An Introduction into Applications for Glass Fibre Reinforced Polymer (GFRP) Rebar
Canada CAN/CSA-S6-06 (2006) “Canadian Highway Bridge Design Code” Canadian Standards Association, 800p CAN/CSA-S806-02 (R2007) “Design and Construction of Building Components with Fibre-Reinforced Polymers” USA ACI 440.1R-06 (2006) “Guide for the Design and Construction of Structural Concrete Reinforced with FRP Bars”
AASHTO GFRP-1 (2009) “AASHTO LFRD Bridge Design Guide Specifications for GFRP-Reinforced Concrete Bridge Decks and Traffic Railings”,
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TUF-BAR™ Rebar is not recommended for pre-tensioning or post-tensioning Glass creep effect limits the rating of the bar to 25% of ultimate strength Lower Modulus Additional reinforcement required in cantilevering loads compared to steel. Not suitable for constant dead loading applications Not a direct substitution for steel. Need to design specifically for application Elongation Steel Designs to Yield GFRP elongates to 2% 2% Elastic Deformation, Steel is till Yield Dr. Roger Cheng from U of A explains that you design for deformability of the structure whereas with steel you design for ductility of the reinforcement
Lower Modulus GFRP will last 4-20x longer under reciprocating loads. Cyclic Loads show superior durability compared to steel The modulus of the GFRP is close to concrete, so the GFRP moves with the concrete rather than fight it. High Embedment Strength Rough surface Additional sand coating complies with design codes to reduce crack width by an additional 20% (kb=0.8). Design for minimum concrete coverage GFRP rebar can be placed as close to the surface because it doesn’t require a protective coverage. Larger spacing between upper and lower mats results in a higher deflection strength.
Grinding Cutter, Diamond-Bladed Chop Saw or Hacksaw. (No Shears) Vinyl Coated tie wire or zip ties Approx. 40 x Bar Diameter = Splice Length. No Mechanical Fasteners or Welded Splices No Patching or Corrosion Treatment
Core Samples Removed from 5-8 Year Old Structures Hall’s Harbour Wharf, NS Joffre Bridge, QC Chatham Bridge Crowchild Trail Bridge Waterloo Creek Bridge
EXCELLENT BONDING NO DEBONDING NO MICROCRACKING NO VOIDS NO RESIN MICROCRACKING NO GLASS FIBRE DEGRADATION NO SIGNIFICANT DELAMINATION/DEBONDING NO GLASS TRANSITION NO SIGN OF CHEMICAL DEGRADATION OF THE RESIN NO CHEMICAL DEGRADATION (HYDROLYSIS)
Research teams recommend: That GFRP Be allowed as the Primary Reinforcement CAN/CSA-S6-06 “Canadian Highway Bridge Code”December 2008), 800p. CAN/CSA-S806-02 (R2007)“ Construction of Building Components with Fibre-Reinforced Polymers&quot; Product Number 2012972 Update No. 3 was published as notification; it is now a National Standard of Canada. &quot; If you look at the full life cycle cost, GFRP is far more cost-effective than metallic reinforcement .” Dr.Brahim Benmokrane Chair NSER Council of Canada
Romans are the pioneers of the concrete revolution. Their structures have lastedclose to 2000 years.In 1995, Intelligent Sensing for Innovative Structures (ISIS) was formed by theFederal Government to investigate the crumbling infrastructure of North America. Today’s Steel-reinforced concrete will begin to deteriorate after 10 to 15 years and will generally require major repairs after 25 years.
STAGE 1 BLEEDING Rust Staining, Business Entryway, Edmonton, AB
STAGE 2 CRACKING De-lamination Cracking, 19 Year Old Ontario Bridge, MTO 2005
STAGE 3 SPALLING Corrosion Induced Cracking, 23 Yr Old Ontario Bridge, MTO 2007
STAGE 4 FAILURE Chloride Induced Corrosion, Roof of 13 Year Old Swimming Pool Collapses, Switzerland
• In 1997, Dywidag-Systems International contacted BP Automation/Brandstrom Engineering Ltd. to develop a threaded fibreglass rebar system.• In 1999, the company developed threaded fibreglass manufacturing equipment.• In 2000, BP Composites Ltd. was formed to supply DSI and the mining industry with fibreglass rebar and rock bolts.
• In 2006, ISIS Canada developed a Product Specification Manual for GFRP reinforcement for civil application.• BP Composites Ltd. adjusted and expanded their GFRP process to create a family of rebar sizes suitable for concrete reinforcement.
• ISIS Canada developed...• Canada - CAN/CSA-S606 (2006) Fibre Reinforced Structures, “Canadian Highway Bridge Design Code” Canadian Standards Association, pp.693-728 - CAN/CSA-S806-02 (R2007) “Design and Construction of Building Components with Fibre-Reinforced Polymers” Canadian Standards Association
• USA - ACI 440.1R-06 (2006) “Guide for the Design and Construction of Structural Concrete Reinforced with FRP Bars”, American Concrete Institute - AASHTO GFRP-1 (2009) “AASHTO LFRD Bridge Design Guide Specifications for GFRP-Reinforced Concrete Bridge Decks and Traffic Railings”, American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials
• Material Code Requirements for GFRP rebar: - Vinyl Ester Resin - E type fibreglass - or E-CR fibreglass (Corrosion Resistant)
• Mechanical Properties 1. Cross-Sectional Area 2. Longitudinal Tensile Strength for Bars 3. Longitudinal Tensile Modulus and Ultimate Elongation 4. Bond Strength 5. Transverse Shear Strength 6. Strength of FRP Bent Bars 7. Longitudinal Tensile Strength and Modulus of FRP Bent Bars 8. Longitudinal Tensile Properties at Cold Temperature 9. Flexural Strength and Modulus
• Physical Properties 1. Fibre Content 2. Longitudinal Coefficient of Thermal Expansion 3. Transverse Coefficient of Thermal Expansion 4. Density 5. Void Content 6. Water Absorption 7. Cure Ratio 8. Glass Transition Temperature
• Durability Properties 1. Alkali Resistance in High pH Solution (No Load) 2. Alkali Resistance in High pH Solution (Load) 3. Creep Rupture Strength 4. Creep (10,000 Hr Test)
• Rigorous testing has concluded: - 100+ Year Life Expectancy for GFRP Reinforced Structures.
• TUF-BAR™ tested in accordance with - ISIS Product Certification of FRP Materials guideline - CAN/CSA-S806-02 (R2007) “Design and Construction of Building Components with Fibre-Reinforced Polymers” - CAN/CSA-S606 (2006) Fibre Reinforced Structures, “Canadian Highway Bridge Design Code”, pp.693-728 - ACI 440.3R-04 (2004) “Guide Test Methods for Fiber- Reinforced Polymers (FRPs) for Reinforcing or Strengthening Concrete Structures” - AASHTO GFRP-1 (2009) “AASHTO LFRD Bridge Design Guide Specifications for GFRP-Reinforced Concrete Bridge Decks and Traffic Railings”,
• Features - Impervious to Chloride-Ion and Chemical Attack - ¼ Weight of Steel - 2x Tensile Strength of Steel - Thermal Isolator - Non-Conductive - Non-Magnetic - Sizes #2-#8, 6mm-25mm - Standard/Custom Lengths, Shapes, Bends
Black Steel Stainless Steel TUF-BAR ™Price 10x Black Steel Equivalent to GalvanizedCorrosion Susceptible Susceptible Non-SusceptibleWeight 1/4 of SteelTensile Strength 2x Steel/StainlessModulus 200 GPa 200 GPa 40-60 GPaBond Strength 8-11 MPa 8-11 MPa 10-16 MPaThermal Conductivity Yes Yes NoElectrical Conductivity Yes Yes NoMagnetic Yes No No
• Canada Green Building Council Member• Green Alberta Evaluation No. 09-004-V01• TUF-BAR™ is 100% recyclable• TUF-BAR™ contributes: - 6 LEED® Credits in Canada - 7 LEED® Credits in USA
Loading FixtureA. El-Ragaby , E. F. El-Salakawy and B. Benmokrane
• Low Risk Profile• Lightweight• Cuts with Chop Saw or Grinding Disc (No Shears)• Vinyl Coated Tie Wire or Zip Ties• No Patching or Corrosion Treatment
• Studied in 12 Countries and 70 Universities• Extensive Canadian Studies involving 22 Researchers and 14 Universities
• Researchers conclude 100+ Year Life Expectancy for GFRP Reinforced Structures:2. No Degradation in GFRP Reinforcement3. Excellent Bonding4. No Debonding5. No Microcracking6. No Voids7. No Resin Microcracking8. No Glass Fibre Degradation9. No Significant Delamination/Debonding10.No Glass Transition11.No Sign of Chemical Degradation of the Resin12.No Chemical Degradation (Hydrolysis)
• Composites Innovation Centre University of Manitoba• GFRP 70% cost savings over 100 years
• Research Teams Recommend: That GFRP be allowed as the Primary Reinforcement• CAN/CSA-S6-06 (2006) “Canadian Highway Bridge Code”, pg.693-728• CAN/CSA-S806-02 (R2007) “Design and Constructions of Building Components with Fibre-Reinforced Polymers”• “If you look at the full life cycle cost, GFRP is far more cost-effective than metallic reinforcement” Dr. Brahim Benmokrane NSERC Industry Research Chair