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Oral anticoagulants in paediatric  cardiac practice
Oral anticoagulants in paediatric  cardiac practice
Oral anticoagulants in paediatric  cardiac practice
Oral anticoagulants in paediatric  cardiac practice
Oral anticoagulants in paediatric  cardiac practice
Oral anticoagulants in paediatric  cardiac practice
Oral anticoagulants in paediatric  cardiac practice
Oral anticoagulants in paediatric  cardiac practice
Oral anticoagulants in paediatric  cardiac practice
Oral anticoagulants in paediatric  cardiac practice
Oral anticoagulants in paediatric  cardiac practice
Oral anticoagulants in paediatric  cardiac practice
Oral anticoagulants in paediatric  cardiac practice
Oral anticoagulants in paediatric  cardiac practice
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Oral anticoagulants in paediatric cardiac practice

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Oral anticoagulant for children

Oral anticoagulant for children

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  • 1. Oral anticoagulants in paediatric cardiac practice Ramachandra
  • 2. Timeline • First use in the paediatric age group since 1962 • The first published report of use of Warfarin in children was in 1976
  • 3. Prototype Warfarin
  • 4. Basic science VKA produce their anticoagulant effect by interfering with the cyclic inter conversion of vitamin K and its epoxide. Vitamin K is a cofactor for the post translational carboxylation of glutamate residues of coagulation proteins (factors II, VII, IX and X). In addition to their anticoagulant effect, the VKA inhibit carboxylation of the regulatory anticoagulant proteins C and S and therefore have the potential to exert a pro-coagulant effect.
  • 5. Pharmacokinetics: Warfarin • • • • • • • High bioavailability • Vitamin K-dependent factors are physiologically reduced in the blood of new born infants, making them more sensitive to these agents Maximal blood concentrations within 90 min of oral administration Protein bound (99%) Metabolized in the liver through the C-P450, 92% is excreted through the kidneys, 10% excreted through the biliary tract Half-life of 42 h. Bioavailability and clinical response of warfarin can be modified by several genetic and environmental factors Mutations in the gene coding for the cytochrome P450 2C9 hepatic microsomal enzyme and hereditary resistance to warfarin due to altered affinity to the receptors.
  • 6. Drugs • Old and established • Warfarin • Acenocoumerol • Newer and less experienced • Direct thrombin inhibition (Ximelagatran) • Direct Factor Xa inhibition (Rivaroxaban) • Superior pharmacokinetics than standard agents
  • 7. Titre
  • 8. Modification  Children need higher dose  Prosthetic valve need higher dose  Fontan’ palliation needs 25% lower dose  A recent study of 319 children reported that infants <1 year of age require a daily dose of 0.33 + 0.2 mg/kg while older children and adolescents require 0.09 + 0.05 mg/kg to maintain a target INR of 2-3
  • 9. Side-Effects • Bleeding is the main side-effect,rarely skin necrosis, gangrene, osteoporosis, fever, hair loss and tracheal calcification • The risk of major bleeding is 0.5% per patient-year • The risk of serious bleeding in children receiving VKA for mechanical prosthetic valves is approximately 3.2% per patient-year • The risk increases significantly when the INR is >8 • Most cases of bleeding can be treated with vitamin K administration (30 mcg/kg) • In life-threatening bleeding complications, fresh frozen plasma should be used.
  • 10. Precaution • hypersensitivity to Warfarin • Renal/hepatic impairment, cerebral or dissecting aortic aneurysms, active ulceration, severe hypertension, infective endocarditis and pericardial effusion • First trimester, is a relative contraindication. Warfarin in a dose of <5 mg/day in pregnant patients with mechanical valves provides optimum antithrombotic effect with a low rate of foetal complications
  • 11. Interaction • Increased dose with anticonvulsants like phenobarbital and carbamazepine • Breast milk-fed infants are more sensitive to warfarin as compared to formula-fed infants due to the lower vitamin K content in breast milk • Warfarin effect may be modified by several food items such as liver, broccoli, Brussels sprouts, spinach, coriander, cabbage and other green leafy vegetables • Patients should be advised to maintain constant dietary habits while on warfarin.
  • 12. Indication • • • • • prophylaxis after Fontan surgery Mechanical prosthetic valves Kawasaki disease with large aneurysms Dilated cardiomyopathy with severe left ventricular dysfunction Primary pulmonary hypertension
  • 13. Take home • Most of the recommendations regarding the use of oral anticoagulants in children have been extrapolated from the adult literature, with very few randomized trials performed in the paediatric population • Warfarin continues to be the most common agent in the pediatric age
  • 14. Home work for you Encourage and involve yourself in RCT/Observation studies with OAC in children

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