Behaviour Change in Places

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Behaviour Change in Places

  1. 1. ChangingBehaviour in Places Rakhi Rajani
  2. 2. A Psychologist Working In DesignRakhi Rajani :: MACPfNE :: Design Psychology Workshop
  3. 3. Narrative the means by which we make sense of the worldRakhi Rajani :: MACPfNE :: Design Psychology Workshop
  4. 4. People, Product & Spaces Are... Have... different history the same identity predictable values unpredictable alliances trend setters rule breakersRakhi Rajani :: MACPfNE :: Design Psychology Workshop
  5. 5. Personal identity People want to distinguish themselves from others ...deliberatelyRakhi Rajani :: MACPfNE :: Design Psychology Workshop
  6. 6. Personal Identity ...but most only know how to conform picture from ExactitudesRakhi Rajani :: MACPfNE :: Design Psychology Workshop
  7. 7. Product identity Products aim to distinguish themselves from others ...deliberately 7Rakhi Rajani :: MACPfNE :: Design Psychology Workshop
  8. 8. Product Identity ...but most only know how to conform 8Rakhi Rajani :: MACPfNE :: Design Psychology Workshop
  9. 9. Spatial identity Spaces aim to distinguish themselves from others ...deliberately 9Rakhi Rajani :: MACPfNE :: Design Psychology Workshop
  10. 10. Spatial Identity ...but most only know how to conform 10Rakhi Rajani :: MACPfNE :: Design Psychology Workshop
  11. 11. Psychology Rakhi Rajani - rakhi@thehumancontext.comRakhi Rajani :: MACPfNE :: Design Psychology Workshop
  12. 12. Different fields of psychology... Cognitive Behavioral Environmental thinking respond people processing react surroundings logic conform interact emotion signal adapt + Social etc Rakhi Rajani :: MACPfNE :: Design Psychology WorkshopRakhi Rajani :: MACPfNE :: Design Psychology Workshop :: November 3 2011
  13. 13. Cognitive Constraints on thinking based on brain processes eg. Short term memory holds 7 +/- 2 thingsRakhi Rajani :: MACPfNE :: Design Psychology Workshop
  14. 14. Behavioural Acting in Response to People & Product We adapt products and respond to what other people doRakhi Rajani :: MACPfNE :: Design Psychology Workshop
  15. 15. Environmental Thinking & Acting in Response to the EnvironmentRakhi Rajani :: MACPfNE :: Design Psychology Workshop
  16. 16. Cognitive Psychology External Behaviour senses reaction ... ... Input Process OutputRakhi Rajani :: MACPfNE :: Design Psychology Workshop image adapted from Future Perfect Publishing
  17. 17. Framing Narrative Background State upbringing rational values emotional principles Physical education Perspective affects processing image adapted from Future Perfect PublishingRakhi Rajani :: MACPfNE :: Design Psychology Workshop http://kushsrivastava.files.wordpress.com/2012/06/suburban-upbringing.jpg
  18. 18. Contextualised Narrative Social Groups Material/Environment Peers Space Organisations Objects Crowds Atmosphere Environment & Other People Affect Processing image adapted from Future Perfect PublishingRakhi Rajani :: MACPfNE :: Design Psychology Workshop http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/1/15/Place-stanislaus-nord-nancy.jpg
  19. 19. We cant understand the world outside of our understanding of the worldRakhi Rajani :: MACPfNE :: Design Psychology Workshop
  20. 20. Our World making sense of various InputsRakhi Rajani :: MACPfNE :: Design Psychology Workshop image adapted from sykotikscarecrow.deviantart.com
  21. 21. The senses combine to create understandingRakhi Rajani :: MACPfNE :: Design Psychology Workshop
  22. 22. We Can’t Keep Everything In Our HeadsRakhi Rajani :: MACPfNE :: Design Psychology Workshop
  23. 23. COGNITION IS SPREAD ACROSS individuals + artefacts + environmentRakhi Rajani :: MACPfNE :: Design Psychology Workshop
  24. 24. IndividualsCollective Memory & ProcessingRakhi Rajani :: MACPfNE :: Design Psychology Workshop http://accessnursing.files.wordpress.com/2011/06/ks85232.jpg
  25. 25. ArtefactsInformation Processing via toolsRakhi Rajani :: MACPfNE :: Design Psychology Workshop http://www.zoemedical.com/images/M8Large2.jpg
  26. 26. EnvironmentMemory held within the spaceRakhi Rajani :: MACPfNE :: Design Psychology Workshop http://www.georgiahealth.edu/resident/fm/images/nursestation.jpg
  27. 27. We have to externalise the internalRakhi Rajani :: MACPfNE :: Design Psychology Workshop
  28. 28. Short Term Memory: 7 +/- 2Rakhi Rajani :: MACPfNE :: Design Psychology Workshop http://www.weirdwarp.com/wp-content/uploads/2009/05/brainexplosion.gif
  29. 29. Or commit to long term memoryRakhi Rajani :: MACPfNE :: Design Psychology Workshop
  30. 30. Associations & Connections Chunking, Pattern Recognition, Symbols, Metaphors...Rakhi Rajani :: MACPfNE :: Design Psychology Workshop
  31. 31. Chunking/ClusteringRakhi Rajani :: MACPfNE :: Design Psychology Workshop http://gregstewartsite.org/images/chunking-2006.jpg
  32. 32. Find PatternsRakhi Rajani :: MACPfNE :: Design Psychology Workshop http://www.nce.co.uk/pictures/586xAny/3/5/7/1200357_Oxford_Street_diagonals_shibuya1.jpg
  33. 33. Different Strings of associationsRakhi Rajani :: MACPfNE :: Design Psychology Workshop
  34. 34. ConfusionRakhi Rajani :: MACPfNE :: Design Psychology Workshop
  35. 35. Rakhi Rajani :: MACPfNE :: Design Psychology Workshop image adapted from friendshipquotes.info
  36. 36. Mental Models + Muscle MemoryRakhi Rajani :: MACPfNE :: Design Psychology Workshop
  37. 37. Mental ModelsRakhi Rajani :: MACPfNE :: Design Psychology Workshop http://guide.cred.columbia.edu/images/illo_mental_model.gif
  38. 38. Confirmation BiasRakhi Rajani :: MACPfNE :: Design Psychology Workshop
  39. 39. Muscle MemoryRakhi Rajani :: MACPfNE :: Design Psychology Workshop http://www.guitarplayerscenter.com/wordpress/wp-content/uploads/2007/10/Do-guitar-players-have-muscle-memory.jpg
  40. 40. Example The Toilets @ CSMRakhi Rajani :: MACPfNE :: Design Psychology Workshop http://guide.cred.columbia.edu/images/illo_mental_model.gif
  41. 41. Rakhi Rajani :: MACPfNE :: Design Psychology Workshop http://blogs.csm.arts.ac.uk/snapshot/category/kings-cross/
  42. 42. Rakhi Rajani :: MACPfNE :: Design Psychology Workshop http://blogs.csm.arts.ac.uk/snapshot/category/kings-cross/
  43. 43. The answer is NOT more instructionRakhi Rajani :: MACPfNE :: Design Psychology Workshop
  44. 44. Cognitive LoadRakhi Rajani :: MACPfNE :: Design Psychology Workshop Image adapted from harvard extension Blog
  45. 45. Cognitive Tools lead to Common GroundRakhi Rajani :: MACPfNE :: Design Psychology Workshop
  46. 46. Much Less Cognitive Load in Well Designed Spaces because the space carries the loadRakhi Rajani :: MACPfNE :: Design Psychology Workshop
  47. 47. Rakhi Rajani :: MACPfNE :: Design Psychology Workshop image adapted from clear marker board
  48. 48. Rakhi Rajani ::::MACPfNE :: Design Psychology Workshop Rakhi Rajani Cognition in Space http://www.thegraphicdesignschool.com/blog/wp-content/uploads/2010/02/WAYFINDING-COMBINED.jpg image adapted from clear marker board
  49. 49. What is successful communication in a space?Rakhi Rajani :: MACPfNE :: Design Psychology Workshop
  50. 50. Interactive/Narrative Environment 1. Invitation 2. Moments of discovery & communication 3. RewardRakhi Rajani :: MACPfNE :: Design Psychology Workshop
  51. 51. appropriate invitation = predictable behavior 51Rakhi Rajani :: MACPfNE :: Design Psychology Workshop
  52. 52. If well spoken (!) The space and objects in it direct our thoughts and movement - we listen & then DoRakhi Rajani :: MACPfNE :: Design Psychology Workshop
  53. 53. First image from Thoughtless Acts by Jane Fulton SuriRakhi Rajani :: MACPfNE :: Design Psychology Workshop Second Image from: www.visualphotos.com. Man walking on yellow line. Image no. FAN2045230. Photo by  Whisson/Jordan
  54. 54. Rakhi Rajani :: MACPfNE :: Design Psychology Workshop http://artartrevolution.files.wordpress.com/2010/10/p1040821.jpg
  55. 55. Rakhi Rajani :: MACPfNE :: Design Psychology Workshop Images from Google Images
  56. 56. Rakhi Rajani :: MACPfNE :: Design Psychology Workshop Image adapted from arrested motion
  57. 57. Rakhi Rajani :: MACPfNE :: Design Psychology Workshop Image adapted from the willow pattern project
  58. 58. But sometimes It’s not clearRakhi Rajani :: MACPfNE :: Design Psychology Workshop
  59. 59. Rakhi Rajani :: MACPfNE :: Design Psychology Workshop Image from Candescence by Kite & Laslett
  60. 60. Rakhi Rajani :: MACPfNE :: Design Psychology Workshop
  61. 61. Behaviour ChangeRakhi Rajani :: MACPfNE :: Design Psychology Workshop
  62. 62. Artefacts Provide InstructionRakhi Rajani :: MACPfNE :: Design Psychology Workshop
  63. 63. Else, People Make Their Own RulesRakhi Rajani :: MACPfNE :: Design Psychology Workshop http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-2094939/Britains-longest-clutter-free-street-unveiled-make-things-SAFER.html
  64. 64. Or We Need to Explicitly GuideRakhi Rajani :: MACPfNE :: Design Psychology Workshop http://www.flickr.com/photos/jeremai/6674077201/
  65. 65. Situated Seeing Tangible External Artefacts Affect Internal Processing http://symbology101.webs.com/photos/The-All-Seeing-eye/all-seeing_eye.gifRakhi Rajani :: MACPfNE :: Design Psychology Workshop http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/1/15/Place-stanislaus-nord-nancy.jpg
  66. 66. Personal StoriesRakhi Rajani :: MACPfNE :: Design Psychology Workshop
  67. 67. As designers we design products, spaces, etc but we also affect/change/nudge behaviourRakhi Rajani :: MACPfNE :: Design Psychology Workshop
  68. 68. An environment dictates behaviour & people assume a roleRakhi Rajani :: MACPfNE :: Design Psychology Workshop
  69. 69. Objects dictate interaction & people find a way to understand & interactRakhi Rajani :: MACPfNE :: Design Psychology Workshop
  70. 70. Narrative the means by which we make sense of the worldRakhi Rajani :: MACPfNE :: Design Psychology Workshop
  71. 71. We don’t create whole experiences, we affect OR become a part of the experiences that people are already havingRakhi Rajani :: MACPfNE :: Design Psychology Workshop
  72. 72. We enter a space, cross the threshold, with a story already playing in our heads. This story affects how we relate to and process the space we are now in.Rakhi Rajani :: MACPfNE :: Design Psychology Workshop
  73. 73. Story A already late irritated Disorientated Need to PeeRakhi Rajani :: MACPfNE :: Design Psychology Workshop
  74. 74. Story B On Time irritated Well Known Need to PeeRakhi Rajani :: MACPfNE :: Design Psychology Workshop
  75. 75. Story C Early Excited Disorientated Meeting SomeoneRakhi Rajani :: MACPfNE :: Design Psychology Workshop
  76. 76. With each of these, your focus is differentRakhi Rajani :: MACPfNE :: Design Psychology Workshop
  77. 77. Intended Experience vs Perceived ExperienceRakhi Rajani :: MACPfNE :: Design Psychology Workshop
  78. 78. Intended: The light provides a magical...Rakhi Rajani :: MACPfNE :: Design Psychology Workshop http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/7/7b/VandA_Rotunda.jpg
  79. 79. Perceived:I need to pee where are the Toilets?(The light isn’t even noticed) http://jeanraffa.files.wordpress.com/2012/04/have_to_pee_signs_funny_signs-s600x561-62050-5801.jpgRakhi Rajani :: MACPfNE :: Design Psychology Workshop
  80. 80. Speaker vs ListenerRakhi Rajani :: MACPfNE :: Design Psychology Workshop
  81. 81. Intended Discourse Perceived Narrative Narrative Expression Interpretation Media Speaker ListenerRakhi Rajani :: MACPfNE :: Design Psychology Workshop
  82. 82. ResearchRakhi Rajani :: MACPfNE :: Design Psychology Workshop
  83. 83. Creating/Changing ‘User Experience’ •Research •Prototype •Iterate •Implement •EvaluateRakhi Rajani :: MACPfNE :: Design Psychology Workshop
  84. 84. Methods Secondary Primary Design Based articles questionnaires action internet interviews iterative books ethnographyRakhi Rajani :: MACPfNE :: Design Psychology Workshop
  85. 85. Research Methods Be Creative AND Analytical 85Rakhi Rajani :: MACPfNE :: Design Psychology Workshop
  86. 86. Don’t be quick to assumeRakhi Rajani :: MACPfNE :: Design Psychology Workshop
  87. 87. It’s easy to make false assumptions 87Rakhi Rajani :: MACPfNE :: Design Psychology Workshop
  88. 88. Research, Prototype, Iterate, Implement, EvaluateRakhi Rajani :: MACPfNE :: Design Psychology Workshop
  89. 89. Rakhi Rajani :: MACPfNE :: Design Psychology Workshop
  90. 90. Now you do it...Rakhi Rajani :: MACPfNE :: Design Psychology Workshop
  91. 91. Change the narrative... 1. Go to a busy hotspot 2. Get to know the people and the space Take a wide angled view before zooming in Look for connections, rituals Look for mis-matches 3. Decide what the current narrative of the space is 4. Decide what the current narrative of the people is 5. Decide to change the narrative What are you changing it to? For the space & the people 6. Create change Use yourselves or change the environment. Create an invitation,discovery & reward 7. Evaluate the effectsRakhi Rajani :: MACPfNE :: Design Psychology Workshop
  92. 92. DON’T DO ANYTHING ILLEGAL!!!Rakhi Rajani :: MACPfNE :: Design Psychology Workshop
  93. 93. Pointers... Get to know the personality of the space Get to know the people Look for connections, rituals Look for mis-matches Take a wide angled view before zooming in Create change Evaluate the effectsRakhi Rajani :: MACPfNE :: Design Psychology Workshop
  94. 94. "No story has power, nor will it last, unless we feel in ourselves that it is true, and true of us...If a story is not about the hearer he will not listen..." - John Steinbeck, East of EdenRakhi Rajani :: MACPfNE :: Design Psychology Workshop
  95. 95. Thank you rakhirajani.com rakhirajani@mac.com @rakhiRakhi Rajani :: MACPfNE :: Design Psychology Workshop

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