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Europe Pre-WWI

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Europe 1850-1900

Europe 1850-1900

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  • 1. The New Power BalanceThe New Power Balance 1850–19001850–1900
  • 2. New Technologies and theNew Technologies and the World EconomyWorld Economy
  • 3. RailroadsRailroads  1850 - first railroads were so successful that1850 - first railroads were so successful that every industrializing country began to buildevery industrializing country began to build railroad lines.railroad lines.  Great growth in the world’s rail networks fromGreat growth in the world’s rail networks from 1850 to 1900 especially in:1850 to 1900 especially in:  BritainBritain – France– France  GermanyGermany – Canada– Canada  RussiaRussia – Japan– Japan  United StatesUnited States  In the non-industrialized world, railroads wereIn the non-industrialized world, railroads were also built wherever they would be of value toalso built wherever they would be of value to business or to government.business or to government.
  • 4. SteamshipsSteamships  Technological developments helped to increaseTechnological developments helped to increase the average size and speed of ocean-goingthe average size and speed of ocean-going vessels.vessels.  These developments included:These developments included:  The use of iron and steel for hullsThe use of iron and steel for hulls  PropellersPropellers  More efficient enginesMore efficient engines  Entrepreneurs developed a form of organizationEntrepreneurs developed a form of organization known as the shipping line in order to make theknown as the shipping line in order to make the most efficient use of these large and expensivemost efficient use of these large and expensive new ships.new ships.
  • 5. SteamshipSteamship
  • 6. Telegraph CablesTelegraph Cables Shipping lines alsoShipping lines also used the growingused the growing system ofsystem of submarinesubmarine telegraph cables intelegraph cables in order to coordinateorder to coordinate the movements ofthe movements of their ships aroundtheir ships around the globe.the globe.
  • 7. SteelSteel Very hard and elastic form of iron.Very hard and elastic form of iron. Could be made only in small quantities byCould be made only in small quantities by skilled blacksmiths before the eighteenthskilled blacksmiths before the eighteenth century.century. A series of inventions in the eighteenthA series of inventions in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries made it possibleand nineteenth centuries made it possible to produce large quantities of steel at lowto produce large quantities of steel at low cost.cost.
  • 8. Illinois Steel Works in JolietIllinois Steel Works in Joliet
  • 9. The Chemical IndustryThe Chemical Industry Chemicals were previously produced inChemicals were previously produced in small amounts in small workshops.small amounts in small workshops. Nineteenth century brought large-scaleNineteenth century brought large-scale manufacture of:manufacture of: ChemicalsChemicals Synthetic dyesSynthetic dyes
  • 10. Chemicals and TechnologyChemicals and Technology One of the first fields in which science andOne of the first fields in which science and technology interacted on a daily basis.technology interacted on a daily basis. Germany had government-fundedGermany had government-funded research and cooperation betweenresearch and cooperation between universities and industries.universities and industries. German chemical and explosivesGerman chemical and explosives industries were the most advanced by theindustries were the most advanced by the end of the nineteenth century.end of the nineteenth century.
  • 11. Blowing Stuff UpBlowing Stuff Up  Nineteenth centuryNineteenth century advances inadvances in explosives hadexplosives had significant effects on:significant effects on:  civil engineeringcivil engineering  the development ofthe development of more powerful andmore powerful and more accuratemore accurate firearmsfirearms  Alfred Nobel inventedAlfred Nobel invented dynamite at this time.dynamite at this time.
  • 12. ElectricityElectricity  1870s saw efficient generators that turned1870s saw efficient generators that turned mechanical energy into electricity.mechanical energy into electricity.  Electricity used to power lamps, streetcars,Electricity used to power lamps, streetcars, subways, and electric motors for industry.subways, and electric motors for industry.  Also helped to alleviate the urban pollutionAlso helped to alleviate the urban pollution caused by horse-drawn vehicles.caused by horse-drawn vehicles.  Created a huge demand for copper, bringingCreated a huge demand for copper, bringing Chile, Montana, and southern Africa moreChile, Montana, and southern Africa more deeply into the world economy.deeply into the world economy.
  • 13. World Trade and FreightWorld Trade and Freight  Between 1850 and 1913:Between 1850 and 1913:  world trade expanded tenfoldworld trade expanded tenfold  cost of freight dropped between 50 and 95 percentcost of freight dropped between 50 and 95 percent  Now, even cheap and heavy products were shipped aroundNow, even cheap and heavy products were shipped around the worldthe world  Growth of trade and close connections betweenGrowth of trade and close connections between the industrial economies of Western Europe andthe industrial economies of Western Europe and North America brought greater prosperity toNorth America brought greater prosperity to these areas.these areas.  Made them more vulnerable to swings in the businessMade them more vulnerable to swings in the business cycle.cycle.  Main causes of this = financial power of Great Britain.Main causes of this = financial power of Great Britain.
  • 14. Non-Industrial AreasNon-Industrial Areas  Non-industrial areas were also tied to the worldNon-industrial areas were also tied to the world economy.economy.  The non-industrial areas were even moreThe non-industrial areas were even more vulnerable to swings in the business cyclevulnerable to swings in the business cycle because:because:  they depended on the export of raw materials.they depended on the export of raw materials.  Until World War I, the value of exports from theUntil World War I, the value of exports from the tropical countries generally remained high, andtropical countries generally remained high, and the size of their populations remained moderate.the size of their populations remained moderate.
  • 15. Social ChangesSocial Changes
  • 16. Population and MigrationsPopulation and Migrations 1850-1914: Europe saw very rapid1850-1914: Europe saw very rapid population growth.population growth. Emigration from Europe spurredEmigration from Europe spurred population growth in:population growth in: United StatesUnited States – Canada– Canada AustraliaAustralia – New Zealand– New Zealand ArgentinaArgentina The proportion of “Europeans” in worldThe proportion of “Europeans” in world population rose from 1/5 to 1/3.population rose from 1/5 to 1/3.
  • 17. Why the increase?Why the increase? Reasons for the increase in EuropeanReasons for the increase in European population include:population include: Drop in the death rateDrop in the death rate Improved crop yieldsImproved crop yields The provision of grain from North AmericaThe provision of grain from North America More abundant year-round diet as a result ofMore abundant year-round diet as a result of canning and refrigerationcanning and refrigeration
  • 18. Urbanization and UrbanUrbanization and Urban EnvironmentsEnvironments In the latter half of the nineteenth centuryIn the latter half of the nineteenth century European, North American, and JapaneseEuropean, North American, and Japanese cities grew tremendously both in terms ofcities grew tremendously both in terms of population and of size.population and of size. In areas like the English Midlands, theIn areas like the English Midlands, the German Ruhr, and around Tokyo Bay,German Ruhr, and around Tokyo Bay, towns fused into one another, creatingtowns fused into one another, creating new cities.new cities.
  • 19. Urban GrowthUrban Growth  Urban growth was accompanied by changes inUrban growth was accompanied by changes in the character of urban life.the character of urban life.  Technologies that changed the quality of urbanTechnologies that changed the quality of urban life included:life included:  mass transportation networksmass transportation networks  sewage and water supply systemssewage and water supply systems  gas and electric lightinggas and electric lighting  police and fire departmentspolice and fire departments  sanitation and garbage removalsanitation and garbage removal  building and health inspectionbuilding and health inspection  SchoolsSchools  parksparks
  • 20. City PlanningCity Planning New neighborhoods and cities were builtNew neighborhoods and cities were built on a rectangular grid pattern with broadon a rectangular grid pattern with broad boulevards and modern apartmentboulevards and modern apartment buildings.buildings. Cities were divided into industrial,Cities were divided into industrial, commercial, and residential zones, withcommercial, and residential zones, with the residential zones occupied by differentthe residential zones occupied by different social classes.social classes.
  • 21. Map of Manhattan – Grid PatternMap of Manhattan – Grid Pattern
  • 22. The Air Was Not Good…The Air Was Not Good…  While urban environments improved in manyWhile urban environments improved in many ways, air quality worsened.ways, air quality worsened.  Coal used as fuel polluted the air, while the wasteCoal used as fuel polluted the air, while the waste of the thousands of horses that pulled carts andof the thousands of horses that pulled carts and carriages lay stinking in the streets until horsescarriages lay stinking in the streets until horses were replaced by streetcars and automobiles inwere replaced by streetcars and automobiles in the early twentieth century.the early twentieth century.
  • 23. Middle-Class WomenMiddle-Class Women The “Separate Sphere”The “Separate Sphere”
  • 24. Victorian AgeVictorian Age Refers not only to the reign of QueenRefers not only to the reign of Queen Victoria (r.1837–1901), but also to:Victoria (r.1837–1901), but also to: rules of behavior and ideology surroundingrules of behavior and ideology surrounding the family and relations between men andthe family and relations between men and women.women. Men and women were thought to belong inMen and women were thought to belong in “separate spheres,” the men in the“separate spheres,” the men in the workplace, the women in the home.workplace, the women in the home.
  • 25. Queen VictoriaQueen Victoria
  • 26. A woman’s work is never done…A woman’s work is never done… Before electrical appliances, a middle-Before electrical appliances, a middle- class home demanded lots of work.class home demanded lots of work. The advent of modern technology in theThe advent of modern technology in the nineteenth century eliminated some tasksnineteenth century eliminated some tasks and made others easier.and made others easier. Rising standards of cleanliness meant thatRising standards of cleanliness meant that technological advances did not translatetechnological advances did not translate into a decrease in the housewife’s totalinto a decrease in the housewife’s total workload.workload.
  • 27. Family and EducationFamily and Education  The most importantThe most important duty of middle-classduty of middle-class women was to raisewomen was to raise their children.their children.  Victorian mothersVictorian mothers lavished much timelavished much time and attention on theirand attention on their children, but girlschildren, but girls received an educationreceived an education very different fromvery different from that of boys.that of boys.
  • 28. Legal Gender DiscriminationLegal Gender Discrimination  Governments enforced legal throughout theGovernments enforced legal throughout the nineteenth century.nineteenth century.  Society frowned on careers for middle-classSociety frowned on careers for middle-class women.women.  Women were excluded from jobs that requiredWomen were excluded from jobs that required higher educationhigher education  teaching was a permissible career, but femaleteaching was a permissible career, but female teachers were expected to resign when they gotteachers were expected to resign when they got married.married.  Some middle-class women were not satisfiedSome middle-class women were not satisfied with home life and became involved in volunteerwith home life and became involved in volunteer work or in the women’s suffrage movement.work or in the women’s suffrage movement.
  • 29. Working-Class WomenWorking-Class Women Working-class women led lives of toil andWorking-class women led lives of toil and pain.pain. Many became domestic servants, facingMany became domestic servants, facing long hours and hard physical labor.long hours and hard physical labor. Many more young women worked inMany more young women worked in factories, where they were relegated tofactories, where they were relegated to poorly paid work in the textiles andpoorly paid work in the textiles and clothing trades.clothing trades.
  • 30. Working Class Married WomenWorking Class Married Women Were expected to:Were expected to: stay homestay home raise childrenraise children do houseworkdo housework Also expected to contribute to the familyAlso expected to contribute to the family income by:income by: taking in boarderstaking in boarders doing sewing or other piecework jobsdoing sewing or other piecework jobs washing other people’s clotheswashing other people’s clothes
  • 31. Socialism and LaborSocialism and Labor MovementsMovements
  • 32. SocialismSocialism Began as an intellectual movement.Began as an intellectual movement. The best-known socialist was Karl MarxThe best-known socialist was Karl Marx (1818–1883).(1818–1883). Marx and Friedrich Engels (1820–1895)Marx and Friedrich Engels (1820–1895) wrote thewrote the Communist ManifestoCommunist Manifesto (1848)(1848) andand Das KapitalDas Kapital (1867).(1867).
  • 33. Karl Marx Friedrich Engels
  • 34. The Ideas of MarxThe Ideas of Marx Marx saw history as a long series ofMarx saw history as a long series of clashes between social classes.clashes between social classes. His theories provided an intellectualHis theories provided an intellectual framework for general dissatisfaction withframework for general dissatisfaction with unregulated industrial capitalism.unregulated industrial capitalism. Marx took steps to translate his intellectualMarx took steps to translate his intellectual efforts into political action.efforts into political action.
  • 35. Labor UnionsLabor Unions Organizations formed by industrialOrganizations formed by industrial workers to defend their interests inworkers to defend their interests in negotiations with employers.negotiations with employers. Labor unions developed from the workers’Labor unions developed from the workers’ “friendly societies” of the early nineteenth“friendly societies” of the early nineteenth century and sought better wages,century and sought better wages, improved working conditions, andimproved working conditions, and insurance for workers.insurance for workers.
  • 36. Labor MovementsLabor Movements Workers were brought into electoralWorkers were brought into electoral politics as the right to vote was extendedpolitics as the right to vote was extended to all adult males in Europe and Northto all adult males in Europe and North America.America. Socialists used their voting power to forceSocialists used their voting power to force concessions from the government andconcessions from the government and even to win elections.even to win elections. Classic case of socialist electoral politics isClassic case of socialist electoral politics is the Social Democratic Party of Germany.the Social Democratic Party of Germany.
  • 37. Social Democratic Party of GermanySocial Democratic Party of Germany
  • 38. Women and PoliticsWomen and Politics Working-class women had little time forWorking-class women had little time for politics.politics. They were not welcome in the maleThey were not welcome in the male dominated trade unions or in the radicaldominated trade unions or in the radical political parties.political parties. The few women who did participate inThe few women who did participate in radical politics found it difficult to reconcileradical politics found it difficult to reconcile the demands of workers with those ofthe demands of workers with those of women.women.
  • 39. Nationalism and theNationalism and the Unification of Germany andUnification of Germany and ItalyItaly
  • 40. Language & National Identity beforeLanguage & National Identity before 18711871  Language was usually the crucial element inLanguage was usually the crucial element in creating a feeling of national unity but…creating a feeling of national unity but…  language and citizenship rarely coincided.language and citizenship rarely coincided.  The idea of redrawing the boundaries of statesThe idea of redrawing the boundaries of states to accommodate linguistic, religious, and culturalto accommodate linguistic, religious, and cultural differences led to the forging of larger states.differences led to the forging of larger states.  This threatened to break large multiethnicThis threatened to break large multiethnic empires like Austria-Hungary into smaller states.empires like Austria-Hungary into smaller states.
  • 41. Nationalism and LiberalismNationalism and Liberalism  Until the 1860s nationalism was associated withUntil the 1860s nationalism was associated with liberalism.liberalism.  Case in point: Italian liberal nationalist GiuseppeCase in point: Italian liberal nationalist Giuseppe Mazzini.Mazzini.  After 1848 conservative political leaders learnedAfter 1848 conservative political leaders learned built a sense of national identity through:built a sense of national identity through:  public educationpublic education  universal military serviceuniversal military service  colonial conquestscolonial conquests
  • 42. The Unification of Italy,The Unification of Italy, 1860–18701860–1870  By the mid-nineteenth century, popularBy the mid-nineteenth century, popular sentiment favored Italian unification.sentiment favored Italian unification.  Unification was opposed by Pope Pius IX and Austria.Unification was opposed by Pope Pius IX and Austria.  Count Cavour, the prime minister of Piedmont-Count Cavour, the prime minister of Piedmont- Sardinia, used the help of France to push theSardinia, used the help of France to push the Austrians out of northern Italy.Austrians out of northern Italy.  In the south, Giuseppe Garibaldi led aIn the south, Giuseppe Garibaldi led a revolutionary army in 1860 that defeated therevolutionary army in 1860 that defeated the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies.Kingdom of the Two Sicilies.
  • 43. The New Kingdom of ItalyThe New Kingdom of Italy  A new Kingdom ofA new Kingdom of Italy, headed byItaly, headed by Victor Emmanuel (theVictor Emmanuel (the former king offormer king of Piedmont-Sardinia)Piedmont-Sardinia) was formed in 1860.was formed in 1860.  In time, VenetiaIn time, Venetia (1866) and the Papal(1866) and the Papal States (1870) wereStates (1870) were added to Italy.added to Italy.
  • 44. The Unification of GermanyThe Unification of Germany  Until the 1860s the German-speaking peopleUntil the 1860s the German-speaking people were divided among:were divided among:  PrussiaPrussia  the western half of the Austrian Empirethe western half of the Austrian Empire  numerous smaller statesnumerous smaller states  Prussia took the lead in the movement forPrussia took the lead in the movement for German unity because it:German unity because it:  had a strong industrial base in the Rhinelandhad a strong industrial base in the Rhineland  an army that was equipped with the latest military,an army that was equipped with the latest military, transportation, and communications technologytransportation, and communications technology
  • 45. Finishing UnificationFinishing Unification  During the reign of Wilhelm I (r. 1861–1888) theDuring the reign of Wilhelm I (r. 1861–1888) the Prussian chancellor Otto von Bismarck achievedPrussian chancellor Otto von Bismarck achieved the unification of Germany through:the unification of Germany through:  DiplomacyDiplomacy  The Franco-Prussian WarThe Franco-Prussian War  Victory over France in the Franco-Prussian WarVictory over France in the Franco-Prussian War completed the unification of Germany.completed the unification of Germany.  It also resulted in German control over theIt also resulted in German control over the French provinces of Alsace and Lorraine.French provinces of Alsace and Lorraine.  This leads to long-term enmity between France andThis leads to long-term enmity between France and Germany.Germany.
  • 46. Kaiser Wilhelm IKaiser Wilhelm I
  • 47. Nationalism after 1871Nationalism after 1871  After the Franco-Prussian War all politiciansAfter the Franco-Prussian War all politicians tried to manipulate public opinion to bolster theirtried to manipulate public opinion to bolster their governments.governments.  Used the press and public education in order toUsed the press and public education in order to foster nationalistic loyalties.foster nationalistic loyalties.  In many countries the dominant group usedIn many countries the dominant group used nationalism to justify the imposition of itsnationalism to justify the imposition of its language, religion, or customs on minoritylanguage, religion, or customs on minority populations.populations.  Case in point: attempts of Russia to “Russify” itsCase in point: attempts of Russia to “Russify” its diverse ethnic populations.diverse ethnic populations.
  • 48. Justification of ConquestJustification of Conquest  Herbert Spencer (1820–Herbert Spencer (1820– 1903) and others took up1903) and others took up Charles Darwin’s ideas ofCharles Darwin’s ideas of “natural selection” and“natural selection” and “survival of the fittest” and“survival of the fittest” and applied them to humanapplied them to human societies in such a waysocieties in such a way as to justify Europeanas to justify European conquest of foreignconquest of foreign nations and the socialnations and the social and gender hierarchies ofand gender hierarchies of Western society.Western society.
  • 49. The Great Powers ofThe Great Powers of Europe, 1871–1900Europe, 1871–1900
  • 50. Germany at the Center of EuropeGermany at the Center of Europe  Under Bismarck, international relations revolvedUnder Bismarck, international relations revolved around a united Germany which isolated Francearound a united Germany which isolated France and forged a loose coalition with Austria-and forged a loose coalition with Austria- Hungary and Russia.Hungary and Russia.  At home, Germany used mass politics and socialAt home, Germany used mass politics and social legislation to:legislation to:  gain popular supportgain popular support  develop a strong sense of national unity and pridedevelop a strong sense of national unity and pride amongst the German people.amongst the German people.  Wilhelm II (r. 1888–1918) dismissed BismarckWilhelm II (r. 1888–1918) dismissed Bismarck and initiated a German foreign policy that placedand initiated a German foreign policy that placed emphasis on the acquisition of colonies.emphasis on the acquisition of colonies.
  • 51. The Liberal Power: FranceThe Liberal Power: France  France was now a second-rate power in Europe.France was now a second-rate power in Europe.  population and army were smaller than those ofpopulation and army were smaller than those of GermanyGermany  rate of industrial growth lower than that of therate of industrial growth lower than that of the Germans.Germans.  French society seemed divided betweenFrench society seemed divided between monarchist Catholics and republicans withmonarchist Catholics and republicans with anticlerical views.anticlerical views.  But, the French had a deeper cohesion thanBut, the French had a deeper cohesion than appeared on the surface because of:appeared on the surface because of:  popular participation in politicspopular participation in politics  strong sense of nationhoodstrong sense of nationhood  universal education systemuniversal education system
  • 52. The Liberal Power: Great BritainThe Liberal Power: Great Britain  A stable government and a narrowing in theA stable government and a narrowing in the disparity of wealth were accompanied by adisparity of wealth were accompanied by a number of problems:number of problems:  Irish resentment of English ruleIrish resentment of English rule  economy that was lagging behind those of the Unitedeconomy that was lagging behind those of the United States and GermanyStates and Germany  enormous empire that was very expensive toenormous empire that was very expensive to administer and to defend.administer and to defend.  Nineteenth century saw the British policy ofNineteenth century saw the British policy of “splendid isolation” toward Europe.“splendid isolation” toward Europe.
  • 53. India and Great BritainIndia and Great Britain  Preoccupation withPreoccupation with India led the British toIndia led the British to exaggerate theexaggerate the Russian threat to theRussian threat to the Ottoman Empire andOttoman Empire and to the Central Asianto the Central Asian approaches to Indiaapproaches to India while they ignored thewhile they ignored the rise of Germany.rise of Germany.
  • 54. The Conservative Powers: RussiaThe Conservative Powers: Russia and Austria-Hungaryand Austria-Hungary The forces of nationalism weakenedThe forces of nationalism weakened Russia and Austria-Hungary.Russia and Austria-Hungary. Austria had alienated its Slavic-speakingAustria had alienated its Slavic-speaking minorities by renaming itself the “Austro-minorities by renaming itself the “Austro- Hungarian Empire.”Hungarian Empire.” The Empire offended Russia by attempting toThe Empire offended Russia by attempting to dominate the Balkans, and particularly by thedominate the Balkans, and particularly by the annexation of Bosnia-Herzogovina in 1908.annexation of Bosnia-Herzogovina in 1908.
  • 55. Diversity and FreedomDiversity and Freedom  Ethnic diversity also contributed to instability inEthnic diversity also contributed to instability in Russia.Russia.  The spread of Russian nationalism and the RussianThe spread of Russian nationalism and the Russian language to a diverse population was divisive.language to a diverse population was divisive.  In 1861 Tsar Alexander II emancipated theIn 1861 Tsar Alexander II emancipated the peasants from serfdom, but it only turned thepeasants from serfdom, but it only turned the serfs into communal farmers with little money.serfs into communal farmers with little money.  Tsars Alexander III (r. 1881–1894) and NicholasTsars Alexander III (r. 1881–1894) and Nicholas II (r. 1894–1917) opposed all forms of socialII (r. 1894–1917) opposed all forms of social change.change.
  • 56. Tsar Alexander II Tsar Alexander III Tsar Nicholas II
  • 57. Industrialization and WarIndustrialization and War  Russian industrialization was carried out by theRussian industrialization was carried out by the state.state.  Caused the middle-class to remain small and weakCaused the middle-class to remain small and weak while the land-owning aristocracy dominated the courtwhile the land-owning aristocracy dominated the court and administration.and administration.  Defeat in the Russo-Japanese War (1904–1905)Defeat in the Russo-Japanese War (1904–1905) and the Revolution of 1905 demonstratedand the Revolution of 1905 demonstrated Russia’s weakness and caused Tsar Nicholas toRussia’s weakness and caused Tsar Nicholas to introduce a constitution and a parliament (theintroduce a constitution and a parliament (the Duma), but he soon reverted to the traditionalDuma), but he soon reverted to the traditional despotism of his forefathers.despotism of his forefathers.
  • 58. Japan Joins the GreatJapan Joins the Great PowersPowers 1865–19051865–1905
  • 59. China and the Western PowersChina and the Western Powers  At this time:At this time:  China resisted Western influence and became weaker.China resisted Western influence and became weaker.  Japan transformed itself into a major industrial and militaryJapan transformed itself into a major industrial and military power.power.  Difference can be explained by differences between ChineseDifference can be explained by differences between Chinese and Japanese elites and their attitudes toward foreign cultures.and Japanese elites and their attitudes toward foreign cultures.  In China a “self-strengthening movement” tried to bringIn China a “self-strengthening movement” tried to bring about reforms.about reforms.  The government opposed railways and other technologies thatThe government opposed railways and other technologies that would carry foreign influences into the interior.would carry foreign influences into the interior.  They were able to slow down foreign intrusion, but deniedThey were able to slow down foreign intrusion, but denied themselves the best means of defense against foreign pressure.themselves the best means of defense against foreign pressure.
  • 60. Japan and the Western PowersJapan and the Western Powers  At this time, Japan was ruled by the TokugawaAt this time, Japan was ruled by the Tokugawa shogunate and local lords had significant autonomy.shogunate and local lords had significant autonomy.  This system made it hard for Japan to coordinate its response toThis system made it hard for Japan to coordinate its response to outside threats.outside threats.  1853 – American Commodore Matthew C. Perry arrived1853 – American Commodore Matthew C. Perry arrived in Japan with a fleet of warships and demanded thein Japan with a fleet of warships and demanded the Japanese open their ports to trade and American ships.Japanese open their ports to trade and American ships.  Dissatisfaction with the shogunate's capitulation toDissatisfaction with the shogunate's capitulation to American and European demands led to a civil war andAmerican and European demands led to a civil war and the overthrow of the shogunate in 1868.the overthrow of the shogunate in 1868.
  • 61. Commodore Matthew C. PerryCommodore Matthew C. Perry
  • 62. The Meiji RestorationThe Meiji Restoration  The new rulers of Japan were known as theThe new rulers of Japan were known as the Meiji oligarchs.Meiji oligarchs.  The Meiji oligarchs changed their institutions andThe Meiji oligarchs changed their institutions and society to help transform their country into asociety to help transform their country into a world-class industrial and military power.world-class industrial and military power.  The Japanese learned industrial and militaryThe Japanese learned industrial and military technology, science, engineering, and even clothingtechnology, science, engineering, and even clothing styles and pastimes from the West.styles and pastimes from the West.  The Japanese government encouragedThe Japanese government encouraged industrialization and would fund it with taxindustrialization and would fund it with tax revenue.revenue.
  • 63. The Birth of JapaneseThe Birth of Japanese ImperialismImperialism Industrialization in Japan was accompanied byIndustrialization in Japan was accompanied by the development of:the development of:  Authoritarian constitutional monarchyAuthoritarian constitutional monarchy  Foreign policy that defined Japan’s “sphere ofForeign policy that defined Japan’s “sphere of influence” to include Korea, Manchuria, and part ofinfluence” to include Korea, Manchuria, and part of China.China.  Japan defeated China in a war that began inJapan defeated China in a war that began in 1894, leading to the Hundred Days Reform in1894, leading to the Hundred Days Reform in 1898.1898.  Set the stage for Japanese competition with RussiaSet the stage for Japanese competition with Russia for influence in the Chinese province of Manchuria.for influence in the Chinese province of Manchuria.  Japanese power was further demonstrated whenJapanese power was further demonstrated when Japan defeated Russia in 1905 and annexedJapan defeated Russia in 1905 and annexed Korea in 1910.Korea in 1910.

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