Stage I: Potential Opposition or Incompatibility
Semantic difficulties, misunderstandings, and “noise”
Size and specialization of jobs Jurisdictional clarity/ambiguity Member/goal incompatibility Leadership styles (close or participative) Reward systems (win-lose) Dependence/interdependence of groups
Differing individual value systems Personality types
Stage II: Cognition and Personalization Perceived Conflict Awareness by one or more parties of the existence of conditions that create opportunities for conflict to arise. Felt Conflict Emotional involvement in a conflict creating anxiety, tenseness, frustration, or hostility.
Stage III: Intentions Intentions Decisions to act in a given way. Cooperativeness:
Attempting to satisfy the other party’s concerns.
Attempting to satisfy one’s own concerns.
Dimensions of Conflict-Handling Intentions
Stage III: Intentions (cont’d) Competing A desire to satisfy one’s interests, regardless of the impact on the other party to the conflict. Collaborating A situation in which the parties to a conflict each desire to satisfy fully the concerns of all parties. Avoiding The desire to withdraw from or suppress a conflict.
Stage III: Intentions (cont’d) Accommodating The willingness of one party in a conflict to place the opponent’s interests above his or her own. Compromising A situation in which each party to a conflict is willing to give up something.
Stage IV: Behavior The behavior stage includes the statements, actions, and reactions made by the conflicting parties.
STAGE V: OUTCOME The action–reaction interplay among the conflicting parties results in consequences.
THE NATURE OF CONFLICT Constructive Conflict… Destructive Conflict…
A conflict is likely to take aConstructivecourseif it is viewed as a mutual problem to be worked on together in a cooperative process; A conflict is likely to take a Destructive course if it is defined as a win-lose conflict in which the conflicting parties engage in a competitive process to determine who wins and who loses.
Murder/violence/physical/abuse/shoutingSecretive behaviorTaking everything personallyJudgmental behavior/closed communicationUsing names sarcastically/disrespectfullyRaised voice/yelling/telling/finger pointingDenial/storming outPhysiological reactionStanding over someoneNon-responsiveness/withdrawalAgreeing to basic conflict processing ground rulesSellingShowing empathyTaking time outActive listening/askingOpen/positive body languageProblem identificationCalm discussion/conversationDirect/clear/honest communicationFeeling OK about the outcomeFeeling connected to othersRelaxed & leaning forwardAcknowledgment of being heardUsing other person's nameConsensus - temporary working agreementBeing committed to the outcome
Characteristics of Constructive & Destructive Conflict Constructive Conflict Destructive Conflict Affirms differences Participatory - win/win Attitude of curiosity A 2-way process Uses differences Competitive - win/lose Attitude of dominance A 1-way process
Equal information Based on clear guidelines High level of personal responsibility Uneven/unequal information no guidelines/limits Little or no personal responsibility
Conflict is often needed. It: Helps to raise and address problems. Energizes work to be on the most appropriate issues. Helps people "be real", for example, it motivates them to participate. Helps people learn how to recognize and benefit from their differences. Conflict is not the same as discomfort. The conflict isn't the problem - it is when conflict is poorly managed that is the problem.
Conflict is a problem when it: Hampers productivity. Lowers morale. Causes more and continued conflicts. Causes inappropriate behaviors.
THE FIVE A'S TECHNIQUE ASSESSMENT. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT. ATTITUDE. ACTION. ANALYSIS.