Perception

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Perception

  1. 1. Perception <ul><li>The Perceptual process can be defined as a complicated interaction of selection, organization,and interpretation. </li></ul><ul><li>The perceptual process adds to, and subtracts from the real sensory world. </li></ul><ul><li>It is the process through which people make sense of the vast array of sensory inputs and involves the active processing of information. </li></ul>
  2. 2. Sub-processes of Perception <ul><li>I.External Environment: </li></ul><ul><li>a).Sensual stimulation </li></ul><ul><li>b).Physical Environment </li></ul><ul><li>Office. </li></ul><ul><li>Factory floor. </li></ul><ul><li>Research Labs. </li></ul><ul><li>Store. </li></ul><ul><li>Climate. </li></ul><ul><li>c).Sociocultural environment </li></ul><ul><li>Management Styles. </li></ul><ul><li>Values </li></ul><ul><li>Discrimination. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Sub-processes of Perception… <ul><li>II.Confrontation of Specific stimulus. (supervisor,new procedure,new machinery). </li></ul><ul><li>III.Registration of Stimulus (sensory and neural mechanisms). </li></ul><ul><li>IV.Interpretation of the stimulus (motivation, learning,and personality). </li></ul>
  4. 4. Sub-processes of Perception… <ul><li>V.Feedback for clarification. </li></ul><ul><li>VI.Behaviour (overt or covert). </li></ul><ul><li>VII.Consequence (reinforcement/punishment or some organizational outcome). </li></ul>
  5. 5. Individual Perceptual Process <ul><li>I.PERCEPTUAL SELECTIVITY: </li></ul><ul><li>a).External Attention Factors: </li></ul><ul><li>Intensity </li></ul><ul><li>Size </li></ul><ul><li>Contrast </li></ul><ul><li>Repetition </li></ul><ul><li>Motion. </li></ul><ul><li>Novelty and Familiarity. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Individual Perceptual Process… <ul><li>b).Internal Set Factors: </li></ul><ul><li>Learning and Perception. </li></ul><ul><li>Motivation and Perception. </li></ul><ul><li>Personality and Perception. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Individual Perceptual Process… <ul><li>II.PERCEPTUAL ORGANIZATION: </li></ul><ul><li>Figure and Ground </li></ul><ul><li>Perceptual Grouping </li></ul><ul><li>Closure </li></ul><ul><li>Continuity </li></ul><ul><li>Proximity </li></ul><ul><li>Similarity </li></ul>
  8. 8. Individual Perceptual Process… <ul><li>II.PERCEPTUAL ORGANIZATION (contd): </li></ul><ul><li>Perceptual Constancy </li></ul><ul><li>Perceptual Context </li></ul><ul><li>Perceptual Defense </li></ul><ul><li>Denial. </li></ul><ul><li>Modification and Distortion. </li></ul><ul><li>Change in Perception. </li></ul><ul><li>Recognition,but refusal to change. </li></ul>
  9. 9. II.PERCEPTUAL ORGANIZATION (contd): <ul><li>Perceptual Defense (continued) : </li></ul><ul><li>Emotionally disturbing information has a higher threshold for recognition. </li></ul><ul><li>Disturbing information and stimuli are likely to bring about substitute perceptions that are distorted to prevent recognition of disturbing elements. </li></ul><ul><li>Emotionally arousing information actually does arouse emotion,which might be directed elsewhere. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Individual Perceptual Process… <ul><li>III.SOCIAL PERCEPTION: </li></ul><ul><li>Characteristics of Perceiver and Perceived. </li></ul><ul><li>The Similar-to-me Effect. </li></ul><ul><li>Attribution. </li></ul><ul><li>First Impression Error-confirming one’s expectation. </li></ul><ul><li>The Halo Effect. </li></ul><ul><li>Selective Perception. </li></ul><ul><li>Stereotyping. </li></ul>
  11. 11. IMPRESSION MANAGEMENT <ul><li>I. Demotion-Preventive Strategy: </li></ul><ul><li>a ).Accounts. </li></ul><ul><li>b).Apologies. </li></ul><ul><li>c).Disassociation. </li></ul><ul><li>II.Promotion-Enhancing Strategy: </li></ul><ul><li>a).Entitlements. </li></ul><ul><li>b).Enhancements. </li></ul><ul><li>c).Obstacle Disclosures. </li></ul><ul><li>d).Association. </li></ul>

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