Motivation Concepts<br />What is your motivation to work?<br />Is everyone’s motivation the same?<br />
A brief history of work place psychology…<br />Abraham Maslow: The Hierarchy of Needs (1954)<br />Fredrick Herzberg: Motiv...
Hierarchy of Needs<br />
Needs examples<br />Physiological Needs<br />An employee who needs a job, any job just to pay rent and buy groceries<br />...
Two-Factor Theory<br />“What makes people happy is what they do or the way they’re utilized, and what makes people unhappy...
Theory X vs. Theory Y<br />Theory X managers believe that employees are:<br />lazy and uninterested in work<br />Need cons...
Theory X vs. Theory Y<br />Theory Y managers believe that:<br />Given the opportunity people will seek out challenging wor...
ERG Theory<br />Named for the Three Levels of Needs:<br />Existence<br />Relatedness<br />Growth<br />Clayton Alderfer bui...
ERG Theory<br />
ERG Theory<br />Existence: Physiological and Safety Needs<br />Relatedness: Social needs and the esteem we find from other...
Acquired Needs Theory<br />Life Experience motivates people to achieve in one of three areas<br />Achievement <br />Affili...
Acquired Needs Theory<br />Achievement : people motivated by achievement<br />Take moderate risks<br />Require Frequent Fe...
Equity Theory<br />People are constantly measuring what they put into work against what they get from it<br />If their per...
Expectancy Theory<br />Motivated by potential Reward<br />Individuals calculate the level of effort required to receive a ...
Operant Conditioning<br />Based on Behavior Modification<br />Behavior can be changed based on the use of four interventio...
Operant Conditioning<br />Positive Reinforcement<br />Encourages continuation of the behavior by providing a pleasant resp...
Motivation Concepts<br />Everyone has a different motivation to work.<br />These concepts are based on psychological studi...
Leadership Concepts<br />Are you <br />Born a leader <br />or are you <br />Made a leader?<br />
Leadership Concepts<br />Are leaders born or made?<br />Thomas Carlyle suggested the “great man” theory, that is, that lea...
Leadership Concepts<br />Areas that researched turned to in order to explain what makes a good leader<br />Behavioral Theo...
Behavioral Theories<br />1940 saw a shift in belief towards that which supported the idea that Leadership could be taught....
Behavior Theory<br />Two Aspects of Behavior<br />Behavior focused on the structural elements of the job<br />Establishing...
Situational Theories<br />Seeks to explain leadership effectiveness in different situations<br />Elements that are conside...
Blake-Mouton Managerial grid<br />Considers two aspects<br />Concern for people<br />Concern for production<br />Uses 9 le...
Path-goal Theory<br />Proposes that a leader can impact the behavior of a group by establishing goals and providing direct...
Path-goal Theory<br />Directive<br />Specifics what is to be done<br />Supportive<br />Leader provides encouragement for t...
Hersey-Blanchard Theory<br />Describe leadership in terms of maturity level of the followers<br />Two types of maturity<br...
Hersey-Blanchard Theory<br />Telling<br />With an immature team member base the leader must be direct in providing guidanc...
Contingency Theories<br />Begins with an assessment of leader’s style<br />Uses the “least preferred co-worker” scale<br /...
Contingency Theory<br />Describes situations in terms of three aspects<br />Leader-member relations<br />Relationship betw...
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Work Place Motivation

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Work Place Motivation

  1. 1. Motivation Concepts<br />What is your motivation to work?<br />Is everyone’s motivation the same?<br />
  2. 2. A brief history of work place psychology…<br />Abraham Maslow: The Hierarchy of Needs (1954)<br />Fredrick Herzberg: Motivation/Hygiene Theory (1959)<br />Douglas McGregor: Theory X and Theory Y (1960)<br />Clayton Alderfer: ERG Theory (1969)<br />David McClelland: Acquired Needs Theory (1961)<br />J. Stacy Adams: Equity Theory (1963)<br />Victor Vroom: Expectancy Theory (1964<br />B.F. Skinner: Operant Conditioning (1957)<br />
  3. 3. Hierarchy of Needs<br />
  4. 4. Needs examples<br />Physiological Needs<br />An employee who needs a job, any job just to pay rent and buy groceries<br />Safety Needs<br />An employee who has food and shelter and is looking for more, a safe work environment which will not cause physical or emotional harm<br />Esteem Needs<br />An employee who has his/her physical, and safety needs met and wants a job where he/she is recognized for a job well done<br />Self-Actualization Needs<br />An employee who is self driven and can meet career goals he/she has set for him/herself<br />
  5. 5. Two-Factor Theory<br />“What makes people happy is what they do or the way they’re utilized, and what makes people unhappy is the way they’re treated.”<br />(“An interview with Fredrick Herzberg: Managers or Animal Trainers?” 1971)<br />Example: Adding internet research responsibilities which provides learning opportunities to a receptionist performing at a substandard level can result in improved performance of all duties if the poor performance is related to boredom with repetitive tasks. <br />
  6. 6. Theory X vs. Theory Y<br />Theory X managers believe that employees are:<br />lazy and uninterested in work<br />Need constant direction<br />Unwilling to take responsibility<br />Only interested in job security<br />Theory X managers are generally autocratic and utilize a “top-down” management style<br />
  7. 7. Theory X vs. Theory Y<br />Theory Y managers believe that:<br />Given the opportunity people will seek out challenging work<br />People will take on additional work if the work is satisfactory<br />Theory Y managers will:<br />Invite participation in the decision-making process from subordinates.<br />
  8. 8. ERG Theory<br />Named for the Three Levels of Needs:<br />Existence<br />Relatedness<br />Growth<br />Clayton Alderfer built upon Abraham Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs <br />Allows simultaneous levels of needs and movement between the levels<br />
  9. 9. ERG Theory<br />
  10. 10. ERG Theory<br />Existence: Physiological and Safety Needs<br />Relatedness: Social needs and the esteem we find from others<br />Growth: Self-esteem and self Actualization Concepts<br />People can work on more than one level at once and fall backwards in frustration of the difficulty of the higher levels<br />
  11. 11. Acquired Needs Theory<br />Life Experience motivates people to achieve in one of three areas<br />Achievement <br />Affiliation<br />Power<br />
  12. 12. Acquired Needs Theory<br />Achievement : people motivated by achievement<br />Take moderate risks<br />Require Frequent Feedback<br />Are solo-workers or work with those interest in achieving the same level<br />Affiliation: people motivated by affiliation<br />Seek acceptance within the work group<br />Require regular interaction with co-workers<br />Power: Personal or Institutional<br />People seeking institutional power usually make good managers, coordinating work groups to achieve organizational goals <br />
  13. 13. Equity Theory<br />People are constantly measuring what they put into work against what they get from it<br />If their perception is that it is a fair trade, they are motivated to continue contributing at the same level<br />When they perceive that there is an imbalance: They are putting in more than they are getting out, they become demotivated and uninterested in their work, decreasing productivity and quality.<br />
  14. 14. Expectancy Theory<br />Motivated by potential Reward<br />Individuals calculate the level of effort required to receive a particular reward to determine whether the reward is worth the effort<br />Expectancy<br />Does the individual believe in their ability to successfully complete the assignment<br />Instrumentality<br />“What’s in it for me?” Will the effort justify the reward?<br />Valence<br />The answer to the above question: “Do I think it is worth the effort?”<br />
  15. 15. Operant Conditioning<br />Based on Behavior Modification<br />Behavior can be changed based on the use of four intervention strategies<br />Positive Reinforcement<br />Negative Reinforcement<br />Punishment<br />Extinction<br />
  16. 16. Operant Conditioning<br />Positive Reinforcement<br />Encourages continuation of the behavior by providing a pleasant response when the behavior occurs<br />Negative Reinforcement<br />Encourages continuation of the behavior by removing an unpleasant response to a behavior<br />Punishment<br />Discourages future occurrences of the behavior by providing an unpleasant response when the behavior occurs<br />Extinction<br />Discourages future occurrences of the behavior by ceasing to reinforce it.<br />
  17. 17. Motivation Concepts<br />Everyone has a different motivation to work.<br />These concepts are based on psychological studies and not every theory works in every situation.<br />It is our jobs as leaders to understand what are potential motivators of our employees and adapt as best we can to suit their needs and the needs of all the stakeholders whenever possible. <br />What is your motivation to Work?<br />
  18. 18. Leadership Concepts<br />Are you <br />Born a leader <br />or are you <br />Made a leader?<br />
  19. 19. Leadership Concepts<br />Are leaders born or made?<br />Thomas Carlyle suggested the “great man” theory, that is, that leaders are born with innate qualities or traits that set them apart from other “mere men”<br />Researchers since have found that there is not one set of traits that makes someone a leader<br />Traits that are found in leaders are also found in followers<br />Trait theories did not show leaders were successful in different situations using very different methods<br />As the limitations of early explanations for leadership development became clear, researchers turned to other areas for investigation<br />
  20. 20. Leadership Concepts<br />Areas that researched turned to in order to explain what makes a good leader<br />Behavioral Theories<br />Situational Theories<br />Contingency Theories<br />
  21. 21. Behavioral Theories<br />1940 saw a shift in belief towards that which supported the idea that Leadership could be taught.<br />Anyone could become a leader with the right information<br />Not based on personality traits<br />Based on what the leader did to make people follow them<br />Two aspects of behavior became apparent in the research<br />
  22. 22. Behavior Theory<br />Two Aspects of Behavior<br />Behavior focused on the structural elements of the job<br />Establishing rules and guidelines for employees<br />Behavior that considered the needs of the employees<br />Standing up for employees<br />Explaining decisions<br />There were leadership characteristics that were not explained by behavioral theories<br />How or why one behavioral aspect worked in one situation but not another<br />
  23. 23. Situational Theories<br />Seeks to explain leadership effectiveness in different situations<br />Elements that are considered <br />How the leaders and followers interact<br />How the work is structured<br />There are three main situational theories<br />Blake-Mouton managerial grid, 1968<br />Path-goal theory, 1971<br />Hersey-Blanchard theory, 1977<br />
  24. 24. Blake-Mouton Managerial grid<br />Considers two aspects<br />Concern for people<br />Concern for production<br />Uses 9 levels to measure each aspect<br />Leaders on the lowest (1,1) level show no concern for people or production<br />Leaders on the highest extreme show maximum concern for both people and production<br />Leaders scoring (9,9) are the most effective leaders<br />
  25. 25. Path-goal Theory<br />Proposes that a leader can impact the behavior of a group by establishing goals and providing direction on reaching those goals<br />Four leadership styles may be used to accomplish this<br />Directive<br />Supportive<br />Participative<br />Achievement<br />
  26. 26. Path-goal Theory<br />Directive<br />Specifics what is to be done<br />Supportive<br />Leader provides encouragement for the group members<br />Participative<br />Leader involves the group in decision making process<br />Achievement<br />Leader establishes a difficult goal and encourages the group to accomplish it<br />
  27. 27. Hersey-Blanchard Theory<br />Describe leadership in terms of maturity level of the followers<br />Two types of maturity<br />Psychological maturity (motivation)<br />Job task maturity (level of experience)<br />This model provides four styles of leadership appropriate in different circumstances<br />Telling<br />Selling<br />Participating<br />Delegating<br />
  28. 28. Hersey-Blanchard Theory<br />Telling<br />With an immature team member base the leader must be direct in providing guidance and defining roles<br />Selling<br />With some experience, leader is directing in a more general sense; Encouraging motivated followers with lack of experience<br />Participating<br />Followers may lack necessary motivation and require support and encouragement to act on their own<br />Delegation<br />Followers have the maturity to accomplish their tasks, leader identifies the goal and the followers are accountable to produce the results<br />
  29. 29. Contingency Theories<br />Begins with an assessment of leader’s style<br />Uses the “least preferred co-worker” scale<br />Indentify the co-worker (past or present) with whom you had the most difficulty working and rate this person on a scale of 1 to 8 on a series of measures such as level of cooperation and friendliness<br />The result is know as the Least Preferred Co-worker (LPC) <br />A high score indicates the leaders has a greater concern for people than tasks<br />A low score indicates a greater concern for tasks<br />LPC score could predict the situation in which the leader would have a better chance of success <br />
  30. 30. Contingency Theory<br />Describes situations in terms of three aspects<br />Leader-member relations<br />Relationship between the leaders and members of the group are the key factor in determining the level of influence the leader will have within the group<br />Task Structure<br />Jobs that are highly structured provide a leader with greater influence than those that require little structure<br />Position Power<br />Situations in which the leader has the discretion to assign tasks or to reward or punish members of the group provide the leader with a greater chance of success<br />

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