• Save

Loading…

Flash Player 9 (or above) is needed to view presentations.
We have detected that you do not have it on your computer. To install it, go here.

Like this presentation? Why not share!

Alexander II and the Emancipation of the Serfs

on

  • 4,952 views

For DP History

For DP History

Statistics

Views

Total Views
4,952
Views on SlideShare
4,932
Embed Views
20

Actions

Likes
0
Downloads
33
Comments
0

1 Embed 20

http://rakochyhistory.wordpress.com 20

Accessibility

Categories

Upload Details

Uploaded via as Microsoft PowerPoint

Usage Rights

© All Rights Reserved

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
Post Comment
Edit your comment

    Alexander II and the Emancipation of the Serfs Alexander II and the Emancipation of the Serfs Presentation Transcript

    • Serfdom in Imperial Russia
      http://www2.needham.k12.ma.us/nhs/cur/Baker_00/2001_p6/baker_ew_mk_ms_p6/serfs001.jpg
      http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/3/33/Makovsky_Alexander_II_of_Russia.jpg
    • First – Some important terms
      Slavophiles: those against westernization
      Core Beliefs
      Orthodoxy and autocracy
      Tsar as a symbol of Russia and strength
      Enforced traditional ideals of serfdom based on fraternity
      Progress gained by improving current system and ideas fully
      http://www.creighton.edu/fileadmin/user/CCAS/departments/ModernLanguages/images/rus/News/Gerb.JPG
      http://i.dailymail.co.uk/i/pix/2008/12/05/article-0-02B4567A000005DC-744_233x423_popup.jpg
    • Westernizers
      Believed Russia should look west to improve
      Rationalism over Orthodoxy and Autocracy
      At direct odds with Slavophiles
      http://www.usc.uwo.ca/files/news/westernizer_front08.jpg
    • Obrok
      Obrok were serfs that paid rent.
      Rents controlled by nobility
      Nobility insured obrok productivity by fixing rents as they saw fit
      http://www.swifteconomics.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/08/debt.gif
    • Barschina
      Serfs that worked the land
      Harvest season – hard work
      Downtime after harvest (in many cases)
      https://mediawiki.middlebury.edu/wikis/RUSS0151a_s09/images/a/a3/Russian_Peasant.jpg
    • Emancipation
      Freedom from serfdom
      Granted to the serfs in 1861 by Alexander II (officially)
      thelatterdays.blogspot.com
    • Serfdom in imperial Russia
      Similar to other types of serfdom
      Serfs bought and sold
      Could not leave land
      1850 Russia > 80% of population serfs or state peasants!
      1861 (officially but not in reality) 0% serfs!
      pricejb.pwp.blueyonder.co.uk
    • State Peasants
      Bound to land (varying levels of mobility)
      Permission needed to leave village
      Permitted to save & buy freedom
      1837 given right to own land
      Generally better off than privately owned serfs
      tspace.library.utoronto.ca
    • Serfs
      Bound to land
      Obrok (often had more value to nobles)
      Obrok paid rent (often involved in industry)
      Obrok generally kept in poverty
      Barschina
      Provided labor
      Hard work during harvest time
      http://www.busybod.com/money_in_hand.jpg
    • Serfs continued -
      Lives regulated by Mir
      Mir governed everyday affairs related to land usage, crop rotations, harvesting and represented the peasants to the nobility (did not provide protection). Mir was made up of a council of elders each elder representing an extended family.
      https://tspace.library.utoronto.ca/citd/RussianHeritage/4.PEAS/SCMEDIA/15.Pl.4.VillageOfficials.gif
    • Serf’s social/mental environment
      Village was their world (in general)
      Loved and respected Tsar
      Problems viewed as local & focused on abuse
      Did not see Tsar as creator of their condition
      Fear of starvation (esp. with population increases)
    • Nobility
      Controlled all aspects of serf life
      Marriage (arranged)
      Encouraged reproduction
      Punishment of serfs
    • Socio-Economic Problems
      Huge population growth – pop. growth 100% over a 58 year period (1800-1858)
      Food shortages leading to starvation
      Poor treatment of serfs by nobility
      Ineffective economy (backwardness)
      Anything else?
      http://www.inaheartbeat.co.uk/images/romania_boy.jpg
      http://www.sitnews.us/Ryerson/031805_jeff_parker.gif
    • Alexander II and Emancipation of the Serfs
      https://tspace.library.utoronto.ca/citd/RussianHeritage/5.NOB/SCMEDIA/5.22.gif
    • Alexander II 1855
      Death of Nicholas I during Crimean War
      Alexander II ascends to the thrown amidst failing war
      Tries to hang on but to no avail
      Well educated (school government service)
      Conservative
      Believes in strong autocratic rule, orthodoxy like his father
      Liberal (to be discussed at length later)
      Education, military, censorship, economy
    • Alexander II and emancipation
      Recognized Russia’s economic backwardness
      Loss in Crimean War impetus to reform
      Revolt in Black Sea region propagandized effectively
      Seeds of emancipation planted by Nicholas I
      “if we don’t do it from the top it will happen from the bottom”
      http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/5/52/Black_Sea_map.png
    • Alexander II and Emancipation
      Requests action by nobility March 1856
      No plan formed nobility ignores request
      November 1857 NazimovRescript
      Alexander gives an “Imperial instruction” to nobles
      Nobles form committees and submit proposals
      http://www.explodingdog.com/dumbpict51/workyoungman.gif
    • February 1861 Emancipation Decree
      Article one “serfdom and bondage forever abolished”
      Serfs receive about same amount of land as they have worked
      State pays nobility – serfs pay state
      Mir given increased responsibility
      Collection and paying of taxes
    • Emancipation Outcomes
      Peasant anger
      Requirement to pay for land
      Viewed as theirs by many
      Often fearful of being cheated by nobility
      Eastern provinces worse than western
      Attempt to punish Poles
      1861 over a thousand revolts
      499 requiring military assistance
    • February 1861 Emancipation Decree
      Anger by nobility
      Obrok had often worked outside of agriculture
      Economic loss to noble based on industrial worth
      Land prices doubled to try to satisfy – angered both sides
      Backlash to Obrok
      Had to produce more to pay state
      Lack of technology did not allow
      Lack of innovation
      Mir involvement in crop rotations
      What other issues existed?
      http://etc.usf.edu/clipart/19700/19713/menatwork_19713_lg.gif