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Science in Brazil, Brazil in Science
 

Science in Brazil, Brazil in Science

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Presentation on the situation of science education in Brazil, at the "Université europeéne d'été: Science, culture, éducation ...

Presentation on the situation of science education in Brazil, at the "Université europeéne d'été: Science, culture, éducation
Des sociétés guettées par l’illettrisme scientifique ?" organized by the IHEST ( http://www.ihest.fr ) in 2011. Note that the opinions expressed represent a reflection on the status quo at that time.

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    Science in Brazil, Brazil in Science Science in Brazil, Brazil in Science Presentation Transcript

    • São Paulo, BrazilScience in Brazil, Brazil in Science science in a nation on the move Roberto A. Kraenkel Institute for Theoretical Physics São Paulo State University - UNESP São Paulo, Brazil R. A. Kraenkel - Science in Brazil, Brazil in Science -- IHEST - Gréoux-les-Bains, 2011
    • São Paulo, Brazil The Context reading economic history through the GDPR. A. Kraenkel - Science in Brazil, Brazil in Science -- IHEST - Gréoux-les-Bains, 2011 2
    • São Paulo, Brazil The Context reading economic history through the GDPWorld Bank Data GDP ( in current U$) R. A. Kraenkel - Science in Brazil, Brazil in Science -- IHEST - Gréoux-les-Bains, 2011 2
    • São Paulo, Brazil The Context reading economic history through the GDPWorld Bank Data GDP ( in current U$) Debt crisis R. A. Kraenkel - Science in Brazil, Brazil in Science -- IHEST - Gréoux-les-Bains, 2011 2
    • São Paulo, Brazil The Context reading economic history through the GDPWorld Bank Data GDP ( in current U$) Stabilisation of currency Debt crisis R. A. Kraenkel - Science in Brazil, Brazil in Science -- IHEST - Gréoux-les-Bains, 2011 2
    • São Paulo, Brazil The Context reading economic history through the GDPWorld Bank Data GDP ( in current U$) Stabilisation of currency Debt crisis 1998 crisis R. A. Kraenkel - Science in Brazil, Brazil in Science -- IHEST - Gréoux-les-Bains, 2011 2
    • São Paulo, Brazil The Context reading economic history through the GDP sustained growthWorld Bank Data GDP ( in current U$) Stabilisation of currency Debt crisis 1998 crisis R. A. Kraenkel - Science in Brazil, Brazil in Science -- IHEST - Gréoux-les-Bains, 2011 2
    • São Paulo, Brazil The Context changes everywherePopulation under poverty line 30% 10% in 5 years Gini Coefficient, a statistical measure inequality of 20% income R. A. Kraenkel - Science in Brazil, Brazil in Science -- IHEST - Gréoux-les-Bains, 2011 3
    • World Bank Data São Paulo, Brazil The Context changes everywherePopulation under poverty line 30% 10% in 5 years Gini Coefficient, a statistical measure inequality of 20% income R. A. Kraenkel - Science in Brazil, Brazil in Science -- IHEST - Gréoux-les-Bains, 2011 3
    • World Bank Data São Paulo, Brazil The Context changes everywherePopulation under poverty line 30% 10% in 5 years Gini Coefficient, a statistical measure inequality of 20% income But still one of the highest in the world R. A. Kraenkel - Science in Brazil, Brazil in Science -- IHEST - Gréoux-les-Bains, 2011 3
    • São Paulo, Brazil The ContextBrazil is quickly improving economically and socially but inequalities ate still very strong. R. A. Kraenkel - Science in Brazil, Brazil in Science -- IHEST - Gréoux-les-Bains, 2011 4
    • Brazilian Science at the São Paulo, Brazil age of 60 Brazilian science is very young! exempli gratia 1950 Brazil ==> only 12 physicists with PhD.USA ==> 7 Nobel prize winners in Physics. R. A. Kraenkel - Science in Brazil, Brazil in Science -- IHEST - Gréoux-les-Bains, 2011 5
    • Brazilian Science at the São Paulo, Brazil age of 60 R. A. Kraenkel - Science in Brazil, Brazil in Science -- IHEST - Gréoux-les-Bains, 2011 6
    • Brazilian Science at the São Paulo, Brazil age of 60Since the fifties the nation has seen the consolidation of anetwork of Universities with strong research commitments, aswell as funding agencies and research institutes. However, onlyvery recently has Brazilian science come to the internationalstage. R. A. Kraenkel - Science in Brazil, Brazil in Science -- IHEST - Gréoux-les-Bains, 2011 6
    • Brazilian Science at the São Paulo, Brazil age of 60 Science and Technology expenditures from 2003 to 2009: 60% increase R. A. Kraenkel - Science in Brazil, Brazil in Science -- IHEST - Gréoux-les-Bains, 2011 6
    • Brazilian Science at the São Paulo, Brazil age of 60 R. A. Kraenkel - Science in Brazil, Brazil in Science -- IHEST - Gréoux-les-Bains, 2011 6
    • São Paulo, Brazil How many ? adapted from S.M. Rezende: The role of Physics in Brazil and challenges for the 21st century, available at http://www.sbf1.sbfisica.org.br/eventos/enf/2011/sys/resumos/ A3195-1.pdfR. A. Kraenkel - Science in Brazil, Brazil in Science -- IHEST - Gréoux-les-Bains, 2011 7
    • Brazilian Science at the São Paulo, Brazil age of 60 THE problem: transform science into welfare sucess stories Petrobras - deep see drilling for oil and gas Embraer - planes ( now, private) Embrapa; world leader in tropical agrobusiness Bio-ethanol fuels ( a network of private companies) R. A. Kraenkel - Science in Brazil, Brazil in Science -- IHEST - Gréoux-les-Bains, 2011 8
    • Brazilian Science at the São Paulo, Brazil age of 60 THE problem: transform science into welfare Success stories ==> state initiatives sucess storiesLow number of science based tech companies Petrobras - deep see drilling for oil and gas Embraer - planes ( now, private) Lack of R&D investment by most companies Embrapa; world leader in tropical agrobusiness Bio-ethanol fuels ( a network of private companies) R. A. Kraenkel - Science in Brazil, Brazil in Science -- IHEST - Gréoux-les-Bains, 2011 8
    • Education in Brazil São Paulo, BrazilBrazilian educational landscape is framed by the strong inequalities of thesociety. The changes in the Brazilian social structure over the last decade haveexerted stresses on the educational system, which still strives to adapt to achanging reality. 15-17 years old 7-14 years old youngsters youngsters in attending high- Need of more school school schools and teachers at 98% - 2010 50% -2008 high school. 86% - 1992 30% - 1998 strong growth R. A. Kraenkel - Science in Brazil, Brazil in Science -- IHEST - Gréoux-les-Bains, 2011 9
    • São Paulo, BrazilEducation in Brazil: what about science? demand (estimated) teachers with a science degree number of persons that obtained an undergrad degree in science education in the last 10 yearsStrong deficit of science teachers at high-school R. A. Kraenkel - Science in Brazil, Brazil in Science -- IHEST - Gréoux-les-Bains, 2011 10
    • São Paulo, BrazilEducation in Brazil: what about science? demand (estimated) teachers with a science degree These people are number of persons that not becoming obtained an undergrad teachers ! degree in science education in the last 10 yearsStrong deficit of science teachers at high-school R. A. Kraenkel - Science in Brazil, Brazil in Science -- IHEST - Gréoux-les-Bains, 2011 10
    • São Paulo, BrazilEducation in Brazil: what about science? demand (estimated) why? teachers with a science degree These people are number of persons that not becoming obtained an undergrad teachers ! degree in science education in the last 10 yearsStrong deficit of science teachers at high-school R. A. Kraenkel - Science in Brazil, Brazil in Science -- IHEST - Gréoux-les-Bains, 2011 10
    • São Paulo, BrazilEducation in Brazil: what about science? Low wages, low prestige, social tensions demand (estimated) why? teachers with a science degree These people are number of persons that not becoming obtained an undergrad teachers ! degree in science education in the last 10 yearsStrong deficit of science teachers at high-school R. A. Kraenkel - Science in Brazil, Brazil in Science -- IHEST - Gréoux-les-Bains, 2011 10
    • Education in Brazil: what about science? São Paulo, BrazilMinistry of Build Teachers areEducation knowledge largely not taking into p prepared! UniversitiesEstablishes account the r basednational reality of o experimental students. Teachersparameters. b techniques largely rely l Does not on textbooksDefines the e defines precise and pre- High-Profilelarge lines of m contents. Put prepared Privatethe curricula. emphasis on classes Schools skills and process. dead science, “no-science”. transpose? large scale? R. A. Kraenkel - Science in Brazil, Brazil in Science -- IHEST - Gréoux-les-Bains, 2011 11
    • Science Illiteracy Brazilian specific analysis São Paulo, BrazilCauses: rather obvious from the precedingfacts about science education at high-schools proxys of science in society number of researchers per million of inhabitants PISA ranking USA: 4666 53 in 65 France: 3496 very bad ! China: 1070 Brazil: 656 ====>>> LOW, however: one of the fastest improving country R. A. Kraenkel - Science in Brazil, Brazil in Science -- IHEST - Gréoux-les-Bains, 2011 12
    • Science Illiteracy Brazilian specific analysis São Paulo, BrazilCauses: rather obvious from the precedingfacts about science education at high-schools proxys of science in society number of researchers per million of inhabitants PISA ranking USA: 4666 53 in 65 France: 3496 very bad ! China: 1070 Brazil: 656 ====>>> LOW, BUT: raised however: from 400 to 656 one of the fastest in five years improving country R. A. Kraenkel - Science in Brazil, Brazil in Science -- IHEST - Gréoux-les-Bains, 2011 12
    • Science Illiteracy Brazilian specific analysis São Paulo, Brazil Economic issuesLow number of Engineering isScience and the main problem Technology students R. A. Kraenkel - Science in Brazil, Brazil in Science -- IHEST - Gréoux-les-Bains, 2011 13
    • Science Illiteracy Brazilian specific analysis São Paulo, Brazil Economic issuesLow number of Engineering isScience and the main problem Technology students tens of thousands of engineers are needed in the next years R. A. Kraenkel - Science in Brazil, Brazil in Science -- IHEST - Gréoux-les-Bains, 2011 13
    • Science Illiteracy Brazilian specific analysis São Paulo, Brazil Economic issuesLow number of Engineering isScience and the main problem Technology students tens of thousands of engineers are needed in the next years Education for Science and Technology is one of the main priorities of the Ministry of Education. R. A. Kraenkel - Science in Brazil, Brazil in Science -- IHEST - Gréoux-les-Bains, 2011 13
    • Science Illiteracy Brazilian specific analysis São Paulo, Brazil Economic issues Program of internationalLow number fellowships of 3 billion Engineering is dollars ofScience and the main problem Technology 13 new universities in the last 8 years. New students campi. New programs tens of thousands of engineers are needed in the next years Education for Science and Technology is one of the main priorities of the Ministry of Education. R. A. Kraenkel - Science in Brazil, Brazil in Science -- IHEST - Gréoux-les-Bains, 2011 13
    • Science Illiteracy Brazilian specific analysis São Paulo, Brazil Economic issues full PhD employment Program of internationalLow number fellowships of 3 billion Engineering is dollars ofScience and the main problem Technology 13 new universities in the last 8 years. New students campi. New programs tens of thousands of engineers are needed in the next years Education for Science and Technology is one of the main priorities of the Ministry of Education. R. A. Kraenkel - Science in Brazil, Brazil in Science -- IHEST - Gréoux-les-Bains, 2011 13
    • Final Comments São Paulo, Brazil• Very rapid economic and social changes exert strong stresses on the educational system• Science education is particularly needed• High-school education is presently the main bottleneck• Opportunities for new methods, new curricula. R. A. Kraenkel - Science in Brazil, Brazil in Science -- IHEST - Gréoux-les-Bains, 2011
    • São Paulo, BrazilThank you for your attention kraenkel@ift.unesp.brR. A. Kraenkel - Science in Brazil, Brazil in Science -- IHEST - Gréoux-les-Bains, 2011