The New Power BalanceThe New Power Balance
New Technologies and theNew Technologies and the
World EconomyWorld Economy
1850 - first railroads were so successful that1850 - first railroads were so successful that
every industrializing country began to buildevery industrializing country began to build
railroad lines.railroad lines.
Great growth in the world’s rail networks fromGreat growth in the world’s rail networks from
1850 to 1900 especially in:1850 to 1900 especially in:
BritainBritain – France– France
GermanyGermany – Canada– Canada
RussiaRussia – Japan– Japan
United StatesUnited States
In the non-industrialized world, railroads wereIn the non-industrialized world, railroads were
also built wherever they would be of value toalso built wherever they would be of value to
business or to government.business or to government.
Technological developments helped to increaseTechnological developments helped to increase
the average size and speed of ocean-goingthe average size and speed of ocean-going
These developments included:These developments included:
The use of iron and steel for hullsThe use of iron and steel for hulls
More efficient enginesMore efficient engines
Entrepreneurs developed a form of organizationEntrepreneurs developed a form of organization
known as the shipping line in order to make theknown as the shipping line in order to make the
most efficient use of these large and expensivemost efficient use of these large and expensive
new ships.new ships.
Telegraph CablesTelegraph Cables
Shipping lines alsoShipping lines also
used the growingused the growing
system ofsystem of
telegraph cables intelegraph cables in
order to coordinateorder to coordinate
the movements ofthe movements of
their ships aroundtheir ships around
the globe.the globe.
Very hard and elastic form of iron.Very hard and elastic form of iron.
Could be made only in small quantities byCould be made only in small quantities by
skilled blacksmiths before the eighteenthskilled blacksmiths before the eighteenth
A series of inventions in the eighteenthA series of inventions in the eighteenth
and nineteenth centuries made it possibleand nineteenth centuries made it possible
to produce large quantities of steel at lowto produce large quantities of steel at low
Illinois Steel Works in JolietIllinois Steel Works in Joliet
The Chemical IndustryThe Chemical Industry
Chemicals were previously produced inChemicals were previously produced in
small amounts in small workshops.small amounts in small workshops.
Nineteenth century brought large-scaleNineteenth century brought large-scale
manufacture of:manufacture of:
Synthetic dyesSynthetic dyes
Chemicals and TechnologyChemicals and Technology
One of the first fields in which science andOne of the first fields in which science and
technology interacted on a daily basis.technology interacted on a daily basis.
Germany had government-fundedGermany had government-funded
research and cooperation betweenresearch and cooperation between
universities and industries.universities and industries.
German chemical and explosivesGerman chemical and explosives
industries were the most advanced by theindustries were the most advanced by the
end of the nineteenth century.end of the nineteenth century.
Blowing Stuff UpBlowing Stuff Up
Nineteenth centuryNineteenth century
advances inadvances in
explosives hadexplosives had
significant effects on:significant effects on:
civil engineeringcivil engineering
the development ofthe development of
more powerful andmore powerful and
more accuratemore accurate
Alfred Nobel inventedAlfred Nobel invented
dynamite at this time.dynamite at this time.
1870s saw efficient generators that turned1870s saw efficient generators that turned
mechanical energy into electricity.mechanical energy into electricity.
Electricity used to power lamps, streetcars,Electricity used to power lamps, streetcars,
subways, and electric motors for industry.subways, and electric motors for industry.
Also helped to alleviate the urban pollutionAlso helped to alleviate the urban pollution
caused by horse-drawn vehicles.caused by horse-drawn vehicles.
Created a huge demand for copper, bringingCreated a huge demand for copper, bringing
Chile, Montana, and southern Africa moreChile, Montana, and southern Africa more
deeply into the world economy.deeply into the world economy.
World Trade and FreightWorld Trade and Freight
Between 1850 and 1913:Between 1850 and 1913:
world trade expanded tenfoldworld trade expanded tenfold
cost of freight dropped between 50 and 95 percentcost of freight dropped between 50 and 95 percent
Now, even cheap and heavy products were shipped aroundNow, even cheap and heavy products were shipped around
the worldthe world
Growth of trade and close connections betweenGrowth of trade and close connections between
the industrial economies of Western Europe andthe industrial economies of Western Europe and
North America brought greater prosperity toNorth America brought greater prosperity to
these areas.these areas.
Made them more vulnerable to swings in the businessMade them more vulnerable to swings in the business
Main causes of this = financial power of Great Britain.Main causes of this = financial power of Great Britain.
Non-Industrial AreasNon-Industrial Areas
Non-industrial areas were also tied to the worldNon-industrial areas were also tied to the world
The non-industrial areas were even moreThe non-industrial areas were even more
vulnerable to swings in the business cyclevulnerable to swings in the business cycle
they depended on the export of raw materials.they depended on the export of raw materials.
Until World War I, the value of exports from theUntil World War I, the value of exports from the
tropical countries generally remained high, andtropical countries generally remained high, and
the size of their populations remained moderate.the size of their populations remained moderate.
Population and MigrationsPopulation and Migrations
1850-1914: Europe saw very rapid1850-1914: Europe saw very rapid
population growth.population growth.
Emigration from Europe spurredEmigration from Europe spurred
population growth in:population growth in:
United StatesUnited States – Canada– Canada
AustraliaAustralia – New Zealand– New Zealand
The proportion of “Europeans” in worldThe proportion of “Europeans” in world
population rose from 1/5 to 1/3.population rose from 1/5 to 1/3.
Why the increase?Why the increase?
Reasons for the increase in EuropeanReasons for the increase in European
population include:population include:
Drop in the death rateDrop in the death rate
Improved crop yieldsImproved crop yields
The provision of grain from North AmericaThe provision of grain from North America
More abundant year-round diet as a result ofMore abundant year-round diet as a result of
canning and refrigerationcanning and refrigeration
Urbanization and UrbanUrbanization and Urban
In the latter half of the nineteenth centuryIn the latter half of the nineteenth century
European, North American, and JapaneseEuropean, North American, and Japanese
cities grew tremendously both in terms ofcities grew tremendously both in terms of
population and of size.population and of size.
In areas like the English Midlands, theIn areas like the English Midlands, the
German Ruhr, and around Tokyo Bay,German Ruhr, and around Tokyo Bay,
towns fused into one another, creatingtowns fused into one another, creating
new cities.new cities.
Urban GrowthUrban Growth
Urban growth was accompanied by changes inUrban growth was accompanied by changes in
the character of urban life.the character of urban life.
Technologies that changed the quality of urbanTechnologies that changed the quality of urban
life included:life included:
mass transportation networksmass transportation networks
sewage and water supply systemssewage and water supply systems
gas and electric lightinggas and electric lighting
police and fire departmentspolice and fire departments
sanitation and garbage removalsanitation and garbage removal
building and health inspectionbuilding and health inspection
City PlanningCity Planning
New neighborhoods and cities were builtNew neighborhoods and cities were built
on a rectangular grid pattern with broadon a rectangular grid pattern with broad
boulevards and modern apartmentboulevards and modern apartment
Cities were divided into industrial,Cities were divided into industrial,
commercial, and residential zones, withcommercial, and residential zones, with
the residential zones occupied by differentthe residential zones occupied by different
social classes.social classes.
Map of Manhattan – Grid PatternMap of Manhattan – Grid Pattern
The Air Was Not Good…The Air Was Not Good…
While urban environments improved in manyWhile urban environments improved in many
ways, air quality worsened.ways, air quality worsened.
Coal used as fuel polluted the air, while the wasteCoal used as fuel polluted the air, while the waste
of the thousands of horses that pulled carts andof the thousands of horses that pulled carts and
carriages lay stinking in the streets until horsescarriages lay stinking in the streets until horses
were replaced by streetcars and automobiles inwere replaced by streetcars and automobiles in
the early twentieth century.the early twentieth century.
Middle-Class WomenMiddle-Class Women
The “Separate Sphere”The “Separate Sphere”
Victorian AgeVictorian Age
Refers not only to the reign of QueenRefers not only to the reign of Queen
Victoria (r.1837–1901), but also to:Victoria (r.1837–1901), but also to:
rules of behavior and ideology surroundingrules of behavior and ideology surrounding
the family and relations between men andthe family and relations between men and
Men and women were thought to belong inMen and women were thought to belong in
“separate spheres,” the men in the“separate spheres,” the men in the
workplace, the women in the home.workplace, the women in the home.
A woman’s work is never done…A woman’s work is never done…
Before electrical appliances, a middle-Before electrical appliances, a middle-
class home demanded lots of work.class home demanded lots of work.
The advent of modern technology in theThe advent of modern technology in the
nineteenth century eliminated some tasksnineteenth century eliminated some tasks
and made others easier.and made others easier.
Rising standards of cleanliness meant thatRising standards of cleanliness meant that
technological advances did not translatetechnological advances did not translate
into a decrease in the housewife’s totalinto a decrease in the housewife’s total
Family and EducationFamily and Education
The most importantThe most important
duty of middle-classduty of middle-class
women was to raisewomen was to raise
their children.their children.
Victorian mothersVictorian mothers
lavished much timelavished much time
and attention on theirand attention on their
children, but girlschildren, but girls
received an educationreceived an education
very different fromvery different from
that of boys.that of boys.
Legal Gender DiscriminationLegal Gender Discrimination
Governments enforced legal throughout theGovernments enforced legal throughout the
nineteenth century.nineteenth century.
Society frowned on careers for middle-classSociety frowned on careers for middle-class
Women were excluded from jobs that requiredWomen were excluded from jobs that required
higher educationhigher education
teaching was a permissible career, but femaleteaching was a permissible career, but female
teachers were expected to resign when they gotteachers were expected to resign when they got
Some middle-class women were not satisfiedSome middle-class women were not satisfied
with home life and became involved in volunteerwith home life and became involved in volunteer
work or in the women’s suffrage movement.work or in the women’s suffrage movement.
Working-Class WomenWorking-Class Women
Working-class women led lives of toil andWorking-class women led lives of toil and
Many became domestic servants, facingMany became domestic servants, facing
long hours and hard physical labor.long hours and hard physical labor.
Many more young women worked inMany more young women worked in
factories, where they were relegated tofactories, where they were relegated to
poorly paid work in the textiles andpoorly paid work in the textiles and
clothing trades.clothing trades.
Working Class Married WomenWorking Class Married Women
Were expected to:Were expected to:
stay homestay home
raise childrenraise children
do houseworkdo housework
Also expected to contribute to the familyAlso expected to contribute to the family
income by:income by:
taking in boarderstaking in boarders
doing sewing or other piecework jobsdoing sewing or other piecework jobs
washing other people’s clotheswashing other people’s clothes
Socialism and LaborSocialism and Labor
Began as an intellectual movement.Began as an intellectual movement.
The best-known socialist was Karl MarxThe best-known socialist was Karl Marx
Marx and Friedrich Engels (1820–1895)Marx and Friedrich Engels (1820–1895)
wrote thewrote the Communist ManifestoCommunist Manifesto (1848)(1848)
andand Das KapitalDas Kapital (1867).(1867).
The Ideas of MarxThe Ideas of Marx
Marx saw history as a long series ofMarx saw history as a long series of
clashes between social classes.clashes between social classes.
His theories provided an intellectualHis theories provided an intellectual
framework for general dissatisfaction withframework for general dissatisfaction with
unregulated industrial capitalism.unregulated industrial capitalism.
Marx took steps to translate his intellectualMarx took steps to translate his intellectual
efforts into political action.efforts into political action.
Labor UnionsLabor Unions
Organizations formed by industrialOrganizations formed by industrial
workers to defend their interests inworkers to defend their interests in
negotiations with employers.negotiations with employers.
Labor unions developed from the workers’Labor unions developed from the workers’
“friendly societies” of the early nineteenth“friendly societies” of the early nineteenth
century and sought better wages,century and sought better wages,
improved working conditions, andimproved working conditions, and
insurance for workers.insurance for workers.
Labor MovementsLabor Movements
Workers were brought into electoralWorkers were brought into electoral
politics as the right to vote was extendedpolitics as the right to vote was extended
to all adult males in Europe and Northto all adult males in Europe and North
Socialists used their voting power to forceSocialists used their voting power to force
concessions from the government andconcessions from the government and
even to win elections.even to win elections.
Classic case of socialist electoral politics isClassic case of socialist electoral politics is
the Social Democratic Party of Germany.the Social Democratic Party of Germany.
Social Democratic Party of GermanySocial Democratic Party of Germany
Women and PoliticsWomen and Politics
Working-class women had little time forWorking-class women had little time for
They were not welcome in the maleThey were not welcome in the male
dominated trade unions or in the radicaldominated trade unions or in the radical
political parties.political parties.
The few women who did participate inThe few women who did participate in
radical politics found it difficult to reconcileradical politics found it difficult to reconcile
the demands of workers with those ofthe demands of workers with those of
Nationalism and theNationalism and the
Unification of Germany andUnification of Germany and
Language & National Identity beforeLanguage & National Identity before
Language was usually the crucial element inLanguage was usually the crucial element in
creating a feeling of national unity but…creating a feeling of national unity but…
language and citizenship rarely coincided.language and citizenship rarely coincided.
The idea of redrawing the boundaries of statesThe idea of redrawing the boundaries of states
to accommodate linguistic, religious, and culturalto accommodate linguistic, religious, and cultural
differences led to the forging of larger states.differences led to the forging of larger states.
This threatened to break large multiethnicThis threatened to break large multiethnic
empires like Austria-Hungary into smaller states.empires like Austria-Hungary into smaller states.
Nationalism and LiberalismNationalism and Liberalism
Until the 1860s nationalism was associated withUntil the 1860s nationalism was associated with
Case in point: Italian liberal nationalist GiuseppeCase in point: Italian liberal nationalist Giuseppe
After 1848 conservative political leaders learnedAfter 1848 conservative political leaders learned
built a sense of national identity through:built a sense of national identity through:
public educationpublic education
universal military serviceuniversal military service
colonial conquestscolonial conquests
The Unification of Italy,The Unification of Italy,
By the mid-nineteenth century, popularBy the mid-nineteenth century, popular
sentiment favored Italian unification.sentiment favored Italian unification.
Unification was opposed by Pope Pius IX and Austria.Unification was opposed by Pope Pius IX and Austria.
Count Cavour, the prime minister of Piedmont-Count Cavour, the prime minister of Piedmont-
Sardinia, used the help of France to push theSardinia, used the help of France to push the
Austrians out of northern Italy.Austrians out of northern Italy.
In the south, Giuseppe Garibaldi led aIn the south, Giuseppe Garibaldi led a
revolutionary army in 1860 that defeated therevolutionary army in 1860 that defeated the
Kingdom of the Two Sicilies.Kingdom of the Two Sicilies.
The New Kingdom of ItalyThe New Kingdom of Italy
A new Kingdom ofA new Kingdom of
Italy, headed byItaly, headed by
Victor Emmanuel (theVictor Emmanuel (the
former king offormer king of
was formed in 1860.was formed in 1860.
In time, VenetiaIn time, Venetia
(1866) and the Papal(1866) and the Papal
States (1870) wereStates (1870) were
added to Italy.added to Italy.
The Unification of GermanyThe Unification of Germany
Until the 1860s the German-speaking peopleUntil the 1860s the German-speaking people
were divided among:were divided among:
the western half of the Austrian Empirethe western half of the Austrian Empire
numerous smaller statesnumerous smaller states
Prussia took the lead in the movement forPrussia took the lead in the movement for
German unity because it:German unity because it:
had a strong industrial base in the Rhinelandhad a strong industrial base in the Rhineland
an army that was equipped with the latest military,an army that was equipped with the latest military,
transportation, and communications technologytransportation, and communications technology
Finishing UnificationFinishing Unification
During the reign of Wilhelm I (r. 1861–1888) theDuring the reign of Wilhelm I (r. 1861–1888) the
Prussian chancellor Otto von Bismarck achievedPrussian chancellor Otto von Bismarck achieved
the unification of Germany through:the unification of Germany through:
The Franco-Prussian WarThe Franco-Prussian War
Victory over France in the Franco-Prussian WarVictory over France in the Franco-Prussian War
completed the unification of Germany.completed the unification of Germany.
It also resulted in German control over theIt also resulted in German control over the
French provinces of Alsace and Lorraine.French provinces of Alsace and Lorraine.
This leads to long-term enmity between France andThis leads to long-term enmity between France and
Nationalism after 1871Nationalism after 1871
After the Franco-Prussian War all politiciansAfter the Franco-Prussian War all politicians
tried to manipulate public opinion to bolster theirtried to manipulate public opinion to bolster their
Used the press and public education in order toUsed the press and public education in order to
foster nationalistic loyalties.foster nationalistic loyalties.
In many countries the dominant group usedIn many countries the dominant group used
nationalism to justify the imposition of itsnationalism to justify the imposition of its
language, religion, or customs on minoritylanguage, religion, or customs on minority
Case in point: attempts of Russia to “Russify” itsCase in point: attempts of Russia to “Russify” its
diverse ethnic populations.diverse ethnic populations.
Justification of ConquestJustification of Conquest
Herbert Spencer (1820–Herbert Spencer (1820–
1903) and others took up1903) and others took up
Charles Darwin’s ideas ofCharles Darwin’s ideas of
“natural selection” and“natural selection” and
“survival of the fittest” and“survival of the fittest” and
applied them to humanapplied them to human
societies in such a waysocieties in such a way
as to justify Europeanas to justify European
conquest of foreignconquest of foreign
nations and the socialnations and the social
and gender hierarchies ofand gender hierarchies of
Western society.Western society.
The Great Powers ofThe Great Powers of
Europe, 1871–1900Europe, 1871–1900
Germany at the Center of EuropeGermany at the Center of Europe
Under Bismarck, international relations revolvedUnder Bismarck, international relations revolved
around a united Germany which isolated Francearound a united Germany which isolated France
and forged a loose coalition with Austria-and forged a loose coalition with Austria-
Hungary and Russia.Hungary and Russia.
At home, Germany used mass politics and socialAt home, Germany used mass politics and social
legislation to:legislation to:
gain popular supportgain popular support
develop a strong sense of national unity and pridedevelop a strong sense of national unity and pride
amongst the German people.amongst the German people.
Wilhelm II (r. 1888–1918) dismissed BismarckWilhelm II (r. 1888–1918) dismissed Bismarck
and initiated a German foreign policy that placedand initiated a German foreign policy that placed
emphasis on the acquisition of colonies.emphasis on the acquisition of colonies.
The Liberal Power: FranceThe Liberal Power: France
France was now a second-rate power in Europe.France was now a second-rate power in Europe.
population and army were smaller than those ofpopulation and army were smaller than those of
rate of industrial growth lower than that of therate of industrial growth lower than that of the
French society seemed divided betweenFrench society seemed divided between
monarchist Catholics and republicans withmonarchist Catholics and republicans with
anticlerical views.anticlerical views.
But, the French had a deeper cohesion thanBut, the French had a deeper cohesion than
appeared on the surface because of:appeared on the surface because of:
popular participation in politicspopular participation in politics
strong sense of nationhoodstrong sense of nationhood
universal education systemuniversal education system
The Liberal Power: Great BritainThe Liberal Power: Great Britain
A stable government and a narrowing in theA stable government and a narrowing in the
disparity of wealth were accompanied by adisparity of wealth were accompanied by a
number of problems:number of problems:
Irish resentment of English ruleIrish resentment of English rule
economy that was lagging behind those of the Unitedeconomy that was lagging behind those of the United
States and GermanyStates and Germany
enormous empire that was very expensive toenormous empire that was very expensive to
administer and to defend.administer and to defend.
Nineteenth century saw the British policy ofNineteenth century saw the British policy of
“splendid isolation” toward Europe.“splendid isolation” toward Europe.
India and Great BritainIndia and Great Britain
Preoccupation withPreoccupation with
India led the British toIndia led the British to
exaggerate theexaggerate the
Russian threat to theRussian threat to the
Ottoman Empire andOttoman Empire and
to the Central Asianto the Central Asian
approaches to Indiaapproaches to India
while they ignored thewhile they ignored the
rise of Germany.rise of Germany.
The Conservative Powers: RussiaThe Conservative Powers: Russia
and Austria-Hungaryand Austria-Hungary
The forces of nationalism weakenedThe forces of nationalism weakened
Russia and Austria-Hungary.Russia and Austria-Hungary.
Austria had alienated its Slavic-speakingAustria had alienated its Slavic-speaking
minorities by renaming itself the “Austro-minorities by renaming itself the “Austro-
Hungarian Empire.”Hungarian Empire.”
The Empire offended Russia by attempting toThe Empire offended Russia by attempting to
dominate the Balkans, and particularly by thedominate the Balkans, and particularly by the
annexation of Bosnia-Herzogovina in 1908.annexation of Bosnia-Herzogovina in 1908.
Diversity and FreedomDiversity and Freedom
Ethnic diversity also contributed to instability inEthnic diversity also contributed to instability in
The spread of Russian nationalism and the RussianThe spread of Russian nationalism and the Russian
language to a diverse population was divisive.language to a diverse population was divisive.
In 1861 Tsar Alexander II emancipated theIn 1861 Tsar Alexander II emancipated the
peasants from serfdom, but it only turned thepeasants from serfdom, but it only turned the
serfs into communal farmers with little money.serfs into communal farmers with little money.
Tsars Alexander III (r. 1881–1894) and NicholasTsars Alexander III (r. 1881–1894) and Nicholas
II (r. 1894–1917) opposed all forms of socialII (r. 1894–1917) opposed all forms of social
Tsar Alexander II
Tsar Alexander III
Tsar Nicholas II
Industrialization and WarIndustrialization and War
Russian industrialization was carried out by theRussian industrialization was carried out by the
Caused the middle-class to remain small and weakCaused the middle-class to remain small and weak
while the land-owning aristocracy dominated the courtwhile the land-owning aristocracy dominated the court
and administration.and administration.
Defeat in the Russo-Japanese War (1904–1905)Defeat in the Russo-Japanese War (1904–1905)
and the Revolution of 1905 demonstratedand the Revolution of 1905 demonstrated
Russia’s weakness and caused Tsar Nicholas toRussia’s weakness and caused Tsar Nicholas to
introduce a constitution and a parliament (theintroduce a constitution and a parliament (the
Duma), but he soon reverted to the traditionalDuma), but he soon reverted to the traditional
despotism of his forefathers.despotism of his forefathers.
Japan Joins the GreatJapan Joins the Great
China and the Western PowersChina and the Western Powers
At this time:At this time:
China resisted Western influence and became weaker.China resisted Western influence and became weaker.
Japan transformed itself into a major industrial and militaryJapan transformed itself into a major industrial and military
Difference can be explained by differences between ChineseDifference can be explained by differences between Chinese
and Japanese elites and their attitudes toward foreign cultures.and Japanese elites and their attitudes toward foreign cultures.
In China a “self-strengthening movement” tried to bringIn China a “self-strengthening movement” tried to bring
about reforms.about reforms.
The government opposed railways and other technologies thatThe government opposed railways and other technologies that
would carry foreign influences into the interior.would carry foreign influences into the interior.
They were able to slow down foreign intrusion, but deniedThey were able to slow down foreign intrusion, but denied
themselves the best means of defense against foreign pressure.themselves the best means of defense against foreign pressure.
Japan and the Western PowersJapan and the Western Powers
At this time, Japan was ruled by the TokugawaAt this time, Japan was ruled by the Tokugawa
shogunate and local lords had significant autonomy.shogunate and local lords had significant autonomy.
This system made it hard for Japan to coordinate its response toThis system made it hard for Japan to coordinate its response to
outside threats.outside threats.
1853 – American Commodore Matthew C. Perry arrived1853 – American Commodore Matthew C. Perry arrived
in Japan with a fleet of warships and demanded thein Japan with a fleet of warships and demanded the
Japanese open their ports to trade and American ships.Japanese open their ports to trade and American ships.
Dissatisfaction with the shogunate's capitulation toDissatisfaction with the shogunate's capitulation to
American and European demands led to a civil war andAmerican and European demands led to a civil war and
the overthrow of the shogunate in 1868.the overthrow of the shogunate in 1868.
Commodore Matthew C. PerryCommodore Matthew C. Perry
The Meiji RestorationThe Meiji Restoration
The new rulers of Japan were known as theThe new rulers of Japan were known as the
Meiji oligarchs.Meiji oligarchs.
The Meiji oligarchs changed their institutions andThe Meiji oligarchs changed their institutions and
society to help transform their country into asociety to help transform their country into a
world-class industrial and military power.world-class industrial and military power.
The Japanese learned industrial and militaryThe Japanese learned industrial and military
technology, science, engineering, and even clothingtechnology, science, engineering, and even clothing
styles and pastimes from the West.styles and pastimes from the West.
The Japanese government encouragedThe Japanese government encouraged
industrialization and would fund it with taxindustrialization and would fund it with tax
The Birth of JapaneseThe Birth of Japanese
ImperialismImperialism Industrialization in Japan was accompanied byIndustrialization in Japan was accompanied by
the development of:the development of:
Authoritarian constitutional monarchyAuthoritarian constitutional monarchy
Foreign policy that defined Japan’s “sphere ofForeign policy that defined Japan’s “sphere of
influence” to include Korea, Manchuria, and part ofinfluence” to include Korea, Manchuria, and part of
Japan defeated China in a war that began inJapan defeated China in a war that began in
1894, leading to the Hundred Days Reform in1894, leading to the Hundred Days Reform in
Set the stage for Japanese competition with RussiaSet the stage for Japanese competition with Russia
for influence in the Chinese province of Manchuria.for influence in the Chinese province of Manchuria.
Japanese power was further demonstrated whenJapanese power was further demonstrated when
Japan defeated Russia in 1905 and annexedJapan defeated Russia in 1905 and annexed
Korea in 1910.Korea in 1910.