The Urinary System
An Introduction to the Urinary System Figure 26–1
3 Functions of the Urinary System <ul><li>Excretion :  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>removal of organic wastes from body fluids </...
<ul><li>Conserve valuable nutrients: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>by preventing excretion while excreting organic waste products ...
5 Homeostatic Functions of Urinary System <ul><li>Regulate blood volume and blood pressure: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>by adjus...
Kidneys <ul><li>Organs that  excrete  urine </li></ul>Urinary Tract <ul><li>Organs that  eliminate  urine: </li></ul><ul><...
EXCRETORY ORGANS OF ANIMALS <ul><li>Protozoans -Excretory vacuoles </li></ul><ul><li>Poriferans – Epidermal cells-canals-g...
 
Poriferans Nephridia of annelids Flame cells of platyhelminthes
Malphigian tubules of insects
Nephridia of Mollusks
Types of kidneys <ul><li>PRONEPHRIC KIDNEY </li></ul><ul><li>MESONEPHRIC KDNEYS </li></ul><ul><li>METANEPHRIC KDNEY </li><...
 
 
 
 
 
Metanephric kidneys
The Position of the Kidneys <ul><li>Are located either side of vertebral column: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>left kidney lies su...
<ul><li>Is protected and stabilized by 3 concentric layers of connective tissue: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>renal capsule </li>...
Typical Adult Kidney  <ul><li>Is about 10 cm long, 5.5 cm wide, and 3 cm thick </li></ul><ul><li>Weighs about 150 g  </li>...
Renal Sinus <ul><li>Internal cavity within kidney </li></ul><ul><li>Lined by fibrous renal capsule </li></ul>
Renal Capsule <ul><li>Bound to outer surfaces of structures in renal sinus </li></ul><ul><li>Stabilizes positions of urete...
Renal Pyramids <ul><li>6 to 18 distinct conical or triangular structures in  renal medulla : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>base ab...
Renal Columns <ul><li>Bands of cortical tissue separate adjacent renal pyramids  </li></ul><ul><li>Extend into medulla </l...
Renal Lobe   <ul><li>Consists of: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>renal pyramid </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>overlying area of renal c...
Renal Pelvis <ul><li>Large, funnel-shaped chamber </li></ul><ul><li>Consists of 2 or 3 major calyces  </li></ul><ul><li>Fi...
Blood Supply to the Kidneys <ul><li>Kidneys receive 20–25% of total cardiac output </li></ul><ul><li>1200 ml of blood flow...
Functional Anatomy of Nephron & Collecting System Figure 26–6
EPITHELIAL COMPONENTS OF NEPHRON <ul><li>1.BOWMAN’S  CAPSULE </li></ul><ul><li>2.PROXIMAL CONVULATED TUBULE </li></ul><ul>...
VASCULAR ELEMENTS OF NEPHRON <ul><li>1.GLOMERULUS </li></ul><ul><li>2.AFFERENT ARTERIOLE </li></ul><ul><li>3. EFFERENT ART...
Renal Tubule   <ul><li>Long tubular passageway </li></ul><ul><li>Begins at  renal corpuscle </li></ul>Renal Corpuscle <ul>...
Glomerulus <ul><li>Consists of 50 intertwining capillaries </li></ul><ul><li>Blood delivered via afferent arteriole </li><...
3 Functions of Renal Tubule <ul><li>Reabsorb useful organic nutrients that enter filtrate </li></ul><ul><li>Reabsorb more ...
Cortical and  Juxtamedullary Nephrons Figure 26–7
Cortical Nephrons (1 of 2 types) <ul><li>85% of all nephrons </li></ul><ul><li>Located mostly within superficial cortex of...
Juxtamedullary Nephrons <ul><li>15% of nephrons </li></ul><ul><li>Have long loops of Henle that extend deep into medulla <...
The Renal Corpuscle <ul><li>Each renal corpuscle:  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>is 150–250  µ m in diameter </li></ul></ul><ul><u...
The Loop of Henle <ul><li>Also called  nephron loop </li></ul><ul><li>Renal tubule turns toward renal medulla: </li></ul><...
<ul><li>The Thick Descending Limb  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Has functions similar to PCT: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>pump...
The  Distal Convoluted  Tubule   (DCT) <ul><li>The third segment of the renal tubule </li></ul><ul><li>Initial portion pas...
3 Processes of the DCT <ul><li>Active secretion of ions, acids, drugs, and toxins </li></ul><ul><li>Selective reabsorption...
Renal Physiology <ul><li>The goal of urine production: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>is to maintain homeostasis </li></ul></ul><ul...
Organic Waste Products  <ul><li>Are dissolved in bloodstream </li></ul><ul><li>Are eliminated only while dissolved in urin...
Differences between Solute Concentrations in Urine and Plasma Table 26–2
Acidosis <ul><li>Lactic acidosis : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>develops after exhaustive muscle activity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul>...
ADH – antidiuretic hormone <ul><li>Hormone causes special  water channels  to appear </li></ul><ul><li>Increases rate of o...
Diuretics   <ul><li>Are drugs that promote water loss in urine (diuresis) </li></ul><ul><li>Diuretic therapy reduces: </li...
<ul><li>The  Concentration  of components  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>in a urine sample depends on osmotic movement of water </...
Urine Transport,  Storage, and Elimination  <ul><li>Takes place in the  urinary tract : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ureters </li...
Organs for the Conduction  and Storage of Urine Figure 26–18a
The  Ureters <ul><li>Are a pair of muscular tubes </li></ul><ul><li>Extend from kidneys to urinary bladder </li></ul><ul><...
3 Layers of the Ureter Wall <ul><li>• Inner mucosa: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>transitional epithelium and lamina propria </li>...
Peristaltic Contractions <ul><li>Begin at renal pelvis </li></ul><ul><li>Sweep along ureter </li></ul><ul><li>Force urine ...
The  Urinary Bladder <ul><li>Is a hollow, muscular organ </li></ul><ul><li>Functions as temporary reservoir urine storage ...
Organs for the Conduction  and Storage of Urine Figure 26–18c
The Urethra <ul><li>Extends from neck of urinary bladder </li></ul><ul><li>To the exterior of the body </li></ul>The Male ...
<ul><li>Spongy urethra  ( penile urethra ): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>extends from urogenital diaphragm </li></ul></ul><ul><ul...
 
The Female Urethra <ul><li>Is very short (3–5 cm) </li></ul><ul><li>Extends from bladder to vestibule </li></ul><ul><li>Ex...
The  External Urethral Sphincter <ul><li>In both sexes:  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>is a circular band of skeletal muscle </li>...
ABNORMAL URINE CONSTITUENTS Glomerulonephritis,hypertension Amino acid Aminoaciduria Fatty diet, prolonged starvation Keto...
Alcoholism,aldoste-ronism DIURETIC SUBSTANCES POLYURIA Mercuric poisoning MERCURY ANURIA Hepatitis, cirrhosis,liver cancer...
<ul><li>Azotemia </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Presence of urea or other non-protein nitrogenous compounds in the blood </li></ul>...
<ul><li>Renal Calculi </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Precipitation and solidification of crystals of salts in the urine </li></ul><...
<ul><li>Glomerular Diseases </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Glomerulonephritis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Inflammation of the ki...
<ul><li>Renal Failure -  decrease or cessation of glomerular filtration </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Acute Renal Failure (ARF) </...
Age-Related Changes in Urinary System <ul><li>Decline in number of functional nephrons </li></ul><ul><li>Reduced sensitivi...
3 Micturition Reflex Problems <ul><li>Sphincter muscles lose tone: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>leading to incontinence </li></ul...
REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM MALE
Objectives : <ul><li>Identify the functions of the male reproductive system </li></ul><ul><li>Illustrate and describe the ...
Asexual reproduction <ul><li>Fission </li></ul><ul><li>a. binary fission </li></ul><ul><li>2. Budding </li></ul><ul><li>3....
Special sexual reproduction <ul><li>Conjugation </li></ul><ul><li>Paedogenesis </li></ul><ul><li>Hermaphrodism </li></ul><...
Types of animals according to reproduction <ul><li>Oviparous </li></ul><ul><li>Viviparous </li></ul><ul><li>ovoviviparous ...
Main functions of male reproducitve system <ul><li>For production,maintenance, and transportation  of the male sex cell (s...
 
Development of male reproductive organs <ul><li>Male sex organs are formed prenatally under the influence of the testoster...
I. External structures of male sex organs <ul><li>PENIS – the pendant organ anterior to the scrotum and attached to the pu...
URETHRA <ul><li>Long,slender tube which is connected to the ejaculatory duct </li></ul><ul><li>Parts: </li></ul><ul><li>a....
<ul><li>2. Scrotum </li></ul><ul><li>Thin pouch of skin, posterior  to the penis and external to the testes </li></ul><ul>...
3. TESTES <ul><li>The primary sex organs </li></ul><ul><li>Located posterior to the penis within the scrotum </li></ul><ul...
 
4. EPIDIDYMIS <ul><li>the mass of tubules attached to the posterior surface of thetestes </li></ul><ul><li>Functions: site...
Male Internal Reproductive Organs <ul><li>1. EJACULATORY DUCTS </li></ul><ul><li>Short ducts between the ductus deferentia...
2. ACCESSORY GLANDS <ul><li>SEMINAL VESICLES </li></ul><ul><li>Club-shaped glands posterior to the prostate and are attach...
B.PROSTATE GLAND <ul><li>Walnut-shaped gland at the base of the urinary bladder </li></ul><ul><li>Surrounds the prostatic ...
C.BULBOURETHRAL GLANDS <ul><li>Pea-sized glands inferior to the prostate </li></ul><ul><li>Empty into the membranous ureth...
 
Flow of sperm cells <ul><li>FROG </li></ul><ul><li>Testis(mesorchium) </li></ul><ul><li>Vas efferens </li></ul><ul><li>Kid...
REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM FEMALE
FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM <ul><li>Both sexes have reproductive organs call GENITALS or GENITALIA, designed for the purpos...
EXTERNAL FEMALE ANATOMY <ul><li>Vulva:   the general term to describe all the external female sex organs. </li></ul><ul><l...
<ul><li>Labia Minora :  two smaller folds of tissue which lie just within the labia majora.  The labia minora  </li></ul><...
 
INTERNAL ORGANS <ul><li>Hymen:   a thin ring of tissue covering the opening to the vagina.  It is the dividing line betwee...
3 MAIN FUNCTIONS OF THE VAGINA: <ul><li>1-channel for the menstrual flow </li></ul><ul><li>2- receptacle for the male peni...
<ul><li>Cervix:   the neck or opening of the uterus.  A normal healthy cervix is the strongest muscle in the body.  </li><...
<ul><li>Uterus:   the uterus is a hollow, muscular organ shaped somewhat like an upside-down pear, about  </li></ul><ul><l...
3 layers of the uterus <ul><li>1. epimetrium – connective,  </li></ul><ul><li>outermost  covering </li></ul><ul><li>2. myo...
 
Flow of human ovum <ul><li>Ovary </li></ul><ul><li>Ostium </li></ul><ul><li>Fallopian tube </li></ul>Flow of frog’s eggs <...
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  • Urogenital system

    1. 1. The Urinary System
    2. 2. An Introduction to the Urinary System Figure 26–1
    3. 3. 3 Functions of the Urinary System <ul><li>Excretion : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>removal of organic wastes from body fluids </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Elimination : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>discharge of waste products </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Homeostatic regulation : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>of blood plasma volume and solute concentration </li></ul></ul>
    4. 4. <ul><li>Conserve valuable nutrients: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>by preventing excretion while excreting organic waste products </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Assist liver to detoxify poisons </li></ul>
    5. 5. 5 Homeostatic Functions of Urinary System <ul><li>Regulate blood volume and blood pressure: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>by adjusting volume of water lost in urine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>releasing erythropoietin and renin </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Regulate plasma ion concentrations: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>sodium, potassium, and chloride ions (by controlling quantities lost in urine) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>calcium ion levels (through synthesis of calcitriol ) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Help stabilize blood pH: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>by controlling loss of hydrogen ions and bicarbonate ions in urine </li></ul></ul>
    6. 6. Kidneys <ul><li>Organs that excrete urine </li></ul>Urinary Tract <ul><li>Organs that eliminate urine: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ureters (paired tubes) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>urinary bladder (muscular sac) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>urethra (exit tube) </li></ul></ul>Urination or Micturition <ul><li>Process of eliminating urine </li></ul><ul><li>Contraction of muscular urinary bladder forces urine through urethra, and out of body </li></ul>
    7. 7. EXCRETORY ORGANS OF ANIMALS <ul><li>Protozoans -Excretory vacuoles </li></ul><ul><li>Poriferans – Epidermal cells-canals-gastrovascular cavity lined with endodermal cells </li></ul><ul><li>Annelids – nephridial type on each segment </li></ul><ul><li>Platyhelminthes - Flame cells </li></ul><ul><li>Mollusca – nephridia which drains wastes from the coelom to and blood </li></ul><ul><li>Arthropods – crustaceans – nephridia, insects have malphigian tubules </li></ul><ul><li>Vertebrates -kidneys </li></ul>
    8. 9. Poriferans Nephridia of annelids Flame cells of platyhelminthes
    9. 10. Malphigian tubules of insects
    10. 11. Nephridia of Mollusks
    11. 12. Types of kidneys <ul><li>PRONEPHRIC KIDNEY </li></ul><ul><li>MESONEPHRIC KDNEYS </li></ul><ul><li>METANEPHRIC KDNEY </li></ul>
    12. 18. Metanephric kidneys
    13. 19. The Position of the Kidneys <ul><li>Are located either side of vertebral column: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>left kidney lies superior to right kidney </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>superior surface capped by adrenal gland </li></ul></ul>Figure 26–2 <ul><li>Position is maintained by: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>overlying peritoneum </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>contact with adjacent visceral organs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>supporting connective tissues </li></ul></ul>
    14. 20. <ul><li>Is protected and stabilized by 3 concentric layers of connective tissue: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>renal capsule </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A layer of collagen fibers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Covers outer surface of entire organ </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>adipose capsule </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A thick layer of adipose tissue </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Surrounds renal capsule </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>3. renal fascia </li></ul><ul><li>1. A dense, fibrous outer layer </li></ul><ul><li>2. Anchors kidney to surrounding structures </li></ul>
    15. 21. Typical Adult Kidney <ul><li>Is about 10 cm long, 5.5 cm wide, and 3 cm thick </li></ul><ul><li>Weighs about 150 g </li></ul>
    16. 22. Renal Sinus <ul><li>Internal cavity within kidney </li></ul><ul><li>Lined by fibrous renal capsule </li></ul>
    17. 23. Renal Capsule <ul><li>Bound to outer surfaces of structures in renal sinus </li></ul><ul><li>Stabilizes positions of ureter, renal blood vessels, and nerves </li></ul>
    18. 24. Renal Pyramids <ul><li>6 to 18 distinct conical or triangular structures in renal medulla : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>base abuts cortex </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>tip ( renal papilla ) projects into renal sinus </li></ul></ul>
    19. 25. Renal Columns <ul><li>Bands of cortical tissue separate adjacent renal pyramids </li></ul><ul><li>Extend into medulla </li></ul><ul><li>Have distinctly granular texture </li></ul>
    20. 26. Renal Lobe <ul><li>Consists of: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>renal pyramid </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>overlying area of renal cortex </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>adjacent tissues of renal columns </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Produces urine </li></ul>
    21. 27. Renal Pelvis <ul><li>Large, funnel-shaped chamber </li></ul><ul><li>Consists of 2 or 3 major calyces </li></ul><ul><li>Fills most of renal sinus </li></ul><ul><li>Connected to ureter, which drains kidney </li></ul>
    22. 28. Blood Supply to the Kidneys <ul><li>Kidneys receive 20–25% of total cardiac output </li></ul><ul><li>1200 ml of blood flows through kidneys each minute </li></ul><ul><li>Kidney receives blood through renal artery </li></ul>Figure 26–5
    23. 29. Functional Anatomy of Nephron & Collecting System Figure 26–6
    24. 30. EPITHELIAL COMPONENTS OF NEPHRON <ul><li>1.BOWMAN’S CAPSULE </li></ul><ul><li>2.PROXIMAL CONVULATED TUBULE </li></ul><ul><li>3.DISTAL CONVULATED TUBULE </li></ul><ul><li>4.LOOP OF HENLE </li></ul><ul><li>5.COLLECTING DUCT </li></ul>
    25. 31. VASCULAR ELEMENTS OF NEPHRON <ul><li>1.GLOMERULUS </li></ul><ul><li>2.AFFERENT ARTERIOLE </li></ul><ul><li>3. EFFERENT ARTERIOLE </li></ul><ul><li>4.PERITUBULAR CAPILLARIES </li></ul>
    26. 32. Renal Tubule <ul><li>Long tubular passageway </li></ul><ul><li>Begins at renal corpuscle </li></ul>Renal Corpuscle <ul><li>Spherical structure consisting of: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bowman’s capsule </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>cup-shaped chamber </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>capillary network ( glomerulus ) </li></ul></ul>
    27. 33. Glomerulus <ul><li>Consists of 50 intertwining capillaries </li></ul><ul><li>Blood delivered via afferent arteriole </li></ul><ul><li>Blood leaves in efferent arteriole </li></ul>
    28. 34. 3 Functions of Renal Tubule <ul><li>Reabsorb useful organic nutrients that enter filtrate </li></ul><ul><li>Reabsorb more than 90% of water in filtrate </li></ul><ul><li>Secrete waste products that failed to enter renal corpuscle through filtration at glomerulus </li></ul>
    29. 35. Cortical and Juxtamedullary Nephrons Figure 26–7
    30. 36. Cortical Nephrons (1 of 2 types) <ul><li>85% of all nephrons </li></ul><ul><li>Located mostly within superficial cortex of kidney </li></ul><ul><li>Loop of Henle is relatively short </li></ul><ul><li>Efferent arteriole delivers blood to a network of peritubular capillaries: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>which surround entire renal tubule </li></ul></ul>
    31. 37. Juxtamedullary Nephrons <ul><li>15% of nephrons </li></ul><ul><li>Have long loops of Henle that extend deep into medulla </li></ul>
    32. 38. The Renal Corpuscle <ul><li>Each renal corpuscle: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>is 150–250 µ m in diameter </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>includes Bowman’s capsule and glomerulus </li></ul></ul>
    33. 39. The Loop of Henle <ul><li>Also called nephron loop </li></ul><ul><li>Renal tubule turns toward renal medulla: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>leads to loop of Henle </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Descending limb : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>fluid flows toward renal pelvis </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ascending limb : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>fluid flows toward renal cortex </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Each limb contains: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>thick segment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>thin segment </li></ul></ul>
    34. 40. <ul><li>The Thick Descending Limb </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Has functions similar to PCT: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>pumps sodium & chloride ions out of tubular fluid </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Ascending Limbs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Of juxtamedullary nephrons in medulla: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>create high solute conc. in peritubular fluid </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>The Thin Segments </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Are freely permeable to water, not to solutes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Water movement helps conc. tubular fluid </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Thick Ascending Limb </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ends at a sharp angle near the renal corpuscle - where DCT begins </li></ul></ul>
    35. 41. The Distal Convoluted Tubule (DCT) <ul><li>The third segment of the renal tubule </li></ul><ul><li>Initial portion passes between afferent and efferent arterioles </li></ul><ul><li>Has a smaller diameter than PCT </li></ul><ul><li>Epithelial cells lack microvilli </li></ul>
    36. 42. 3 Processes of the DCT <ul><li>Active secretion of ions, acids, drugs, and toxins </li></ul><ul><li>Selective reabsorption of sodium and calcium ions from tubular fluid </li></ul><ul><li>Selective reabsorption of water: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>concentrates tubular fluid </li></ul></ul>
    37. 43. Renal Physiology <ul><li>The goal of urine production: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>is to maintain homeostasis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>by regulating volume and composition of blood </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>including excretion of metabolic waste products </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Urea </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Due to breakdown of aa </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Creatinine </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Due to breakdown of creatinine kinase (important in muscle contraction) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Uric acid </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Formed due to recycling of ATGCU </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    38. 44. Organic Waste Products <ul><li>Are dissolved in bloodstream </li></ul><ul><li>Are eliminated only while dissolved in urine </li></ul><ul><li>Removal is accompanied by water loss </li></ul><ul><li>Concentrated urine: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1200–1400 milliosmols/L (4 times plasma concentration) </li></ul></ul>
    39. 45. Differences between Solute Concentrations in Urine and Plasma Table 26–2
    40. 46. Acidosis <ul><li>Lactic acidosis : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>develops after exhaustive muscle activity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(bulging muscles can cut off blood supply) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>due to anaerobic respiration </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ketoacidosis : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lower blood pH, higher acid, due to presence of ketones </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>develops in starvation or diabetes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Body does not have suff. glucose/glycogen to sustain met activity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Muscle loss can occur - dieting </li></ul></ul></ul>
    41. 47. ADH – antidiuretic hormone <ul><li>Hormone causes special water channels to appear </li></ul><ul><li>Increases rate of osmotic water movement </li></ul><ul><li>Higher levels of ADH increases: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>number of water channels </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>water permeability of DCT and collecting system </li></ul></ul><ul><li>No ADH, water is not reabsorbed </li></ul><ul><ul><li>All fluid reaching DCT is lost in urine producing large amounts of dilute urine </li></ul></ul>
    42. 48. Diuretics <ul><li>Are drugs that promote water loss in urine (diuresis) </li></ul><ul><li>Diuretic therapy reduces: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>blood volume </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>blood pressure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>extracellular fluid volume </li></ul></ul>
    43. 49. <ul><li>The Concentration of components </li></ul><ul><ul><li>in a urine sample depends on osmotic movement of water </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Normal Urine </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Is a clear, sterile solution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Yellow color (pigment urobilin ) generated in kidneys from urobilinogens </li></ul></ul>
    44. 50. Urine Transport, Storage, and Elimination <ul><li>Takes place in the urinary tract : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ureters </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>urinary bladder </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>urethra </li></ul></ul>
    45. 51. Organs for the Conduction and Storage of Urine Figure 26–18a
    46. 52. The Ureters <ul><li>Are a pair of muscular tubes </li></ul><ul><li>Extend from kidneys to urinary bladder </li></ul><ul><li>Begin at renal pelvis </li></ul><ul><li>attached to posterior abdominal wall </li></ul><ul><li>Penetrate posterior wall of the urinary bladder </li></ul><ul><li>Pass through bladder wall at oblique angle </li></ul><ul><li>Ureteral openings are slitlike rather than rounded </li></ul><ul><li>Shape helps prevent backflow of urine: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>when urinary bladder contracts </li></ul></ul>
    47. 53. 3 Layers of the Ureter Wall <ul><li>• Inner mucosa: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>transitional epithelium and lamina propria </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Middle muscular layer: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>longitudinal and circular bands of smooth muscle </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Outer connective-tissue layer: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>continuous with fibrous renal capsule and peritoneum </li></ul></ul>
    48. 54. Peristaltic Contractions <ul><li>Begin at renal pelvis </li></ul><ul><li>Sweep along ureter </li></ul><ul><li>Force urine toward urinary bladder </li></ul><ul><li>Every 30 seconds </li></ul>
    49. 55. The Urinary Bladder <ul><li>Is a hollow, muscular organ </li></ul><ul><li>Functions as temporary reservoir urine storage </li></ul><ul><li>Full bladder can contain 1 liter of urine </li></ul>Bladder Position <ul><li>Is stabilized by several peritoneal folds </li></ul><ul><li>Posterior, inferior, and anterior surfaces: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>lie outside peritoneal cavity </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ligamentous bands: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>anchor urinary bladder to pelvic and pubic bones </li></ul></ul>
    50. 56. Organs for the Conduction and Storage of Urine Figure 26–18c
    51. 57. The Urethra <ul><li>Extends from neck of urinary bladder </li></ul><ul><li>To the exterior of the body </li></ul>The Male Urethra <ul><li>Extends from neck of urinary bladder </li></ul><ul><li>To tip of penis (18–20 cm) </li></ul>
    52. 58. <ul><li>Spongy urethra ( penile urethra ): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>extends from urogenital diaphragm </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>to external urethral orifice </li></ul></ul>3 Parts of the Male Urethra <ul><li>Prostatic urethra : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>passes through center of prostate gland </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Membranous urethra : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>short segment that penetrates the urogenital diaphragm </li></ul></ul>
    53. 60. The Female Urethra <ul><li>Is very short (3–5 cm) </li></ul><ul><li>Extends from bladder to vestibule </li></ul><ul><li>External urethral orifice is near anterior wall of vagina </li></ul>
    54. 61. The External Urethral Sphincter <ul><li>In both sexes: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>is a circular band of skeletal muscle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>where urethra passes through urogenital diaphragm </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Acts as a valve </li></ul><ul><li>Is under voluntary control: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>via perineal branch of pudendal nerve </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Has resting muscle tone </li></ul><ul><li>Voluntarily relaxation permits micturition </li></ul>
    55. 62. ABNORMAL URINE CONSTITUENTS Glomerulonephritis,hypertension Amino acid Aminoaciduria Fatty diet, prolonged starvation Ketones Ketonuria Patho:Glomerulonephritis,hypertension nonpatho”:physical exertion,pregnancy Albumin Albuminuria Patho:Diabetes mellitus, prolonged starvation Nonpatho:high sugar diet Glucose Glycosuria Hemolytic anemia, blood transfusion reaction hemoglobin Hemoglobinuria CAUSES SUBSTANCE CONDITION
    56. 63. Alcoholism,aldoste-ronism DIURETIC SUBSTANCES POLYURIA Mercuric poisoning MERCURY ANURIA Hepatitis, cirrhosis,liver cancer BILIRUBIN BILIRIBINURIA UTI WBC PYURIA Pyelonephritis,uti, glomerulonephritis RBC HEMATURIA
    57. 64. <ul><li>Azotemia </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Presence of urea or other non-protein nitrogenous compounds in the blood </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Uremia </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Toxic levels of urea in the blood resulting from severe malfunction of the kidneys </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Azotemia + Kidney Failure </li></ul></ul></ul>
    58. 65. <ul><li>Renal Calculi </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Precipitation and solidification of crystals of salts in the urine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Calcium oxalate, uric acid, or calcium phosphate </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Urinary Tract Infections </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Urethritis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cystitis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pyelonephritis </li></ul></ul>
    59. 66. <ul><li>Glomerular Diseases </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Glomerulonephritis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Inflammation of the kidney that involves the glomeruli </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Commonly caused by allergic reaction to streptococcal bacteria </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nephrotic Syndrome </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Characterized by proteinuria and hyperlipidemia </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Proteinuria – increased permeability of the filtration membrane </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    60. 67. <ul><li>Renal Failure - decrease or cessation of glomerular filtration </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Acute Renal Failure (ARF) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Kidneys abruptly stop working entirely </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Oliguria – 50-250 mL/day </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Anuria – less than 50 mL/day </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chronic Renal Failure (CRF) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Progressive and usually irreversible decline GFR </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Diminished renal reserve </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Renal insufficiency </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>End-stage renal failure </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    61. 68. Age-Related Changes in Urinary System <ul><li>Decline in number of functional nephrons </li></ul><ul><li>Reduced sensitivity to ADH </li></ul><ul><li>Problems with micturition reflex </li></ul><ul><li>Infants </li></ul><ul><li>Lack voluntary control over urination </li></ul><ul><li>Corticospinal connections are not established </li></ul>
    62. 69. 3 Micturition Reflex Problems <ul><li>Sphincter muscles lose tone: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>leading to incontinence </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Control of micturition can be lost due to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a stroke </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Alzheimer’s disease </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CNS problems affecting cerebral cortex or hypothalamus </li></ul></ul><ul><li>In males, urinary retention may develop if enlarged prostate gland compresses the urethra and restricts urine flow </li></ul>
    63. 70. REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM MALE
    64. 71. Objectives : <ul><li>Identify the functions of the male reproductive system </li></ul><ul><li>Illustrate and describe the parts and function of the male external and internal reproductive organs </li></ul><ul><li>Relate the male to female reproductive system </li></ul><ul><li>Explain and appreciate male sexual responses </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss the common male reproductive disorders </li></ul>
    65. 72. Asexual reproduction <ul><li>Fission </li></ul><ul><li>a. binary fission </li></ul><ul><li>2. Budding </li></ul><ul><li>3. Fragmentation </li></ul><ul><li>4. Conjugation </li></ul>
    66. 73. Special sexual reproduction <ul><li>Conjugation </li></ul><ul><li>Paedogenesis </li></ul><ul><li>Hermaphrodism </li></ul><ul><li>Artificial insemination </li></ul><ul><li>Metagenesis </li></ul><ul><li>Protandry </li></ul><ul><li>neutony </li></ul>
    67. 74. Types of animals according to reproduction <ul><li>Oviparous </li></ul><ul><li>Viviparous </li></ul><ul><li>ovoviviparous </li></ul>
    68. 75. Main functions of male reproducitve system <ul><li>For production,maintenance, and transportation of the male sex cell (sperm) </li></ul><ul><li>For discharge of the sperm cell to the female reproductive tract </li></ul><ul><li>For production of male hormone testosterone </li></ul><ul><li>For secretion of semen </li></ul><ul><li>For development of male secondary sex characteristics </li></ul>
    69. 77. Development of male reproductive organs <ul><li>Male sex organs are formed prenatally under the influence of the testosterone hormone </li></ul><ul><li>At 10 th week of development, the male organs are defined </li></ul><ul><li>During puberty, the secondary male sex organs mature and become functional </li></ul>
    70. 78. I. External structures of male sex organs <ul><li>PENIS – the pendant organ anterior to the scrotum and attached to the pubis </li></ul><ul><li>- parts: </li></ul><ul><li>a. shaft </li></ul><ul><li>b. root </li></ul><ul><li>c. glans penis </li></ul><ul><li>- functions: </li></ul><ul><li>a. organ for coitus </li></ul><ul><li>b. convey urine and seminal fluid to the outside of the body </li></ul>
    71. 79. URETHRA <ul><li>Long,slender tube which is connected to the ejaculatory duct </li></ul><ul><li>Parts: </li></ul><ul><li>a. prostatic urethra </li></ul><ul><li>b. membranous urethra </li></ul><ul><li>c. penile urethra </li></ul><ul><li>Functions : passageway of semen to the female reproductive tract </li></ul><ul><li>Passageway of the urine from the urinary bladder </li></ul>
    72. 80. <ul><li>2. Scrotum </li></ul><ul><li>Thin pouch of skin, posterior to the penis and external to the testes </li></ul><ul><li>Contains several nerves and blood vessels </li></ul><ul><li>Function: enclose and protect the testes </li></ul>
    73. 81. 3. TESTES <ul><li>The primary sex organs </li></ul><ul><li>Located posterior to the penis within the scrotum </li></ul><ul><li>Parts: </li></ul><ul><li>a. seminiferous tubules </li></ul><ul><li>b. cells of leydig </li></ul><ul><li>Functions: production of sperm cells </li></ul><ul><li>(spermatogenesis) </li></ul><ul><li> production of hormones </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    74. 83. 4. EPIDIDYMIS <ul><li>the mass of tubules attached to the posterior surface of thetestes </li></ul><ul><li>Functions: site for sperm maturation </li></ul><ul><li>for storage of spermatozoa </li></ul><ul><li>5. VAS DEFERENS </li></ul><ul><li>Ducts extending from the epididymis to the ejaculatory duct </li></ul><ul><li>Functions: storage of spermatozoa,transport of sperm during ejaculation </li></ul>
    75. 84. Male Internal Reproductive Organs <ul><li>1. EJACULATORY DUCTS </li></ul><ul><li>Short ducts between the ductus deferentia and the prostatic urethra </li></ul><ul><li>Functions: receives the spermatozoa and additives to produce seminal fluid </li></ul>
    76. 85. 2. ACCESSORY GLANDS <ul><li>SEMINAL VESICLES </li></ul><ul><li>Club-shaped glands posterior to the prostate and are attached to the ejaculatory glands </li></ul><ul><li>Functions: secrete alkaline fluid (60%) of the semen which contain nutrients and prostaglandins </li></ul>
    77. 86. B.PROSTATE GLAND <ul><li>Walnut-shaped gland at the base of the urinary bladder </li></ul><ul><li>Surrounds the prostatic urethra </li></ul><ul><li>Functions : secretes alkaline fluid (20%) that help neutralize the acidic vaginal environment and enhance the motility of the sperm </li></ul>
    78. 87. C.BULBOURETHRAL GLANDS <ul><li>Pea-sized glands inferior to the prostate </li></ul><ul><li>Empty into the membranous urethra </li></ul><ul><li>Function: </li></ul><ul><li>- secretes fluid that lubricates the urethra and the end of penis </li></ul><ul><li>- cleanses the urethra prior to the </li></ul><ul><li>ejaculation </li></ul>
    79. 89. Flow of sperm cells <ul><li>FROG </li></ul><ul><li>Testis(mesorchium) </li></ul><ul><li>Vas efferens </li></ul><ul><li>Kidney </li></ul><ul><li>Vas deferens </li></ul><ul><li>Cloaca </li></ul><ul><li>Anus </li></ul><ul><li>HUMAN </li></ul><ul><li>Seminiferous tubule(testis) </li></ul><ul><li>Rete testes </li></ul><ul><li>Epididymis </li></ul><ul><li>Vas deferens </li></ul><ul><li>Ejaculatory duct </li></ul><ul><li>Urethra </li></ul>
    80. 90. REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM FEMALE
    81. 91. FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM <ul><li>Both sexes have reproductive organs call GENITALS or GENITALIA, designed for the purpose of intercourse and conception. </li></ul><ul><li>Only the female has organs for pregnancy and childbirth. </li></ul>
    82. 92. EXTERNAL FEMALE ANATOMY <ul><li>Vulva: the general term to describe all the external female sex organs. </li></ul><ul><li>Pudendum or Pubes : the area in the body where the sex organs are located. </li></ul><ul><li>Mons Pubis: a mount of fatty tissue which covers the pubic bone. At puberty this area is covered </li></ul><ul><li>with coarse pubic hair. The mons contains many touch sensitive receptors. </li></ul><ul><li>Labia Majora : (large lips) two folds of skin running from the mons pubis to below the vaginal </li></ul><ul><li>opening. The labia majora meet and fold together forming protection for the genitals. The labia majora are covered with pubic hair and contain many touch sensitive receptors. </li></ul>
    83. 93. <ul><li>Labia Minora : two smaller folds of tissue which lie just within the labia majora. The labia minora </li></ul><ul><li>join at the top, forming a hood over the clitoris. </li></ul><ul><li>The labia minora are without hair and are rich in touch receptors and blood vessels. </li></ul><ul><li>Clitoris: the center of sexual sensation and stimulation in the female. It is composed of erectile tissues and many sensitive nerve endings. It is found where the folds of the labia minora meet in the front. </li></ul><ul><li>Urethra: below the clitoris, the opening to the bladder. </li></ul>
    84. 95. INTERNAL ORGANS <ul><li>Hymen: a thin ring of tissue covering the opening to the vagina. It is the dividing line between external and internal sex organs. It has been over emphasized as a sign of virginity. </li></ul><ul><li>Vagina: female organ of intercourse, it is actually an empty passageway leading from the vaginal </li></ul><ul><li>opening to the uterus. </li></ul><ul><li>It is only 3-4 inches long and shaped like a flattened funnel. </li></ul>
    85. 96. 3 MAIN FUNCTIONS OF THE VAGINA: <ul><li>1-channel for the menstrual flow </li></ul><ul><li>2- receptacle for the male penis during intercourse </li></ul><ul><li>3-birth canal -the vaginal walls are made of many small folds of membrane that stretch greatly to accommodate a baby during birth. </li></ul>
    86. 97. <ul><li>Cervix: the neck or opening of the uterus. A normal healthy cervix is the strongest muscle in the body. </li></ul><ul><li>It dips down about half an inch into the vagina. </li></ul><ul><li>It is normally plugged by mucus. </li></ul><ul><li>It stays tightly closed during pregnancy, but thins and opens for the delivery of the baby </li></ul>
    87. 98. <ul><li>Uterus: the uterus is a hollow, muscular organ shaped somewhat like an upside-down pear, about </li></ul><ul><li>three inches long and two inches wide. </li></ul><ul><li>Function: The uterus has one main function – to protect and nourish a fetus until it is ready to live outside the mother’s body. </li></ul><ul><li>The walls of the uterus stretch much like a balloon that is blown up. </li></ul><ul><li>After childbirth the uterus shrinks back to the original shape in 6-8 weeks. </li></ul>
    88. 99. 3 layers of the uterus <ul><li>1. epimetrium – connective, </li></ul><ul><li>outermost covering </li></ul><ul><li>2. myometrium – muscular wall,intermetdiate layer </li></ul><ul><li>3. endometrium – epithelial, innermost layer of the uterus </li></ul>
    89. 101. Flow of human ovum <ul><li>Ovary </li></ul><ul><li>Ostium </li></ul><ul><li>Fallopian tube </li></ul>Flow of frog’s eggs <ul><li>Ovary </li></ul><ul><li>Ostium </li></ul><ul><li>Mullerian duct/oviduct </li></ul><ul><li>Cloaca </li></ul><ul><li>anus </li></ul>
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