High Speed Rail lines maintenance by UIC

  • 3,309 views
Uploaded on

Maintenance of high speed rail lines by UIC

Maintenance of high speed rail lines by UIC

More in: Technology
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
  • good work
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
No Downloads

Views

Total Views
3,309
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
1

Actions

Shares
Downloads
0
Comments
1
Likes
7

Embeds 0

No embeds

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
    No notes for slide

Transcript

  • 1. Maintenance of High Speed LinesReport 2010Auteur : Hugo Goossens-------------------------------------------Company: E-RAILCONSULT-------------------------------------------Document : 1st phase - Report-------------------------------------------Date : September 2010
  • 2. MAINTENANCE OF HIGH SPEED LINES REPORT July 2010UIC – International Union of Railways – 16 rue Jean Rey – F-75015 Paris – www.uic.org/highspeed
  • 3. CONTENTSChapter 1 – Introduction .................................................................................................. 31. Preamble ........................................................................................................................ 32. Changes in the Railway Sector (…. 2010) ...................................................................... 3 2.1 New technologies ................................................................................................... 3 2.2 New technical requirements .................................................................................... 4 2.2.1 Mixed traffic lines ............................................................................................ 4 2.2.2 Increased design speed .................................................................................. 4 2.2.3 Tilting trains ..................................................................................................... 4 2.2.4 High speed freight ........................................................................................... 4 2.2.5 Normalisation and standardisation .................................................................. 5 2.2.6 Coordinate base reference data 2.2.7 RAMS - Requirements .................................................................................... 5 2.2.8 Contract forms ................................................................................................ 5 2.2.9 Life Cycle Costs (LCC)..................................................................................... 5 2.2.10 Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) .......................................................... 6 2.2.11 Disposal ....................................................................................................... 6Chapter 2 - Maintenance needs ........................................................................................ 71. Introduction .................................................................................................................... 72. Maintenance methods ................................................................................................... 73. Levels of maintenance ................................................................................................... 8Chapter 3 - Maintenance requirements in the “design” phase ...................................... 91. Introduction .................................................................................................................... 92. Accesses to the infrastructure ........................................................................................ 93. Assembly area for switches and crossings .....................................................................114. Longitudinal service paths for maintenance staff ...........................................................115. Lighting ..........................................................................................................................126. Maintenance bases ........................................................................................................12 6.1 Introduction ..............................................................................................................12 6.2. Distances between maintenance bases ..................................................................12 6.3 Functionality of a maintenance base ........................................................................13 6.3.1 Light base ......................................................................................................13 6.3.2 Full base ........................................................................................................13 6.3.3. Emergency depot ..........................................................................................137. RAMS data ....................................................................................................................15 7.1 Definition of Availability ............................................................................................15 7.1.1. Analysis of various factors in the life cycle of a railway system ..................... 15 7.2 Factors in determining degree of availability ........................................................... 16 7.2.1 Introduction ................................................................................................... 16 7.2.2. The concept of the infrastructure and the various subsystems ..................... 168. Structure and organisation of the operation service ...................................................... 179. Structure and organisation of the maintenance service ..................................................1710. Test devices, wear parts, spare parts ............................................................................1711. Emergency equipment, traction units .............................................................................18Chapter 4 - Maintenance requirements during the “construction” phase .....................191. Introduction ....................................................................................................................192. Collaboration between builders and maintainers ............................................................19Chapter 5 - Maintenance requirements in the “test and service shadow” phase .........20Maintenance of High Speed Lines 1/64
  • 4. 1. Introduction ....................................................................................................................202. Table of verifications during test and service shadow phase ..........................................20Chapter 6 - Inspections and tests during operations on the line ...................................211. Introduction ......................................................................................................................212. Components to be examined during monitoring................................................................21Chapter 7 - Working windows – Sweep trains..................................................................251. Introduction ....................................................................................................................252. “Sweep” trains ...............................................................................................................253. Working windows ...........................................................................................................25Chapter 8 - Best practices in maintenance works ...........................................................281. Introduction ....................................................................................................................282. Integrated maintenance .................................................................................................283. Minimum maintenance requirements between finishing the construction and tests and starting operations ..........................................................................................................28 3.1. Prevention against vandalism and burglary of cables, overhead contact wire, etc ...............284. Track .............................................................................................................................29 4.1 Rail grinding .............................................................................................................29 4.2 Absolute coordinates ...............................................................................................29 4.3 Flying ballast ............................................................................................................30 4.4 Measures against snow adhering to and dropping from high speed trains.. ..............30 4.5 Wheel scan ..............................................................................................................305. Energy ...........................................................................................................................30 5.1 Surveying of the overhead contact wire by thermo-graphic control ...........................30 5.2 Overhead contact system ........................................................................................31 5.3 Control of the pantograph ........................................................................................31Chapter 9 - Life cycle of subsystems of high speed lines ..............................................32 1. Introduction ..............................................................................................................32 2. Track components ...................................................................................................32 3. Overhead contact lines ............................................................................................33 4. Signalling system .....................................................................................................33Chapter 10 - Conclusions & Recommendations .............................................................34Appendices & Abbreviations.............................................................................................35Maintenance of High Speed Lines 2/64
  • 5. MAINTENANCE OF HIGH SPEED LINESCHAPTER 1 Introduction1. PreambleThe IUR-UIC published in 1996 the IF-7/96 Report entitled “Maintenance of High Speed Lines”.This technical document, reflecting the experience and knowledge available in Europe at thetime it was written, contained general considerations on the maintenance of high speed linesand detail information about the principles concerning the organisation of track supervision andmaintenance work.Since then the Railways and Railways environment have changed fundamentally with furtherinternationalisation of High Speed Traffic:- Reorganisation of the Railways with (partial) privatisation and liberalisation of the Railways in many countries,- New techniques introduced for different subsystems and publication of international rules and norms,- New types of contract forms to build, operate and maintain Railways requiring longer term commitment.Due to these various changes and the demand of further internationalisation, the UIC PlenaryCommittee decided, at its meeting held in Figueras (Spain) on 18 and 19 November 2008, topropose to the General Management of the UIC that a new work group be established toexamine:- The experiences acquired over the last decades,- The most recent technologies relating to infrastructure,- The other subsystems with their latest technological developments,- The interfaces between operators (rolling stock) and infrastructure managers (maintenance),- The extended experiences and specificities in other countries outside of Europe.2. Changes in the Railway Sector (… 2010)2.1 New technologies:New technologies or a generalisation of some new technologies has been seen in RailwayInfrastructure over the last decades.Furthermore, contact with Asian Railways increased and the experiences of these countriesshould be added to those of the European Railways.The updated report will take into account both of these developments..Significant technological changes include:- Technological changes adapted to increased health and safety requirements,- Changes to meet safety requirements,Maintenance of High Speed Lines 3/64
  • 6. - A generalisation of un-ballasted track on some lines and under certain circumstances,- The use of new fastening systems,- The introduction in Europe of the new signalling system ERTMS-ETCS supported by the GSM-R communication system,- The introduction of new materials (e.g. the catenaries overhead wire; rails),- New monitoring systems (e.g. control of switches),- New absolute coordinate-based referencing of infrastructure assets for use in net wide support of track maintenance work,- New techniques for maintenance machines,- The development of new sensors to avoid the non-availability of the infrastructure or to reduce the break down time,- Etc.2.2 New technical requirements:2.2.1. Mixed traffic linesMost of the high speed lines were, until now, dedicated exclusively to passenger traffic andpredominantly to one type of train.With the increase in the number of high speed lines and in congestion on the roads, more andmore infrastructure managements extended the use of the infrastructure for different kinds ofmixed traffic:- Passenger traffic with use of different type of trains running at the same or different speeds and with the possibility to use push-pull trains on the route,- High speed passenger trains and high speed freight traffic (e.g. post trains),- Passenger and freight traffic with a largely different speed.Mixed traffic could have a significant effect on the maintenance of the infrastructure based onthe operating model used.2.2.2. Increased design speedRailway operators are seeking to reduce travel time; there is an increased demand to increasethe maximum speed on the (new) lines. Some new lines are currently designed for speeds up to350 km/h.These increasing speeds are affecting the survey and the maintenance of the lines.2.2.3. Tilting trainsSome networks have put in operation tilting trains to increase the travel speed in small curves;the introduction of this technology reduces the travel time and increases the capacity often onupgraded lines.Some maintenance requirements relating to tilting trains have to be taken into account.2.2.4. High speed freightResearch relating to the development of high speed freight corridors is ongoing. The conceptand the maintenance of these kinds of lines can differ in certain respects.Similarities between HS lines and heavy-haul traffic should be considered.Maintenance of High Speed Lines 4/64
  • 7. 2.2.5. Normalisation and standardisationIncreased normalisation works on high speed lines are ongoing throughout the world. In Europefor example, the European Commission published a series of Technical Specifications forInteroperability in addition to a significant number of European Norms specific to Railwayconcerns.Comments:i. Implementation of ERTMS is now mandated in the EC for all new projects.ii. There is a tendency for the designers of new high speed lines to “import” a complete system from one country; this limits flexibility in adapting to specific local conditions.iii. There is an increased requirement for “proven” designs (GAME, GAMAB, ALARP)2.2.6. Coordinate base reference dataIts components are: National coordinate reference net, the numeric track net definition, thenumeric line net definition and based on track net and line net the numeric work surfacedefinition.2.2.7. RAMS – Requirements:The performance of a high speed network depends largely on the availability of its lines.This availability becomes even more important when the revenues of the infrastructure owneror/and the operators of the line depend directly on the degree of availability.Therefore, there is an increasing demand on RAMS-studies to prove that the infrastructurebeing designed will, during its whole life cycle, meet all requirements concerning reliability,availability, maintainability and safety.Compliance with requirements must be provided for during the design and construction phaseof a line; follow-up must be conducted during the entire life cycle.2.2.8. Contract forms:New contract forms are used for financing the construction, operations and maintenance oflarge infrastructure works.More and more lines are constructed and operated as a concession with contracts with termsup to fifty years.The concessionaire has to (partially) finance the construction costs but also the maintenanceand operation costs. At the end of the contract, the infrastructure is transferred back to theowner(s); the requested quality and the residual life cycle of the components are requirementsof the contract.The most complete contract form is the DBFMOT (Design – Build – Finance – Maintain –Operate – Transfer).2.2.9. Life Cycle Costs (LCC):The Life Cycle Costs: the choice between different technologies and the choice of themanufacturing-construction company is more and more based on the total cost during the lifecycle rather than on the initial investment costs.The availability and guarantee of delivery of spare parts are important concerns.Maintenance of High Speed Lines 5/64
  • 8. 2.2.10. Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR):The Corporate Social Responsibility of the companies becomes an important factor which mustbe taken into consideration during the design, construction and operation of the high speed line.2.2.11. Disposal:The disposal or recycling of materials in case of renewal or upgrading work is an importantfactor.These various recent developments have an impact on the design of new high speed lines oron the upgrading of lines, but also on the maintenance of these lines during their whole lifecycle.These various aspects will be taken into consideration in the development of the document.Maintenance of High Speed Lines 6/64
  • 9. CHAPTER 2 MAINTENANCE NEEDS1. IntroductionAdequate maintenance procedures must be adopted for each component of the system in orderto guarantee very high performance for the high speed railway system during its whole life.These procedures have to be extended to cover also non-specific railway subsystems likesurrounding roads, accesses, fences, etc.The people responsible for design, construction (upgrading) and maintenance of a high speedline have to satisfy various requirements concerning reliability, availability, maintainability, safetyand security by seeking:- To minimise coincidental defaults by the design of the infrastructure and taking into account the results of the RAMS studies,- To minimise systematic defaults by applying a strong Quality System,- To maximise safety by developing a risk management system,- To maximise the performance of the system by reducing train delays,- To maximise the availability of the system by reducing the number of hours of possession of the line,- Methods to permit rapid recovery from disruption.Preference will be given to incremental/evolutionary improvements rather than revolutionaryimprovements.These objectives can be reached by effectively managing maintenance and implementingclearly identified procedures:- To guarantee the safety of the system and the reliability and availability of its infrastructure,- To ensure highly adequate maintenance with a brief response time at an optimal cost,- For establishing an extended data base to ensure accurate analyses to assist in the planning and selection of a specific type of maintenance be it on a short, middle or long term basis,- For asset management issues/requirements.2. Maintenance methodsThe generalised systematic periodic maintenance, which was the general practice a fewdecades ago, is not currently the best practice (because it is costly, requires track possessionand results in the deterioration of the components; in particular in respect of data quality level,old working approaches completely miss the target of 100% completeness and correctnessmaking full automation of the new working methods impossible).This kind of maintenance has progressively been replaced by “Condition-based maintenance”(CMB). With the increased development of the possibilities of control and expertise, periodicmaintenance has been further replaced.Curative maintenance has also been further diminished. This curative maintenance has anegative effect on the availability of the infrastructure and the degree of regularity of the line.The maintenance manager has to make a choice between:- Investing in a well-developed diagnostic system and in maximising data quality,and- Limiting supervision with the risk of increasing the non-availability of the line.Maintenance of High Speed Lines 7/64
  • 10. Note that the maintainer’s choice is often limited by the supplier delivery and warrantyconditions.Maintenance specialists agree that curative maintenance has at least a higher cost thancondition-based maintenance.Curative maintenance interventions call upon an appropriate organisation of the maintenanceservice (availability of specialists, intervention teams out of the normal work schemes,communication means, availability of intervention machines, etc...).More versatile maintenance people means lower costs for curative interventions.It is very important to have a data base on curative interventions. Analysis of this data base canbe a real help in transforming the various curative, unplanned interventions in condition- basedor preventive maintenance operations (e.g. the catalogue of rail defects published by IUR-UICcan be helpful for the organisation of the inspection of the rails and to plan for preventivemaintenance or renewal work).3. Levels of maintenanceCertain maintenance norms provide for a classification of the different levels of maintenance.The maintenance manager is required to conduct an analysis (for each subsystem orcomponent of a subsystem) to define the limits and responsibilities at each level ofmaintenance.A detailed classification is very important in the case of sub-contracting of certain maintenanceworks to third parties.In accordance with these general principles, we recommend the establishment of 4maintenance levels:Level 1: Interventions in situ; no intervention of the supplier is necessary; can be executed without negatively affecting the availability of the infrastructure and the regularity of the operations.Level 2: Intervention of the maintenance team in the maintenance base; maximum availability to guarantee redundancy of parts; interventions require control devices and sometimes special tools.Level 3: Intervention of the supplier; control and repair completed by the technicians of the supplier in its factory; if possible, application of standard exchange of elementsLevel 4: Heavy replacements and renewal works. Significant impact on the availability of the infrastructure.Maintenance of High Speed Lines 8/64
  • 11. CHAPTER 3 MAINTENANCE REQUIREMENTS IN THE “DESIGN” PHASE1. IntroductionThe requirements for operation and maintenance have to be taken into account early in thedesign phase.Experiences with the operation of high speed lines demonstrate that adaptations of theinfrastructure a posteriori are more expensive than during the construction of the line.In this chapter, we highlight some measures which must be taken into consideration early in thedevelopment of the project of a high speed line.They should be completed or adapted based on local needs and circumstances and on thespecific organisation of the envisaged maintenance.2. Accesses to the infrastructureAccesses to the different parts of the line shall be provided; they should be situated close to“significant points”. Optimising these accesses can have a positive effect on the access time ofthe maintenance staff, the access of rescue services and that of employees of the operatingcompanies.The location of accesses depends largely on the type of substructure (embankment, cutting, at-grade, bridge, and tunnel), the chosen maintenance model, the type of resources/equipment tobe used, etc.We have set out below various configurations of possible accesses and have recommendedspecific features.This list is not exhaustive. Technical specifications or national laws may prescribe otherfacilities.Connections with other (conventional) linesRailway access to the high speed lines can consist in accesses from:- The conventional network,- The maintenance base(s) along the line,- Maintenance sidings along the line.Distances between two railway accesses to the line will be between 80 and 100 km (thisrepresents, for all practical purposes, 1 hour outward and 1 hour return journey for work trainsrunning up to 100 km/h)Comment: In some countries, the speed of the work trains is limited. The location of thenecessary maintenance bases or sidings has to be adapted for each particular case.Road accesses and parkingSuggested locations for road accesses- at the maintenance base(s),- at the control and operation post(s),Maintenance of High Speed Lines 9/64
  • 12. - at the substation(s) and the auto transformer posts (road must be constructed for heavy loadsand with a sufficient clearance),- at the GSM-R piles and specific piles for the rescue services,- at both side viaducts and tunnels,- at emergency exits (in tunnels, walls, etc.), notably safety exits and accesses only for rescueservices; the design will depend on the chosen emergency strategy,- to and along the area of preassembling switches and crossings,- along the railway sidings,- about each 4 km, alternating on each side of the track for maintenance staff,- for road/rail vehicles and the necessary platforms for re-railing/derailing.Parking facilities which may be built:- at the maintenance base(s): number of places is based on occupation,- at the control command centre(s),- at the substation(s): minimum of 3 places,- at each end of the viaducts and tunnels: minimum of 3 places,- optionally at the preassembling zone for switches and crossings: 5 trucks with at least twoheavy trucks,- at the normal accesses and the emergency exits,- at the technical accesses (for example, for mowing machines).Special attention is necessary to avoid entrance by third parties in the closed-off areas (forexample, entrances for the delivery of electrical energy). These accesses shall be built outsideof the closed-off area.If it is impossible to build the proposed accesses, parallel routes to the track shall be envisagedto limit the distances for the accesses of the maintenance teams.The dimensions of the access roads shall be based on the carried loads. The slope will be atmaximum 5% if the accesses are in road-metal and 8% if they are in an asphalt layer.Staff accessesStaff accesses are provided at maximum distances of 2 km between 2 access points situatedon the same side of the line and if possible, opposite protected track crossings or structures.Prefabricated stairs for crossing the embankments or stairs integrated into the stonework of thestructures are necessary.Identification of the entrancesIt is recommended to clearly identify the different entrances by an identification board with:- The concerned high speed line,- The position of the entrance,- The name of the street and the name of the village,- The access number,- The telephone number of the nearest maintenance base,- The telephone number of the central control and command post,- The sign “Deadly peril – Zone of high voltage”.Maintenance of High Speed Lines 10/64
  • 13. It is recommended to have one type of lock for the various entrances.Access of tunnel ends and cut and cover sections.The accesses on the tunnel ends have different functions:- Road access including for emergency vehicles (clearance, weight, height) including rotation possibilities,- If necessary landing area for helicopters,- Parking for maintenance and rescue services (with facilities for easy turning),- Storage zone for materials (lorries, masks, extinguishers, …),- Area for cutting of the catenaries and earthing of the overhead wires,- Lighting of the area (10 Lux).The concept will take into account the risk to cover (e.g. mixed traffic with dangerous freight)and the economic dimension.3. Assembly area for switches and crossingsAssembly area for switches and crossings can be envisaged if the methods chosen for buildingand renewing switches or parts of switches require an assembly area and represent aneconomic interest (availability, cost).These areas can be envisaged along the same elements in the line (transversal placement ofthe elements) or along a siding track near the existing elements (longitudinal placement of theelements).In both cases, it is necessary to envisage the necessary clearance for the passage of thepreassembled elements: overhead piles, electrical devices, cable ducts, and drainage are to beadapted to permit free passage.The length of the service zone must be at least 2 x 10 m longer as the longest element to bemanipulated.Road access is very helpful for delivering the elements.Comment: Switches and crossings are becoming more modular. It is now feasible to alsotransport preassembled turnouts for high speed (using “split bearers”) on specially designedwagons.4. Longitudinal service paths for maintenance staffThe width of the service paths beside high speed lines is stipulated in local legislation.To ensure a safe and accessible walkway for persons working with maintenance equipment(welding groups, lighting groups…, which have generally a wheel-base of 650mm), a minimumwidth of 800 mm is recommended.The free height should be at least 2.10 m.The service paths are continuous: it is recommended that there be no important leveldifferences and no stairs. In case of important differences in level, ramps must be provided (ifnecessary with hand rails).Maintenance of High Speed Lines 11/64
  • 14. 5. LightingPowerful lighting is recommended for:- Areas outside tunnels and leading into tunnels and cut and cover sections,- Track switch areas,- The work bases,- Specific points.Rules for lighting in the tunnel (ambient lighting, lighting for maintenance and operational staffand emergency lighting) can be found in the UIC leaflet “Safety in tunnels”, in the technicalspecifications of Interoperability (“Tunnels”) in the American standards (especially forunderground lines and underground stations) and in all applicable national laws andregulations.Lighting installed in switch and crossing areas is helpful during control operations and workoperations. The lighting can be installed on separate masts, on the overhead line poles or onmobile masts.The energy can be provided by a separate network (= the most independent solution), by theenergy for the overhead contact lines or by an individual energy group.If necessary, in order to increase the lighting and to provide energy for electric tools, fixedsockets can be provided for plugging in lighting or electric devices.Lighting of specific points along the track or at the access points has to be taken into account inthe design phase.6. Maintenance bases6.1. IntroductionThe maintenance of a high speed line can be organized in different ways; maintenance of thewhole system can be carried out by the owner of the infrastructure or maintenance of somesubsystems or the whole system can be sub-contracted by means of a Service LevelAgreement with contractors.In both cases, working facilities will be required to park the machines, to store spare parts, andto use toilet facilities.A distinction should be made between:- Emergency depots for materials,- A light maintenance base,- A full maintenance base.Some typical solutions for currently operating maintenance bases are set out in the appendiceshereto.6.2. Distances between maintenance bases:The travel time of maintenance staff, from the maintenance base to the place of intervention,shall not exceed one hour (average travel speed on road and track estimated at 65 km/h)*.Maintenance of High Speed Lines 12/64
  • 15. Taking into account this restriction, a centrally disposed maintenance base can cover about 150km of line.In zones with high density of traffic, the distance to cover can be lower.* The distance has to be adapted based on the envisaged working windows and the authorisedspeed of maintenance equipment6.3 Functionality of a maintenance base:6.3.1 Light base:A light base consists in buildings (mess facilities, workshops, tool stores, and toilet facilities), acar park and a storage area for small items.It is equipped with telephone, internet and fax.This type of base can be situated either in a station on a conventional line close to the highspeed line (< 5 to 6 km), in a station on the high speed line or on the land of the high speed line,near or combined with a signal box.6.3.2 Full base:This type of base, with road and rail access, can be situated either in a station on aconventional line open to traffic 24 hours a day in the proximity of the high speed line, at aninfrastructure maintenance depot (welding plant, workshop for track, etc.) or on the land of thehigh speed line.The accessibility of the yard must be guaranteed without the need for any interventions otherthan those of the signalman in the signal box.It consists of buildings (mess facilities, workshops, tool stores), tracks, a car park and a storagearea.The tracks will be 300 m in length, suitable for stabling and forming work trains and for stablingan emergency ballast train. These three tracks are already equipped with lighting.The three tracks are provided with:- An inspection pit for servicing maintenance machines,- A locomotive/machine refuelling station,- A high platform and an end platform for loading and unloading maintenance equipment and spare parts onto the work trains.The full base will also have trackside storage space for the spare parts of the differentsubsystems. Some of the spare parts are stored in an enclosed area protected by alarms and orcamera supervision.6.3.3. Emergency depot:Some networks (SNCF in France; Infrabel in Belgium) have set up emergency depots that canbe installed on a full maintenance base or as an independent single depot to cover the needsfor a high speed line up to 500 km.On an area of about 300 m x 20 m served by 3 tracks which are separated by a 5 meter space,it holds:- Telecommunication cables,- Overhead line material for emergency work,Maintenance of High Speed Lines 13/64
  • 16. - A half set of switches with correct orientation,- Swing nose crossing centres with correct orientation,- Expansion joints,- Etc.Some materials can be stored at wagon height to facilitate the loading on flat wagons.Maintenance of High Speed Lines 14/64
  • 17. 7. RAMS data7.1 Definition of AvailabilityThe availability of a high speed line is an important factor in the life cycle of the line.This availability has an effect, in case of PPP projects, on the revenue of the concessionaire ofthe infrastructure and often constitutes part of the contract requirements.There is, as of the date hereof, no specific definition for the Degree of availability. Variousformulas are used to define this requirement.In some contracts premiums or penalties are foreseen as a function of the availability.To avoid any ambiguity we have set out hereafter the definition employed on an existingconcession.Asystem = (A – Bsystem)/A and must be 99.8%, withAsystem = degree of availability of the systemA = the arithmetic sum over a year of the running time on the line section, as provided in thetime tables, for all trains running in the section during the relevant yearBsystem = the arithmetic sum over a year of the delays caused by defaults in the infrastructureand under the responsibility of the concessionary.7.1.1 Analysis of various factors in the life cycle of a railway system.Non-availability of an infrastructure can be caused by:- Defaults in the rolling stock under the responsibility of the operators of the system,- Scheduled works in the normally scheduled traffic interruption times (day, night and weekend traffic interruptions…); these interruptions are not taken into account in determining the degree of availability,- Defaults of one or more critical elements/components in the infrastructure; the delays resulting therefrom must be taken into account,- Unforeseen failures,- Bad weather or other natural phenomena.Further analysis of the above demonstrates that various factors must be examined at differenttimes during the life cycle. T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 T7T1 = detection of a default; information obtained by or sent to the control command centreT2 = information of staff in charge of repair or maintenanceMaintenance of High Speed Lines 15/64
  • 18. T3 = preparation of staff in charge of repair (travel time, availability of spare parts, availability of measuring devices, preparation and travel with respect to the machines). Arriving at the place of intervention.T4 = Repair time (depends largely on the MTTR given by the builder)T5 = Control and test time after repair; information provided to the control command centreT6 = Time to restart the operationsT7 = End of the consequences of the default; operations in normal mode.7.2 Factors in determining degree of availability:7.2.1 IntroductionThe most important factors affecting the degree of availability are:- The concept of the infrastructure and its different subsystems,- The structure and organisation of the operation services,- The structure and organisation of the maintenance services,- The means available for intervention and repair.These various factors are described in more detail below.7.2.2 The concept of the infrastructure and the various subsystemsPrior to and during the design of a high speed line or the upgrading of an existing line,fundamental choices have to be taken between the investment costs and the desiredavailability.Availability can be increased by:- Design safety margins,- Use of “proven” systems,- Modular design,- An extension of redundant systems; for example: ° Installing three power transformers to feed the overhead line; while two of them operate, the third one permits maintenance or repair works (one of the reasons for this is the long delivery time of such a transformer), ° Doubling some signalling circuits with automatic switch system, ° Placing a spare standard exchange cart into the electrical cubic, ° Double coverage of the GSM-R installation, ° Doubling the central control and command post (J apan, Perpignan-Figueras).- Maximising the monitoring of the systems and grouping the remote control in one SCADA room; for example by monitoring: ° The switches and crossings, ° The access control, ° Fire detection, ° The condition of the pantograph (made in some st ations),Maintenance of High Speed Lines 16/64
  • 19. ° The wheel impact forces on the rail (especially recommended for lines with mixed traffic), ° The control of the clearance of freight trains.- Choosing components of subsystems with very good RAMS features; for example: ° High MTBF (mean time between failure), ° Low MTTR (mean time to repair), ° High MTBSF (mean time between service failure).- Concluding service level agreements with adjacent lines or railway companies to ensure mutual assistance in case of problems; for example: ° Delivering energy in case of system failure, ° Providing the infrastructure manager with a lift ing crane for rolling stock.8. Structure and organisation of the operation serviceIn case of unforeseen default, the reaction time of the operators of the control command roomand the content of the given information is very important; they both affect the total duration ofthe disruption.Two examples of proper organisation are:- Grouping the dispatcher for operations and the technical dispatcher in the same room,- The use of “radio maintenance”, mobile telephones or the GSM-R which permits maintenance staff to follow all communications concerning the operations and to obtain information very quickly in case of disruption.9. Structure and organisation of the maintenance serviceThe structure and the organisation of the maintenance service have a significant effect on theinterruption time of the traffic in case of problems.This organisation depends on:- The availability of maintenance staff (duty service; 24 hour maintenance response teams),- Its logistic means (mobile, car, storage and disposal of stock parts, intervention machines, etc.),- The technical assistance contracts of the suppliers,- The contracts with the contractors if proper organisation is not sufficient or fails to provide adequate means of intervention.10. Test devices, wear parts, spare partsContracts with the suppliers for subsystems should provide for parts of subsystems or elementsof subsystems, and the requirements of maintenance in terms of supply.The supplier must deliver the following information:- The definition of the LRU (Line Replaceable Units); these are the smallest units which can be replaced on site. The client’s proposal of LRU can be amended by the client,Maintenance of High Speed Lines 17/64
  • 20. - The description of the maintenance tasks which can be allocated to the maintenance service and those which have to be carried out by the supplier, Comment: The supplier may be granted full responsibility of the totality of its deliveries (Service Level Agreement).- The information for the RAM study (life span, MTBF, MTTR),- The organisation of its services (call number),- An offer for the supply of test devices or test banks,- The agreement concerning the delivery of wear and spare parts (delivery time and mode, number of years of guaranteed delivery, price level and price review formula… ),- The conditions for on-site intervention of specialists of the supplier,- The user and maintenance (preventive and corrective) handbook including the frequency of intervention and the limits of use,- The proposed program for training staff (operations and maintenance),- A copy of all required legal attestations (e.g. in Europe, the “CE” attestations for machinery and for interoperability),- The testing check list (cause – symptom – remedy).This information is necessary for the client to:- Complete the technical examination of the offers using information pertaining to Life Cycle Costs,- Calculate the degree of availability of the different subsystems and use them to determine the availability of the whole system,- Manage wear and spare parts and calculate the risks of an in inventory shortage,- Organise the education and training of operations and maintenance staff.11 Emergency equipment, traction unitsIf the owner of the infrastructure does not possess the equipment for intervention in case ofemergency (derailment, lack of traction power, etc), a service level agreement must be enteredinto with one or more operators of the line or with the infrastructure manager of adjacent lines toguarantee an intervention within the shortest possible time.Maintenance of High Speed Lines 18/64
  • 21. CHAPTER 4. MAINTENANCE REQUIREMENTS DURING THE “CONSTRUCTION” PHASE1. IntroductionThe quality of a high speed line and the degradation of the quality of most of the subsystemsdepend largely on the initial quality of these subsystems after construction and on the caretaken to maintain the initial quality in the period of pre-operation and during the first months ofoperation.The best way to ensure very high construction quality is to establish an active collaborationbetween the builders and the maintainers of the system.2. Collaboration between builders and maintainersThe best results and the lowest Life Cycle Costs are obtained if:- The requirements of future maintenance are taken into account during the design of the line (see above),- Strict construction and certification standards are taken into account; a quality bonus can be helpful to obtain quality exceeding the required one,- The maintenance staff and technicians-to-be are concerned with the construction and as such co-responsible for the work and tests done,- The results of the tests (and in particular, the dynamic tests at speeds up to the conception speed + 10%) are satisfying.Special attention shall be paid to all interfaces; generally the interfaces cause difficulties duringtests and at the time of initial operations.Participation of maintenance staff in construction is the best way of training such staff andprepares them in taking over responsibility with respect to maintenance and repairs in case ofdisruption.Nevertheless, it is only a preliminary step in the awareness needed to achieve process-driven,computer-supported work.Maintenance of High Speed Lines 19/64
  • 22. CHAPTER 5 MAINTENANCE REQUIREMENTS IN THE “TEST AND SERVICE SHADOW” PHASE1. IntroductionBefore opening the line, a number of tests are to be performed; in this respect, please refer tothe requirements of the different specifications for interoperability contained in “Guidelines forhomologation of high speed lines” published by the UIC and the specific requirements of thecontract.During the test period, and with an increase in speed and in the duration of the shadow serviceperiod, specific attention must be given to the geometry of the track and the overhead contactsystem.Indeed, these tests are done during a period of stabilisation of the construction and itscomponents. Unexpected defaults due to differential settlements or due to the dynamic forcesof the high speed test trains may occur.In case of any defaults, measures to repair them must be taken immediately to avoid furtherdegradation of the subsystem.It is strongly recommended that maintenance staff be actively involved in this phase.It is also recommended to conduct the following verifications.2. Table of verifications during test and service shadow phase * Subsystem Type of verification Frequency Staff Comments Infrastructure – Drainage system and pumping 2 weeks Senior Technical Civil works Barriers and fences 1 week Technical Assistant Civil structures and line side 2 weeks Senior Technical Infrastructure- Geometry of the track 2 weeks Track Switches and crossings - visual check 2 weeks Technical assistant - verification of critical dimensions 1 month Senior technical Expansion joints 2 weeks Technical assistant Surroundings 2 weeks Technical assistant Profile of the ballast 2 weeks Senior technical Check flying ballast Monitoring of the switches and 2 weeks Senior Technical crossings Control of the forces in switches 2 weeks Senior Technical and crossings Transition zones – slab track/ 1 month Technical assistant ballast track Energy – Overhead Geometry of the contact wire 2 weeks Senior Technical contact system Lifting of the contact wire 1 month Senior Technical Rear cabin of a train Control command Recovery of GSM-R 2 weeks Technical assistant Or recovery of and radio telecommunication maintenance Tunnel protection Control of the fire detection system 1 month Technical assistant equipment Control of the ventilation system 1 month Technical assistant Control of the sprinklers 1 month Technical assistant Control of the water circuit 1 month Technical assistant* The final decision relating to the type of verifications to be conducted, the concerned staff and the intervals of verification shall be made by theRailway Authority.Maintenance of High Speed Lines 20/64
  • 23. CHAPTER 6. INSPECTIONS AND TESTS DURING OPERATIONS ON THE LINE1. IntroductionThe frequency of inspection and tests depends on the type of traffic on the line (passengertraffic only or mixed traffic) and on the UIC category of the line.The Railway Authority has jurisdiction to determine these matters.2. Components to be examined during monitoring (Non-exhaustive check list of elements to be examined)Civil works and SurroundingsCivil worksCodification Designation Comments numberCV 1 Stability of bridges, viaducts, fly-overs, …CV 2 Stability of tunnelsCV 3 Stability of earth works (cuttings/embankments)CV 4 Stability of structures including rock wallsCV 5 Water drainage systems Watch for calcite formationCV 6 Noise abatement structures (walls, barriers, etc.)CV 8 Crash barriersCV 9 Detecting systems for movement of the embankment slopes, rain gauges,CV 10 Control of weed and undergrowthSurroundingsCodification Designation Comments numberSU 1 Access roads, parking places,SU2 Fences, access gatesSU 3 Access steps, parapets, etc.SU 4 Platforms, walls, etc.SU 5 Trees along the line Verify distance and heightMaintenance of High Speed Lines 21/64
  • 24. Track Codification Designation Comments numberTR1 Track Geometry If possible, in combination with the OCS geometryTR2 Ballast Lowered profile for speeds exceeding 250 km/h - profile of the ballast bed Avoid fine elements (problem of flying ballast) - cleanness of the ballastTR3* Slab* - concrete structure - other elements (mortar …)TR4 Rails Thermic and electric rail welds, squats, head - wear of the rail checks - internal defects - surface damage - corrugationTR5 Sleepers and bearers - Concrete structure of the sleeper - Under sleeper mats - Gaps between sleepers and concrete* Case of slab track - Bending of the sleepers and bearers Case of wooden sleepers or bearersTR6 FasteningsTR7 Expansion jointsTR8 Switches and crossingsTR9 Re-railingplatforms Rail road vehiclesTR10 Transition zones Special survey during track stabilisation - slab track – ballast track* - ballast track – earthworkTR11 Noise abatement devices between rails * Slab trackTR12 Electric components fixed in the track Balises, detectors, condensers, axle counters, etc.EnergyPower Supply (PS) Codification Designation Comments numberPS1 Transformers Substations; AT postsPS2 Return circuit ContinuityPS3 Protection devices Protective gratingsPS4 SwitchesMaintenance of High Speed Lines 22/64
  • 25. Overhead Contact System (OCS) Codification Designation Comments numberOCS1 FeederOCS 2 Contact wireOCS3 Tension equipmentOCS4 Insulators Periodic cleaning operation may be necessaryOCS5 Heating device of the contact wireEarthing Codification Designation Comments numberEA 1 General Line earthing systemEA 2 Intermittent earthing systemEA 3 Protective earthing of pipe lines, …EA 4 Earthing devices of the OCSEA 5EA 6EA 7Control command and CommunicationSignalling Codification Designation Comments numberSI 1 Automatic Train Control System - mean system - fall back systemSI 2 Electronic interlocking systemSI 3 Signalling power supply systemSI 4 Telemetry systemSI 5 Wayside ATC track circuitsSI 6 Train number processing systemSI 7 Wayside signalsSI 8 DetectorsSI 9 Monitoring systemsSI 10 Switch motorisationSI 11 Switch heatingSI 12Maintenance of High Speed Lines 23/64
  • 26. Communication System Codification Designation Comments numberCC 1 Data transmission systemCC 2 Telephone, Automatic telephone systemCC 3 Radio maintenanceCC 4 Public address systemCC 5 Close circuit televisionCC 6 Time distribution systemCC 7 Passenger information systemCC 8 SCADA systemsCC 9Auxiliary equipment Codification Designation Comments numberAE 1 VentilationAE 2 Rescue doorsAE 3 Pump systemsAE 6 Collectors of dangerous liquids Mixed traffic with dangerous liquidsAE 7 Fire extinguishersAE 8 Extinguishing circuits in buildingsAE 9 Extinguishing circuits in tunnelsMaintenance of High Speed Lines 24/64
  • 27. CHAPTER 7 WORKING WINDOWS – SWEEP TRAINS –1. IntroductionThe maintenance of the Infrastructure is important to guarantee that the High Speed System isworking properly, remains safe and provides transportation to passengers with a high degree ofcomfort.In the case of mixed traffic, specific attention must be given to the transportation of dangerousgoods.With the increase in train traffic, maintenance services must limit the number and the length ofpossession times available for maintenance.This chapter provides an overview of the different types of possession time.Some railway infrastructure managers schedule, on a daily basis and before the reopening ofthe line for commercial traffic, a “sweep” or “pilot” train running at a limited speed.The purpose of such verification procedure is set out below.2. “Sweep” trainObjective:- Confirmation that the line is clear of obstacles and suitable for running at high speed,- Confirmation of the absence of undetected defects before opening the line (e.g. due to vandalism),- Confirmation of the proper operation of overhead lines and of the control command and communication subsystem,- Checking track stability (ballasted track) after carrying out maintenance or renewal operations.This run is not considered to be essential if the maximum speed on the line does not exceed220 km/h.To obtain a good overview of the infrastructure, a speed of 160 – 170 km/h is recommended.The function of sweep trains can be attached to the first commercial train; it is recommended tolimit the speed of this train.3. Working windowsGeneral comments:Provision must be made for different types of possessions in order to enable maintenanceoperations to be performed.To optimize possession time, it is necessary to think in terms of management of themaintenance of the “infrastructure system” and not in terms of subsystems.We have set out below a table with the practices of different railways and have added somecomments obtained in the work group.Maintenance of High Speed Lines 25/64
  • 28. Types of possessionsPossessions intended for monitoringPossessions intended for making detailed (visual) inspections of some installations situated inthe danger area.These inspections are made without machines on the track and do not require the interruptionof tension on the overhead wire.A line can be divided into different “possession zones”.Items to inspect:- Defects on the rail and its running surface,- Switches and crossings (general state, signs of wear and rubbing, cracks in the components, etc.),- General state of the disposition of the different contact wires in the zones of switches and crossings.For these inspections, daytime possession is recommended to have good lighting for theinspected zones.Normal regular traffic stoppage is required in the concerned zone.Possession can be introduced at any point in the concerned zone.These daytime inspections should be carried out seven days out of seven.Duration of the traffic stoppage: a minimum of 35 full minutes.Comment: Highly developed automatic monitoring of the switches and crossings can reduce thenecessary possession time.- Ballasted track with continuous welded rails (CWR) during periods with hot weather.- Infrastructure likely to be affected during or after abnormal weather conditions (heavy rainfall, cold periods, heavy snow or wind)Possessions intended for light maintenance operationsPossessions to permit running repairs shall be carried out in the danger area.These possessions can be in the night time.Possessions are not needed seven days out of seven; four days a week are a minimum.Shut down of the track and power (if needed).Duration:- Minimum of 4 full hours (excluding the time taken up by procedures, including the travel time of the machines) on 1 track,- Minimum of 2 full hours for the second track.Items:- Tamping, grinding, re-profiling, welding, control of the overhead system, cleaning of insulators, etc.,- Replacement of elements (expansion joint, rail, sleeper, insulator, contact wire, switch motor, bacon, etc.),- Adjusting works.Must be scheduled 6 weeks prior to start of work.Maintenance of High Speed Lines 26/64
  • 29. Possessions intended for heavy maintenance operations (with duration of one or more days).Possessions for carrying out heavy maintenance operations (replacement of a switch,replacement of the overhead wire of a span, etc.)A minimum of 10 full hours.Possible simultaneous work on both tracks for a period of 3 hours.Must be scheduled at least 3 months prior to start of work.Possession time intended for major work and/or long durationPossessions permitting heavy renewal works carried out in danger areas.A minimum of 10 full hours; continuous possession can double or triple the performance.Must be scheduled at least 18 months prior to start of work in collaboration with the adjacentmanagers of infrastructure.Normal time tables will inevitably be affected.Overview of the possession times in the different networksThe tables in Appendix 3 provide data concerning the possession times for various countries.Maintenance of High Speed Lines 27/64
  • 30. CHAPTER 8 BEST PRACTICES IN MAINTENANCE WORKS1. IntroductionThis chapter provides information about best practices with respect to the performance ofcertain maintenance work on the infrastructure of (high speed) lines.2. Integrated maintenanceTraditionally, the maintenance of railway infrastructure is divided up into different subsystems(track, civil structures, substations, overhead contact lines, etc.) with a separate budget, staffand planning system.This kind of organisation leads to a non-optimal use of logistic support and of track possessions.Integration of the maintenance of the various subsystems under the control of one centralmanagement team and one central planning unit can have a positive influence on the reliabilityand the availability of the line.Increased integration can also bring added versatility to maintenance staff.3. Minimum maintenance requirements between finishing the construction and tests and starting operationsIf, after finishing the construction of the line and before opening the line for operations, there isa period without traffic, a minimum of survey and maintenance works have to be carried out tomaintain the installations and to avoid significant costs in preparing once again the line foroperations.The works to be carried out depend on the technology chosen for the concerned subsystemand on the requirements of the different suppliers.The following suggestions should be considered:3.1 Prevention against vandalism and burglary of cables, overhead contact wire, etc.Regular verification and visits of the line and technical buildingsMaintaining tension on the OCSMaintaining monitoring systems protecting against any intrusion with respect to serviceMaintaining fire detection systems ensuring they are operationalRequesting the assistance of the local police for extra patrols (strongly recommended during thefirst days of school holidays)To avoid corrosion of the running surface of the rails, some traffic must run over the line (ingeneral, a passage of some axles each 72 hours is a minimum); when it is not possible, the railsurface has to be blanked before traffic may operate.To avoid functioning failures in the switches, they have to be moved every three days.To control the functionality of the circuit-breakers, they have to be switched every month.Maintenance of High Speed Lines 28/64
  • 31. It is recommended to carry out a verification, on foot or in a motorcar running at low speed,every two weeks to inspect the line equipment, the water drainage of the platform and thesurroundings of the line.It is recommended to schedule (three years after initial operations) a yearly weed killingoperation for the track and the surroundings.Control of the substations, the AT-posts, the rooms with transformers and with batteries to becarried out each month.Control of the pump stations to be carried out every 2 months or after violent rainfall.During line visits, verification (each 500 m) of the GSM-R functionality.Defaults or missing elements must be repaired/replaced as soon as possible.Before opening the line for regular service, a verification of the geometry of the track and theoverhead contact wire at a reduced speed (maximum 120 km/h) is mandatory. During theseruns, the functionality of the entire system shall be examined.4. Track4.1 Rail grindingSeveral years ago, track specialists determined that, for ballast track, combining lining, levellingand tamping of the track with grinding results in a lower degradation ratio of the geometry of thetrack.About ten years ago, preventive grinding of the rail heads before opening the line wasintroduced. The aim of this operation is to:- Provide a homogeneous railhead profile along the long welded rails,- Eliminate rail surface defaults on the railhead caused by the construction of the line and the test runs,- Prevent the decarbonisation of the surface of the railhead (~ 0.3 mm) causing micro cracks and, over a longer period, rail defects.Recent research on the phenomena of squats and head checks (especially in rails of highersteel grade) has determined another advantage of grinding.SNCF and Infrabel have found that “light grinding” (about 0.1 mm) on a regular basis (once ayear on lines with high traffic density) could avoid the formation of these modern defects.Test programs are ongoing to confirm the results.An additional advantage of such “light grinding” is the resulting low noise and vibration level dueto the contact of the wheel and rail.This “light grinding” can also be applied on slab track.4.2 Absolute coordinatesIf, for ballast track, the levelling and lining is permanently carried out on a relative work base, ashift of the track coordinates occurs and the dynamic forces on the track increases.Maintenance of High Speed Lines 29/64
  • 32. To overcome this negative loop, works must be done periodically on absolute coordinates torestore the original position of the track and to lower the rate of degradation.4.3 Flying ballastThe interaction between rolling stock and the track can cause an elevation of ballast stones anddamage the rails or the rolling stock.A good ballast profile (the upper surface of the ballast must be about 4 cm lower than the upperface of the sleepers) and avoiding ballast stones on the surface of the sleepers or bearers helpto overcome these kind of defects.If the described measures are not sufficient for some types of rolling stock, a temporary orpermanent speed reduction shall be applied.4.4 Measures against snow adhering to and dropping from high speed trainsSnow dropping from high speed trains can have negative effects:- Dispersion of ballast by the impact of falling ice lumps,- Damage to places along railway tracks, glass breakage in vehicles, and damage to ground equipment.By combining vehicle side measures and ground side measures, the amount of snow adhesioncan be minimised.Measures can be taken against these problems:- Expansion of ballast screen installations,- Protection of ground equipment,- Snow removals (by hand, by hot water jet device),- On-train measures (electric heaters, air conditioners).4.5 Wheel scanWheel scan is a real time wheel inspection system positioned beside the track.The wheel set diagnosis system is generally speaking a modular design and can check(depending upon the modules fitted) the following features of the wheel: flats and ovality,diameter, profile, flange thickness, cracks.Some systems are capable of measuring the angle of attack of the wheel sets of rolling stocktravelling at speeds up to 30 km/h.The scanned wheel can be compared to a pre-defined reference profile.It can be a help to survey rolling stock and in particular the rolling stock on high speed lines withmixed traffic.5. Energy5.1 Surveying of the overhead contact wire by thermo-graphic controlSNCF introduced, after tests in 2001, infrared thermo-graphic cameras to conduct theirinspection work.The purpose of this kind of inspection is to obtain a clear and consistent picture of the heatingpattern of the catenaries.The camera was mounted on a wagon and inspected the overhead contact wire with speeds upto 120 km/h.Maintenance of High Speed Lines 30/64
  • 33. Definition of appropriate severity criteria for the heat development of catenaries is ongoing.5.2 Overhead contact systemUIC published in 2004 Leaflet 791-1 RI entitled “Maintenance guidelines for overhead contactlines”.This technical leaflet contains a list of inspection and surveys of the OCS based on theclassification of the railway lines.Appendix 4 provides an overview of the practices on high speed lines (results from responses ofvarious networks in addition to recently received answers from some managers of high speedlines).One of the conclusions of this overview is that there are significant differences in the frequencyof inspection. As aforementioned, type and density of traffic, system design, chosen materials,and environment can have an effect on fixed periodicity. Specialists of overhead contact linesmust decide if a more detailed discussion can lead to a certain optimisation.5.3 Control of the pantographSome infrastructure managers installed, in some end or intermediary stations, optical devicesfor controlling the pantographs of the rolling stock.Various high definition colour video survey cameras are installed on piles and check the variouspantographs of the high speed trains at low speed.Maintenance of High Speed Lines 31/64
  • 34. CHAPTER 9 LIFE CYCLE OF SUBSYSTEMS OF HIGH SPEED LINES1. IntroductionDue to increasing performance demands from governments and train operating companies,infrastructure management must optimise the reliability and the availability of high speed lines.Reliability and availability have an impact on the Life Cycle Costs of the infrastructure andindirectly on the costs and revenues of transport operations.Even during the development, construction and operation phases, choices must be made onthe design, the maintenance programs and – in the long term - the renewal programs. Thesechoices have an effect on the Life Cycle Costs of the system and the various subsystems inachieving an optimal trade-off between investment and maintenance.This chapter provides information about some relevant components of the railway system andcomments on the origin of such information.2. Track componentsRails:On high speed lines, the life cycle of rails is not determined by vertical and/or lateral wear of therail but rather by the number and frequency of rail defects and the related repair costs (directcosts and operational costs).Operational costs (due to non-availability of the track or due to delays) are dependent on theorganisation of the maintenance service and also on the operating rules concerning traffic ondefective rails (total interruption, reduced speed…).The following data can be used as a first approach for high speed tracks dedicated topassenger traffic.Rails Grade 700: 400 - 500 Mio TonRails Grade 900: 600 -700 Mio TonBainitic Rails (on test): expectation of 1000 - 1100 Mio TonFreight traffic, mixed passenger traffic at different speeds, sand erosion, etc. can reduce the lifecycle of the rails or certain parts of the track (e.g. the lower rail in curves); no data are availablefor these types of high speed track.Switches: No specific data availableSleepers for ballast track or for non embedded slab trackWooden sleepers: not of general use on high speed lines (expected life cycle of 25 years)Concrete sleepers: 40 yearsSlab track: 60 yearsFastenings: 40 yearsBallast: 35 years (depending on its initial quality, the type of traffic, the number of tamping cycles, etc.)Maintenance of High Speed Lines 32/64
  • 35. 3. Overhead contact linesOverhead Contact WireThe quality of the contact between pantograph and the overhead contact wire depends on:- The quality of the concept of the pantograph and the quality of maintenance of the pantograph,- The quality of the overhead contact wire; factors influencing this quality are: The chemical composition of the contact wire (Cu, CuAg, CuMg), The concept of the overhead contact system, The tension on the overhead contact wire, The initial quality of the construction work, The quality of the maintenance, The quality of the pantographs running over the line.The life cycle of the overhead contact line depends on the aforementioned parameters; thecomposition of the overhead contact line is the predominant parameter.Recent studies on the Belgium high speed lines comparing CuAg and CuMg contact lines showthat concerning the limits of wear, the life cycle of a CuMg wire is about 4 times the life cycle ofa CuAg contact wire.Overhead contact system piles and portals:For the overhead contact system piles and portals, the concept, the chosen material and themodes of protection are very different. In addition to these differences, the weather conditions,atmospheric air and pollution make that it is very difficult to predict its life time.40 years is a forecasted mean value.4. Signalling systemOver the last three decades, the signalling systems have changed fundamentally. The classicline side signalling system disappeared over time and was replaced systematically by on boardCAB signalling.Different levels of CAB signalling were developed over the last few years (e.g. in Europe, theERTMS-ETCS system (level 1 and 2) is becoming commonplace); new developments areforthcoming (e.g. in Europe, level 3 of the ERTMS-ETCS system).Due to rapid advances in the development of electronic devices, the maximum life cycle ofelectronic components in signalling systems is now 15 years.Maintenance of High Speed Lines 33/64
  • 36. CHAPTER 10 CONCLUSIONS & RECOMMENDATIONSCONCLUSIONS1. Railways have changed considerably over the last decades; these changes occurred on different levels: technology, organisation, goals, etc.2. High speed lines appeared in different continents; new high speed lines are under construction or planned; most of the lines are dedicated to passenger traffic but some high speed lines are equipped for mixed traffic.3. Maintenance of high speed lines is an important issue; it must start with the conception of the line. RAMS and Life Cycle Costs have to been taken into account during the design phase of the project and followed up during the whole life cycle of the line.4. Although the control parameters for maintenance purposes are very similar in each country, the frequency of inspection can be very different. The origin of these differences is the speed, the type of traffic, the UIC class of the line, the chosen technologies, etc. Another factor is the fact that the regulations for high speed lines, in numerous countries, were implemented by transposing the national regulations for the conventional network.5. In many countries, maintenance organisation is switching from time-based to condition-based maintenance. Monitoring is a very important issue to control the different parameters of the subsystems. New research and developments are forthcoming.6. The life cycle of many components of the infrastructure of high speed lines increased. For some new developments, more time is required to confirm the expectations.RECOMMENDATIONS1. Exchanges of Return of Experiences on a regular basis.2. An effort to stabilise the technology of some subsystems as the interfaces are becoming more and more difficult to manage.3. Common research for the development of a RAMS databank to assist in choosing components and in the management of spare parts.Maintenance of High Speed Lines 34/64
  • 37. APPENDICESMaintenance of High Speed Lines 35/64
  • 38. Maintenance of High Speed Lines 36/64
  • 39. Appendix 1 AbbreviationsADIF Administrador de Infraestructures (Spain)ALARP As Low As Reasonably PracticableAT-posts Auto transformer posts“CE” CE markCBM Condition Based MaintenanceCSR Corporate Social ResponsibilityCWR Continuous Welded RailsDB Deutsche BahnDBFMOT Design Build Finance Maintain Operate TransferERTMS European Rail Traffic Management SystemETCS European Traffic Control SystemGAME Globalement au Moins EquivalentGAMAB Globalement au moins aussi bonGSM-R Global System for Mobile Communications - RailwayHSL High Speed LineUIC Union Internationale des Chemins de FerJR EAST Japanese Railways EastKORAIL Korean RailwaysLCC Life Cycle CostLRU Line Replaceable UnitMDT Mean Down TimeMTBF Mean Time between FailureMTBSF Mean Time between Service FailureMTTR Mean Time to RepairMTTRS Mean Time to Restore ServiceMaintenance of High Speed Lines 37/64
  • 40. OCS Overhead Contact SystemPPP Public Private PartnershipRAMS Reliability, Availability Maintainability, SafetyRENFE Red National de Ferrocarrilis Españoles (Spain)RFF Réseau Ferrée FrançaisRFI Rete Ferroviara Italiana (Italy)SNCF Société National des Chemins de Fer FrançaisTHSRC Taiwan High Speed Rail CorporationTSI Technical Specification of InteroperabilityMaintenance of High Speed Lines 38/64
  • 41. Appendix 2 Example of tables of inspection frequencies on high speed linesMaintenance of High Speed Lines 39/64
  • 42. Maintenance of High Speed Lines 40/64
  • 43. Appendix 2 A:Inspection and verification: Table used during the period of speed increase and during the firstweeks of operation TYPE OF SURVEILLANCE OBJECT OF INSPECTION INTERVALSInspection of turns on running track Running track and line side in cab (front or rear) 1 week OCL in cab 1 week Running track and line side on foot 2 weeks OCL on foot 2 weeksInspection of transition zones between Inspection in cab 1 week- types of track Inspection on foot- types of OCL system 2 weeks- types of signalling systemsInspection of turns in zones of Visual safety check (except for safety critical 1 weekswitches and crossings dimensions) Verification of safety critical dimensions 2 weeks Detailed verification 1 monthSpecific inspection of turns on slab Inspection on foot to control cracks in the concrete 2 weekstrack of the slabAppendix 2 B:Inspection and verification: Table used in normal operation mode TYPE OF OBJECT INTERVALS SURVEILLANCE OF INSPECTION UIC 1 and 2 UIC 3 and 4 UIC 5 and 6Inspection of turns Running track and OCL on foot 2 months 2 months 2 months Running track in front or rear cabin 2 weeks 2 weeks 3 weeks Switches and crossings 5 weeks 5 weeks 6 weeks OCL in front or rear cabin 6 months 6 months 8 months Line sides 5 weeks 5 weeks 5 weeks Track level and alignment faults,Recordings of including long waves:- Track - conventional recording car ° ballasted track 2 months 3 months 4 months- OCL system ° slab track 3 months 4 months 6 months - vertical and lateral accelerations (axle 1 week 2 weeks 3 weeks boxes and body) Geometry of the OCL 6 months 6 months 8 months Wear on the contact wire 1 year 2 years 3 years Ultrasonic testing See details in table 2C Corrugation testing* 1 year 2 years 3 years Recording of the ballast profile 1 year 1 year 1 yearSwitches and crossings Visual safety check (except for safety critical dimensions) See details in table 2D Verification of safety critical dimensions Detailed verification* As of the date hereof, no significant corrugation has been found on high speed lines.Maintenance of High Speed Lines 41/64
  • 44. Appendix 2 C: Ultrasonic inspections of rails, switches and crossings Ultrasonic control with heavy UIC Category equipment 1& 2 3&4 5&6 Before commencement of operations once once Once Cumulative load carried <200 million Once per year Once per year Once per year tons Cumulative load carried > 200 million Twice per year Once per year Once per year tons and <400 million tons Cumulative load carried >= 400 million 3 times per year Twice per year Once per year tons If during the operations unexpected defects in rails and welds occur, the frequency of the ultrasonic control must be adapted. In some cases, a verification with light apparatus of the suspected zones may suffice. Appendix 2 D: Detailed verifications of switches and crossings UIC Category Type of verification 1&2 3&4 5&6 Age of the switchDetailed verification < 3 years Once in the Once in the period Once in the period period > 3 years < =6 years Twice in the Once in the period Once in the period period > 6 years 1 year 1 year 1 yearVisual safety check < 6 years 1 year 1 year 1 year > 6 years 6 months 1 year 1 yearVerification of safety < 6 years 3 months 6 months 1 yearcritical dimensions > 6 years 2 months 4 months 6 months Maintenance of High Speed Lines 42/64
  • 45. Appendix 3 Data on high speed lines in the worldMaintenance of High Speed Lines 43/64
  • 46. Maintenance of High Speed Lines 44/64
  • 47. Country Italy Line Milan-Bologna Bologna-Florence Turin - Milan Rome - Naples CommentsTopicsLength of the line (km) 200 km 100 km 120 km 220 kmTotal km of line- Double track % 100 100 100 100- Single track % 0 0 0 0Maximum Speed (km/h)- Design 300 km/h 300 km/h 300 km/h 300 km/h- Operational 300 km/h 300 km/h 300 km/h 300 km/hDaily service (trains/day) 90 104 16 80Structure type:- % bridges and viaducts 39% 5% 80% 40%- % tunnels 1% 90% 1% 30%- % earthwork 60% 5% 19% 20%Subgrade- Classic %- Bituminous % 100% 100% 100% 100%- Concrete %Traffic Specify the- Passengers (P) P P P P maximum- Mixed (M) No freight at the No freight at the No freight at the No freight at the speed of freight moment moment moment moment trafficType of track- Ballast track % 100% 100% 100% 100%- Slab track % 0% 0% 0% 0%- Embedded rail % 0% 0% 0% 0%Number of switches 48 tg 0,022 + 20 tg 24 tg 0,022 + 10 tg 24 tg 0,022 + 10 tg 48 tg 0,022 + 20 tg 0,074 + 20 tg 0,040 0,074 + 10 tg 0,040 0,074 + 10 tg 0,040 0,074 + 20 tg 0,040Substations- Number of substations 4 2 2 5- Number of AT- stations 2 2 2 3- Installed power 120 MVA 120 MVA 120 MVA 120 MVAOverhead contact system- Voltage and frequency 2x25 kV c.a. – 50 Hz 2x25 kV c.a. – 50 Hz 2x25 kV c.a. – 50 Hz 2x25 kV c.a. – 50 Hz 3 kV c.c. 3 kV c.c. 3 kV c.c. 3 kV c.c.- Type of contact wire: Copper Copper Copper (2 Copper- Material 1x150 mmq 1x150 mmq experimental 1x150 mmq- Section (mm²) (c.a. system) (c.a. system) regulations in copper- (c.a. system) 2x150 mmq 2x150 mmq silver) 2x150 mmq (c.c. system) (c.c. system) 1x150 mmq (c.c. system) (c.a. system) 2000 daN 2x150 mmq- Tension (daN) 2000 daN 2000 daN (c.c. system) 2000 daN Copper Copper Copper- Type of carrying cable 1x120 mmq 1x120 mmq Copper 1x120 mmq - material (c.a. system) (c.a. system) 1x120 mmq (c.a. system) - section (mm²) 2x120 mmq 2x120 mmq (c.a. system) 2x120 mmq (c.c. system) (c.c. system) 2x120 mmq (c.c. system) (c.c. system) - tension (daN) 1500 daN 1500 daN 1500 daN 1500 daNControl command-Signalling system ERTMS/ETCS L2 ERTMS/ETCS L2 ERTMS/ETCS L2 ERTMS/ETCS L2 No lateral signalling No lateral signalling No lateral signalling No lateral signalling (only in STM-L0 (only in STM-L0 (only in STM-L0 (only in STM-L0 ambient) ambient) ambient) ambient)- telecommunication system Track-train Track-train Track-train Track-train communication for the communication for the communication for the communication for the position reports + position reports + position reports + position reports + GSM-R GSM-R GSM-R GSM-RMaintenance Bases- Number 4 3 3 4- Average coverage (km) 50 30 40 55Maintenance approach RFI is moving from RFI is moving from RFI is moving from RFI is moving from Specify : time- time-based time-based time-based time-based based or maintenance to maintenance to maintenance to maintenance to condition-based condition-based condition-based condition-based condition-based Also specify maintenance in terms maintenance in terms maintenance in terms maintenance in terms changes of defect detection by of defect detection by of defect detection by of defect detection by planned in the Maintenance of High Speed Lines 45/64
  • 48. mobile diagnostic mobile diagnostic mobile diagnostic mobile diagnostic near future means means means meansSweep train No No No No Indicate yes or no. Also specify the max. speedDaily possession time On HSL, track- During day No No No No possession is- Overnight only during the .1 track night. The lines .2 tracks 2 tracks 2 tracks 2 tracks 2 tracks are typically not in operation from 00:00 to 5:30 for both tracks. There is no difference between working days and weekend. In case of interruption of only one track (e.g. failure), the other one operates at 150 km/h by Radio Block Center logic.Number of staff/km single trackDetails : 10 10 10 10- Management 30 persons for 400 km 15 persons for 180 km 20 persons for 240 km 30 persons for 440 km- Track and civil works of track and all civil of track and all civil of track and all civil of track and all civil- Energy and Ocs works works works works- Control command 47 persons for 4 20 persons for 2 20 persons for 2 40 persons for 5- Others substations, 11 substations, 5 Parallel substations, 5 Parallel substations, 11 Parallel Sites, 400 km Sites, 180 km of OCL Sites, 240 km of OCL Parallel Sites, 440 km of OCL and 200 km of and 100 km of HVL and 120 km of HVL of OCL and 240 km of HVL line line line HVL line 38 persons for 400 km 20 persons for 180 km 20 persons for 240 km 40 persons for 440 km of track (200 km of line of track (90 km of line - of track (120 km of line of track (220 km of line - double track) double track) - double track) - double track)Works done by contractors Assistance during Assistance during Assistance during Assistance during warranty period (2 warranty period (2 warranty period (2 warranty period (2 years) years) years) years) nd nd nd nd 2 level operations 2 level operations 2 level operations 2 level operations The Rome – Florence line (operational speed of 250 km/h) is configured as a traditional line (3 kV dc as feeding system, automatic block with codified currents as signalling system). Maintenance of High Speed Lines 46/64
  • 49. Country: Spain LineTopics Madrid - Sevilla Cordoba - Malaga Madrid - Barcelona Madrid – Comments ValladolidLength of the line (km) 471 km 155 km 620 km 180 kmTotal km of line- double track % 100 % 100 % 100 % 100 %- single track % 0% 0% 0% 0%Maximum Speed (km/h)- design 300 km/h 350 km/h 350 km/h 350 km/h- operational 300 km/h 300 km/h 300 km/h 300 km/hDaily service (trains/day)Structure type:- % bridges and viaducts- % tunnels- % earthworkSubgrade- Classic % 100 % 100 % 100 % 100 %- Bituminous % 0% 0% 0% 0%- Concrete % 0% 0% 0% 0%Traffic Specify maximum- Passengers (P) Only Only Only Only speed of freight- Mixed (M) Passengers Passengers Passengers Passengers trafficType of track- Ballast track % 100 % 100 % 100 % 60 %- Slab track % 0% 0% 0% 40 %- Embedded rail % 0% 0% 0% 0%Number of switchesSubstations- Number of substations 12 Substations 3 Substations- Number of AT- stations 0 AT 11 AT- Installed power 500 MVA 360 MVAOverhead contact system- Voltage and frequency 25 kV, 50 Hz 25 kV, 50 Hz 25 kV, 50 Hz 25 kV, 50 Hz- Type of contact wire: . Material Cu, Ag Cu, Mg Cu, Mg Cu, Mg . Section (mm²) AC 120 mm AC 150 AC 150 AC 120 . Tension (daN) 1500 3000 3000 2700- Type of carrying cable . Material Bz II 70 Cu 95 Cu 95 Bz II 120 . Section (mm²) 70 mm 95 mm 95 mm 120 mm . Tension (daN) 1500 1500 1500 2100Control command:- Signalling system LZB LZB y ERTMS ERTMS ERTMS- Telecommunication system GSM-R GSM-R GSM-R GSM-RMaintenance Bases- Number 3 Bases 1 Base 4 Bases 1 Base- Average coverage (km) 150 km 155 km 150 km 180 km Specify : time-Maintenance approach Time & Time & Time & Time & based or Conditions Conditions Conditions Conditions condition-based Also specify changes planned in the near futureSweep train Yes Yes Yes Yes Indicate yes or 200 km/h 200 km/h 200 km/h 200 km/h no. Also specify the max. speedDaily possession time- During day -0 h during day -0 h during day -0 h during day -0 h during day- Overnight 4 h overnight 4 h overnight 4 h overnight 4 h overnight . 1 track 2 tracks 2 tracks 2 tracks 2 tracks . 2 tracksNumber of staff/km single trackDetails: Maintenance of High Speed Lines 47/64
  • 50. - Management - 0,072- Track and civil works - 0,072 - 0,072 - 0,33 - 0,072- Energy and Ocs - 0,33 - 0,33 - 0,046 - 0,33- Control command - 0,046 - 0,046 - 0,046- OthersWorks done by contractors Yes Yes Yes Yes Maintenance of High Speed Lines 48/64
  • 51. Taiwan High Speed Rail Corporation LineTopics CommentsLength of the line (km) 345kmTotal km of line- Double track % - Double track: 100%- Single track % - Single track: 0%Maximum Speed (km/h) Maximum Speed (km/h)- Design - Design: 350km/h- Operational - Operational: 300km/hDaily service (trains/day) 123 trains/day (weekday)/146 trains/day (weekends)Structure type: Structure type:- % bridges and viaducts - 72.5% bridges and viaducts- % tunnels - 18.3% tunnels- % earthwork - 9.2% earthworkSubgrade NA- Classic %- Bituminous %- Concrete %Traffic Specify- Passengers (P) - Passengers (P) maximum- Mixed (M) speed of freight trafficType of track Type of track- Ballast track % - Ballast track 1.2%- Slab track % - Slab track (Including Japanese slab, J-slab: 80.9 % and Rheda track: 14 %) LVT (Low Vibration Track): 3.6%- Embedded rail % - Embedded rail 0.3%Number of switches 146Substations- Number of substations Number of sub stations: 7 Substations in Mainline and 2 Substations in Depot.- Number of AT- stations Number of AT-stations: 4 ATs in each Substation.- Installed power Installed power: Each Main Transformer capacity is 80MVA.Overhead contact system- Voltage and frequency - Voltage and frequency: 25kV/60Hz- Type of contact wire: - Contact wire composition: Copper and Tin - Material - Contact wire cross-section (mm2): 170mm2. - Section (mm²) - Tension: 1960 daN - Tension (daN) - Type of carrying cable: - Type of carrying cable Material is unknown. . Material . Section (mm²) - Tension (daN)Control command Signalling system - Type of CAB signalling system: ATC Cab- Signalling system signalling system - Lateral signalling: No lateral signalling - Fall back system: Fall back wayside indicator (FWI)- Telecommunication system Telecommunication system -Track-train communication: TETRA Radio system -GSM-R -otherMaintenance Bases- Number - Number: 5- Average coverage (km) - Average coverage (km): 69kmMaintenance approach -Time-based maintenance: According to O&M Specify : time- Manual – performance of PM works. based or -Condition-based maintenance: Currently being condition- examined in each subsystem. based Also specifyMaintenance of High Speed Lines 49/64
  • 52. changes planned in the near futureSweep train Yes, 170km/h by 700T trainset Indicate yes or no. Also specify the max. speedDaily possession time During day: 0630~2400 at revenue time- During day Overnight:- Overnight 1 track: 4.5 hours: 0030~0500 1 track 2 tracksNumber of staff/km single - Management: Each department has 3track sectionsDetails: - Civil works and buildings- Management - Track: 0.26 staff/km.- Track and civil works - Energy and OCS: Energy: 0.116- Energy and Ocs staff/km, OCS: 0.223 staff/km.- Control command - Control command:- Others Signalling: 0.243 staff/km, Communication: 0.171 staff/km - Other Tamping, Rail grinding, Hi-rail type UT test,Works done by contractors Wayside E&M system & equipment building etc.Maintenance of High Speed Lines 50/64
  • 53. France (not confirmed by RFF) Line Paris- Lyon LGV LGV LGV LGVTopics Atlantique Nord Méditéranée EstLength of the line (km) 389Total km of line 100%- Double track %- Single track %Maximum Speed (km/h)- Design speed 260 300 300 320 320- Operation speed 300 300 300 320 320Daily service (trains/day)Structure type:- % bridges and viaducts 7- % tunnels 3- % earthwork 90Subgrade:- Classic % 100% 100% 85- Bituminous % 0 Test areas- Concrete % 15Traffic:- Passengers (P) P P P P P- Mixed (M)Type of track:- Ballast track % 100 100 100 100 100- Slab track %- Embedded rail %Number of switches 119 89 176Substations:- Number of substations 3- Number of AT- stations- Installed power 2x60 MVAOverhead contact system- Voltage and frequency 2x25 kV 2X25 kV 2X25kV 2x25 kV 50 Hz 50 Hz 50 Hz 50 Hz- Type of contact wire Cu 150mm² CuAg/CuMg 2000 daN 2000daN/3000 daN- Type of carrying cable Cu 120mm² 1250 kgControl command (1)TVM 430- Signalling system TVM 300 TVM 430 TVM 430 (2) TBL1/2 (3+4) ERTMS / ETCS ½- Telecommunication system GSM-R GSM-RMaintenance Bases- Number 7 3- Average coverage (km) 78 70 kmMaintenance approach Actual: Timebased/ Timebased Condition-based Future: ConditionbasedSweep train No Yes YesDaily possession time- During day- Overnight No . 1 track . 2 tracks 5h30Number of staff/km singletrackDetails:- Management- Track and civil works- Energy and Ocs- Control command- Others Maintenance of High Speed Lines 51/64
  • 54. Line RFI China The Netherlands Korea UKTopicsLength of the line (km)Total km of line 200 212- Double track %- Single track % 100 100Maximum Speed (km/h) 300 330Daily service (trains/day) 74Structure type:- % bridges and viaducts 39 7- % tunnels 1 3- % earthwork 60 90Subgrade- Classic % 85- Bituminous % 100 0- Concrete % 15Traffic- Passengers P P P- MixedType of track- Ballast track % 100 100 100- Slab track %- Embedded rail %Number of switchesSubstations- Number of substations 4 3- Number of AT- stations 2- Installed power 2x60 MVAOverhead contact system:- Voltage and frequency 2x25 kV 2,25 kV- Type of contact wire 50 Hz 50 Hz Cu 150mm² CuAg/CuMg- Type of carrying cable 2000 daN 2000daN/3000 daN Cu 120mm² 1250 kgControl command- Signalling system ERTMS/ETCS 2- Telecommunication system GSM-R GSM-R GSM-RMaintenance Bases- Number 4 3- Average coverage (km) 50 70 kmMaintenance approach Actual: time-based Time-based/ Future: condition-based Condition-basedSweep train No Yes YesDaily possession time- During day- Overnight No . 1 track . 2 tracks 5h30Number of staff/km single 3.4track 10Details : 30- Management- Track and civil works 47- Energy and Ocs- Control command- Others 47 Maintenance of High Speed Lines 52/64
  • 55. Belgium - Infrabel Line L1 L2 L3 L4Topics French border Leuven - Bierset Chênée - Antwerp - Comments - Brussels German Dutch border borderLength of the line (km) 71 65 36 38Total km of line- Double track % 100% 100% 100% 100%- Single track %Maximum Speed (km/h)- Design 320 300 260 300- Operation 300 300 260 300Daily service (trains/day)Structure type:- % bridges and viaducts 6% 3% 85% 16%- % tunnels 1% 1% 15% 7%- % earthwork 93% 96% 0% 77%Subgrade- Classic % 100% 98% 0 100%- Bituminous % 0 0 0 0- Concrete % 0 2% 100% 0Traffic P* : HS trains- Passengers P P* P P** and IC-trains- Mixed (200km/h)-ICE3 ( 250km/h) P** : HS trains and IC trains (160 km/h)Type of track- Ballast track % 100 100 100 100 - Slab track % 0 0 0 0 - Embedded rail % 0 0 0 0Number of switchesSubstations- Number of substations 1 1 1 1- Number of AT- stations 7 7 3 4- Installed power 2x60 MVA 2x60MVA 2x40MVA 2x40MVAOverhead contact system- Voltage and frequency 2x25 kV 2x25kV 2x25 kV 2x25 kV 50 Hz 50 Hz 50Hz 50 Hz- Type of contact wire CuAg 150mm² CuMg 150mm² CuAg 150 CuMg 150 * Test section of * 3000 daN mm² mm² CuMg 150mm² 2000 daN 2200 daN 3000 daN- Type of carrying cable Bz Bz Bz Bz 65 mm² 94 mm2 65 mm² 65 mm² 1370 kg 1960 kg 1370 kg 1370 kgControl command- Signalling system TVM 430 TBL 1/2 ERTMS/ETCS ERTMS ERTMS Version ½ ETCS½ 2.3.0- Telecommunication system GSM-R GSM-R GSM-R GSM-RMaintenance Bases- Number 1 2 Common base Common base- Average coverage (km) 72 65 with L2 with L2Maintenance approach Time-based Time-based/ inspections / idem idem Condition- Condition- based based maintenanceSweep train Yes Yes Yes Yes DailyDaily possession time- During day 1h 40 min 40 min 40 min- Overnight Maintenance of High Speed Lines 53/64
  • 56. . 1 track 6h00 6h00 6h00 6h00 . 2 tracks 4h00 4h00 4h00 4h00Number of staff/km single track OneDetails : management- Management 1/40km 1/40km 1/40km 1/40km staff for the- Track and civil works 1/8km 1/10km 1/10km 1/8km whole HS net-- Energy and Ocs 1/14km 1/14km 1/12km 1/16km work- Control command 1/20km 1/18km 1/20km 1/20kmOthers 1/50 1/50 1/50 1/50Works done by contractors Grinding and Idem L1 Idem L1 Idem L1 Subcontractor ultra-sonic + + can be the testing of rails ERTMS 1/2 ERTMS 1/2 conventional Weed control network Maintenance (tamping, of slopes and measuring of the hydraulic geometry of systems track and OCS, Measuring …) or a private cars (partly) contractor Maintenance of High Speed Lines 54/64
  • 57. Japan (not confirmed by JR East) LineTopics CommentsLength of the line (km)Total km of line- double track %- single track %Maximum Speed (km/h)- design- operationDaily service (trains/day)Structure type:- % bridges and viaducts- % tunnels- % earthworkSubgrade- classic %- bituminous %- concrete %Traffic- Passengers- MixedType of track- Ballast track %- Slab track %- Embedded rail %Number of switchesSubstations- number of substations- number of AT- stations- installed powerOverhead contact system- voltage and frequency- type of contact wire- type of carrying cableControl command- signalling system- telecommunication systemMaintenance Bases- Number- Average coverage (km)Maintenance approachSweep trainDaily possession time- during day- overnight 1 track 2 tracksNumber of staff/km single trackDetails :- Management- Track and civil works- Energy and Ocs- Control command- OthersWorks done by contractors Maintenance of High Speed Lines 55/64
  • 58. Maintenance of High Speed Lines 56/64
  • 59. Appendix 4 Overview of the maintenance activities periodicity of the Overhead Contact SystemMaintenance of High Speed Lines 57/64
  • 60. Maintenance of High Speed Lines 58/64
  • 61. MAINTENANCE ACTIVITIES PERIODICITY OCS* Scheduled activities Frequency Network ADIF ** DB INFRABEL JR-EAST KORAIL RFI** SNCF THSRC** - on foot 6M 2M 4M 3/6 M -Inspections / Controls - by trolley 6M 1M 4/6 W 1D - by train 1Y 2M 1W Cantilevers 1Y 1W 3Y M a i n Insulators 1Y 1W 1Y Insulators with severe pollution 6M 1W 1/2 Y 6M O b s e r v a t i o n s Section insulators 6M 1W 6M Gauges 1Y 1W - Electric clearances 1Y 2Y 1W 6M (Automatic) tensioners 1Y 6M 4M 1W 3/4 Y 6M Switches 2M 4M 3/4 Y 6M Overhead crossings 2M 1W 1/2 Y 6M Diodes or welded valves 1Y 1Y - Overvoltage discharges 1Y 1Y - Switch disconnectors 1Y 1Y 1Y Transformers 1Y 1Y 2YMaintenance of High Speed Lines 59/64
  • 62. - recording runs 6M 1Y 2W - - examinations 4Y 6M -Verification Checks Measures Geometrical Height (gradient and sag) 6M 2Y 1Y 2W 1Y 6M Parameters Stagger Wear 6M 6M 1Y 2W 1Y 6M 6M 4Y 1Y 2W 1Y 6M Mechanical Contact Forces 6M 6M 1Y 2W 1Y - Electrical Voltage 2W - Current 2W Number of arcs 2W Particular Geometry over points and 6M 2W 6M Measure- crossings ments Earth resistance 5Y 2/3 Y - - hard-time maintenance 1Y 4M 1Y 4/6 Y 6MS h e d u l e d Cleaning insulators 1Y - Lubrification contact wire NO 6M Lubrification by graphite pan-M a i n t . tographs (Automatic) tensioning devices 4M 1Y 6M Disconnectors 4M 1Y - Section insulators,air gaps 4M 1Y 1Y OCL in switches 4M 1Y -Maintenance of High Speed Lines 60/64
  • 63. * Basic information was obtained from the UIC document; every infrastructure manager has been requested to verify and adapt the basic information. ** Data confirmed in June 2010 From these tables, we can conclude that there are no standards concerning periodicity for maintenance activities on the Overhead Contact System. An exceedingly large number of parameters (line speed, density of traffic, concept of the OCS, materials…, interfaces with the pantograph, climatic and environmental conditions) are influencing the decision-makers with respect to the maintenance of the OCS. Nevertheless, the table may be helpful in establishing an initial maintenance program for a new or upgraded line and for self-criticism purposes with respect to the applied program. # # # END # # #Maintenance of High Speed Lines 61/64
  • 64. Maintenance of High Speed Lines 62/64
  • 65. INTERNATIONAL UNION OF RAILWAYS (UIC)16 rue Jean Rey - F-75015 PARISTel: +33 (0)1 44 49 20 20Fax: +33 (0)1 44 49 20 29PASSENGER DEPARTMENT - HIGH SPEED ACTIVITYCopyright deposit: November 2010ISBN 978 2 7461 1900 0www.uic.org Published by UIC - November 2010 Printed on recycled paper using vegetable-based inks