromise with semi-occlusive displacement of Left main stem compromise with semi-occlusive displacement of calcified nodule from aortic valve. calcified nodule from aortic valve. Treated with CPB device explantation  AVR Treated with CPB device explantation  AVR Also PCI/CABG Also PCI/CABG
  41. 41. (A) Left main coronary artery occlusion resulting from a bulky leaflet displaced overthe ostium. (B) Successful percutaneous intervention restored left coronaryflow.
  42. 42. Mitral valve injury• transvenous, transseptal approach• antegrade apical approach : avulsion of a mitral chordae• ventricular end of a transcatheter prosthesis can be expected to contact the anterior mitral curtain
  43. 43. Complications & ManagementSignificant annular rupture Significant annular rupture ••Pericardialdrainage, auto-transfusion Pericardial drainage, auto-transfusionVentricular perforation Ventricular perforation ••Conversionto open surgical closure Conversion to open surgical closureDevice malpositionDevice malposition Overlapping ‘valve in valve’ Overlapping ‘valve in valve’Device embolizationDevice embolization Urgent endovascular/ surgical Urgent endovascular/ surgical management managementMajor ischemic strokeMajor ischemic stroke Catheter-based, mechanical embolic protection Catheter-based, mechanical embolic protectionMinor ischemic strokeMinor ischemic stroke Aspirin, anticoagulants Aspirin, anticoagulantsHemorrhagic strokeHemorrhagic stroke Anticoagulation reversal, coagulopathy correction Anticoagulation reversal, coagulopathy correction
  44. 44. Stroke• atheroembolism• Calcific embolism from the aortic valve• air embolism ; prolonged hypotension, and dissection of arch vessels
  45. 45. Embolic protection device
  46. 46. Heart block• Incidence of CHB requiring permanent pacemaker implantation has been higher with the CoreValve (19.2% to 42.5%) than with the Sapien valve (1.8% to 8.5%) [larger profile and extension low into the LVOT• Occurrence of CHB/LBBB – BAV 46% – Balloon/prosthesis positioning &wire-crossing of the aortic valve 25% – Prosthesis expansion 29%.• Pre-existing RBBB risk factor for CHB
  47. 47. Complications & Management Aortic Regurgitation ••Typicallyparavalvular mild or Typically paravalvular mild or mild-moderate severity mild-moderate severity ••Mostof AR disappears or reduces Most of AR disappears or reduces at 11yr follow-up [13% absent, 80% at yr follow-up [13% absent, 80% mild AR] mild AR]
  48. 48. Complications & ManagementParavalvular AR Paravalvular AR Post-deployment balloon dilation, rapid RV Post-deployment balloon dilation, rapid RV pacing for stabilization, ‘valve in valve’ pacing for stabilization, ‘valve in valve’ implantation implantationCentral valvular ARCentral valvular AR Usually self-limited, Gentle probing of leaflets Usually self-limited, Gentle probing of leaflets with aasoft wire or catheter with soft wire or catheter Delivery of aa2nd TAVR device, ‘valve in Delivery of 2nd TAVR device, ‘valve in valve’ valve’
  49. 49. • Acute renal failure - severe renal dysfunction and dialysis( 3 %) requirement might occur• Arrhythmia- Atrial fibrillation or ventricular ectopy might be precipitated by cardiac manipulation
  50. 50. Medications post-TAVIAspirin for life and clopidogrel for 3 monthspatient on anticoagulation Warfarin plus clopidogrel for 1 month post- TAVI, followed by Warfarin plus Aspirin for 1 year and then continue Warfarin only.
  52. 52. PARTNER II Trial: Placement ofAoRTic TraNscathetER Valves Trial Edwards SAPIEN XTTM device and delivery systems: NovaFlex (transfemoral access) and Ascendra2 (transapical access) in patients with symptomatic, calcific, severe aortic stenosis. intermediate risk [ STS score of 4-8% ]
  53. 53. SURTAVI• Safety and Efficacy Study of the Medtronic CoreValve® System in the Treatment of Severe, Symptomatic Aortic Stenosis in Intermediate Risk Subjects Who Need Aortic Valve Replacement (SURTAVI).intermediate risk [ STS score of 3-8% ]
  54. 54. Danish study Irrespective of risk score randomized to TAVI vs SAVR
  55. 55. TAVI in Degenerated Bioprostheses• Aortic – Capable with CoreValve and Sapien – Bioprosthesis only – Annular/Size diameter • CoreValve: not in annulus < 21mm• Mitral – Transapical approach – Sapien only• Pulmonary
  56. 56. TAVI in a patient with a history of mitral valve replacement
  57. 57. Valve-in-valve TAVI in both Stented and stentless bioprosthetic valve dysfunction
  58. 58. newly approved transapical devices
  59. 59. • What is the durability?• What is the role of TAVI in low-gradient AS?• Which institutions should be qualified to perform TAVI?• TAVI for prosthesis degeneration?• Will there be a use of catheter valve implantation in lower risk population?
  60. 60. TAVI is currently the treatment of choice for patients considered not to be candidates for SAVR and proven alternative in high risk cases .
  61. 61. Thank You